9/11 Attacks: Disaster, Crisis, and Trauma

Subject: Psychology
Pages: 5
Words: 850
Reading time:
4 min
Study level: PhD

A brief description of a 9/11 disaster and its impacts on populations

The September 11 terror attack was the first largest terrorist attack that claimed thousands of lives. According to a survey conducted, the 9/11 that targeted Pentagon has been regarded as the deadliest attack that ever occurred on the soils of the United States (Sommers-Flanagan, 2007). Several households experienced serious destruction that left physical, emotional, and health impacts on the US population.

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Many researchers have attempted to study the effects of the disaster with a major focus on the psychological effects of the attacks on victims and their families (Crosby & Grodin, 2007). Although the actual destruction of the infrastructure has had a great impact, psychological effects have been enormous. Recent research documents considerable evidence of high rates of clinically significant behavior challenges, especially among many pre-school children. Similar but separate studies show that mothers of pre-school children have indicated effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress-related consequences (Crosby & Grodin, 2007).

In separate studies conducted in New York, adolescents and their mothers exposed to the 9/11 attacks exhibited elevated rates of PTSD. Although exposure to the 9/11 attacks was small, they had a far-reaching role that explains the severity of disaster on the populations. Some of the initial studies explored the effects of terror attacks on families that were exposed. These studies sought to explain whether children whose mothers with PSTD are more vulnerable to serious depression compared with children whose mothers did not exhibit effects of PTSD. Previous studies reveal that children associated whose mothers experiencing PTSD were more likely to experience serious behavior (Sommers-Flanagan, 2007).

Eclectic approach to intervene in the 9/11 disaster

Addressing disaster challenges continues to pose significant challenges to stakeholders across the world. The eclectic approach refers to a combination of interrelated approaches to achieving objectives of pre and post-disaster management (Michael, 2009). Therefore, the eclectic approach incorporates numerous interventionist approaches that aim at establishing appropriate management of effects of disaster crisis and associated trauma.

Psychological first aid (PFA) could provide people with the necessary skills to limit the psychological effects of trauma. This approach utilizes arousal, cognition, and behavior. Evidence suggests that using this approach helps individuals to cope with their stress-related consequences after exposure to disaster (Michael, 2009). In the case of the 9/11 disaster, PFA would be an appropriate approach to promote resiliency and mental health.

Psychological immunization

This interventionist approach reduces the psychological consequences of trauma associated with disasters. Although this approach is used in mild psychological circumstances, it could serve to minimize the escalation of psychological harm. For instance, psychological immunization can take several forms, including drills that simulate real-life situations. This methodology helps individuals to cope with stress through exposure to other scenarios of multiple disasters.

Integrating mental health into public health planning

The aftermath reaction to disaster management can be challenging. Therefore, integrating mental health infrastructure can be essential in addressing psychological trauma (Amnon, 2010). This means that relevant authorities could incorporate mental issues into healthcare into national planning. Social workers working as interventionists may integrate preventive, promotional, and healthcare needs in disaster emergency plans to curb future challenges. In addition, this model can be helpful since it entails research. Thus, it strengthens the national capacity in responding to the psychological effects of disaster (Amnon, 2010).

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Cultural considerations in handling the 9/11 disaster-related trauma

The 9/11 attacks on the US have had significant effects on affected populations. Populations affected suffered from mental, health, and psychological damage that have left irreparable consequences. Although the effects of the terror attacks have stretched across the population, evidence suggests that women and children remain the most affected segment in society (Amnon, 2010). According to significant studies, pre-school children and women exposed to the effects of terror attacks have recorded serious post-disaster consequences, including post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), depression, and depression.

Although the terror attacks have been linked to political reasons, especially relating to the worn-out Islam-American relationships, individuals across the cultural and political divide continue to face the aftermath effects of the disaster (Amnon, 2010). Therefore, people working as social workers in disaster intervention programs have a far-reaching task of approaching their duties (Murthy & Smith, 2010).

Differences in cultural orientations are critical in establishing a formidable intervention program. Analysis shows that in cases, where populations affected included Muslim- Americans, these populations received decreased access to disaster services (Crosby & Grodin, 2007). Therefore, workers should remain impartial to the extent that cultural significance does not dictate their delivery of services.

Gender considerations form a critical element of culture that must be taken into consideration. In this case, social workers should focus their attention on the effects of gender on escalating the effects of disaster trauma. From the preceding discussions, research suggests that the female gender has received serious PTSD compared to their male counterparts (Amnon, 2010).

Similarly, the age of the people subjected to a disaster is a crucial factor of disaster intervention. According to several studies, pre-school children were more susceptible to the effects of exposure to traumatizing effects of the 9/11 terror attacks (Murthy & Smith, 2010).

References

American psychological Association. (2010). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Web.

Amnon, B. (2010). The functions of social service workers at a time of war against a civilian population. Disasters, 34(1), 261-286.

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Crosby, S. S., & Grodin, M. A. (2007). Ethical considerations in crisis and humanitarian interventions: The view from home. Ethics & Behavior, 17 (2), 203-5

Ehrenreich, J. H. (2002). A Guide for Humanitarian, Health Care, and Human Rights Workers. Web.

McGlown, K. J. (2004). Terrorism and Disaster Management. Terrorism & Disaster Management – Business Book Summaries, 1(1), 1-10

Michael, H. R. (2009). Excluding Ethical Issues from U.S. History textbooks: 9/11 and war on terror. American Secondary Education, 37(2), 26-48.

Murthy, P., & Smith, C. L. (2010). Women’s Global Health and Human Rights. New York, NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2007). Ethical considerations in crisis and humanitarian interventions. Ethics & Behavior, 17(2), 187-202.