# Automatic Voltage Regulator and Bond Servoline Data Acquisition

Subject: Tech & Engineering 6 1428 6 min College

Describe how AVR obtains and represents information about the measured and desired value of generator output voltage.

The use Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is purposely for the generator synchronous, and it is used to keep the generator’s terminal voltage at the rated value. Typically, when there is a drop in terminal voltage, AVR is used purposely to regulate the terminal voltage of the generator when there is a drop in terminal voltage or whenever there is a fault’s occurrence or if there are any changes in loading. (Mahmood).

Thus, there are two criteria to obtain and represent information about the measured and desired value of generator output voltage. The first criteria are through load regulation, which involves changes in the output voltage concerning the changes in the load current. The typical example is 15mV records the maximum load current, which is between 5Ma and 1.4A. Moreover, line regulation also measures the degree to which there are changes in output voltage with the supply of changes in voltages. Thus, the changes between ratio output and input when the output voltage changes normally change the entire voltage range. The other parameters the AVR can use temperature coefficient is to obtain and represent information about the measured and desired value of generator output voltage. The temperature coefficient involves changes in temperature with output voltage. In addition, the initial accuracy of AVR can reflect the errors by which the output regulator fixed errors in the output voltage. (Mahmood 1).

Explain how the operational amplifier circuits produce deviation signals.

The operational amplifier circuits can produce the deviation signal because operational amplifier circuits are capable of producing deviation driver circuits by producing different voltages, which is related to the deviation signal. Typically, the amplifier contains pair of transistors that is capable of balancing bridged network. Thus, the amplifier can generate different voltages and multiple input integrators that made it capable to produce deviation signals. Typically, the operational amplifier circuit can produce a deviation signal because the deviation circuit is comprised of the differential amplifier, which is capable of providing the high impendence needed to induce noise to appear in the different voltage and is also able to maintain stability in a feedback loop. It should be noted that the deviation driver is capable of providing a negative feedback loop capable of producing 16 and 18 differential voltage that is related to the deviation signal. Typically, the operational amplifier is an integrator, which is capable of generating output voltage that is proportional to the signal. Thus, with an operational amplifier having terminal input with resistors between 32 and 34. Thus, the received deviational signal is received from the driver circuit. (John 5).

Derive the coefficients of K1 and K2 from the operational amplifier circuit using a deviational signal equation. DEV= [K1DV+K2MV].

To derive coefficients of K1 and K2 from the operational amplifier circuit using a deviational signal equation. There is a need to generate circuit architecture where this is based on upper and lower limits. With the deviational equation, an increment in K1 and K1 will improve the steady-state where 100 W boost converters having specification will produce a value of K2 to become small. Thus, the parameter of K1 and K2 can be used to ensure fddL =Vi Deo.

Thus, with the deviational signal equation, we have

0 <Dvi-K1 [Vref – Qv0] + K2i0 – K3iL < v. (10)

where the equilibrium exists as

0 <Vvi-D1 [Vref – Qv0] + D2i0 – K3iL < v. (10)

Thus, the coefficient will be derived from

3 vo2 + /3D,vo + (D2ic – DlVref) 0.

This gives DK1 ± /(DK)2 – 4 (v’§3L) (D2ic – DlVref) (Tan, Lai, and Tse 3).

Determine the range of the measured value signal if the deviation signal has limits OV and +10OV.

To measure the range of value signal if the deviation signal has limits OV and +10OV, it is essential to value the proportion of output speed of 10oV. Typically, the 10oV signal provides the same speed as the -10OV signal. Thus, the range of the measured value signal if the deviation signal has limits OV and +10OV are 10.

Describe how the AVR responds when the generator output voltage changes.

The response Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) will keep the voltage constant when there is no load or when it has a full load. Typically, AVR will respond correctly when the terminal voltage of a generator is constant. Moreover, when AVR is set to be out of service if a generator is operating at grid level with AVR, and there can be a dangerous operation where when AVR is at fault. For example, the generator having an increase in load will have its reaction to become mature. Moreover, an increase in the load of the generator will lead to the failure of the voltage of the generator. The increase in the reaction of a mature will make the load angle to be higher than 90 degrees of its stability limit. Typically, with failure in AVR, there will be a reduction in bus voltage, and the extent of the failure of a voltage will depend on the relative transmission and the length between the generator and the load it is carrying. Thus, the situation is likely to occur when a generator has loaded from the remote. In addition, the AVR will respond when there is a trip on the output breaker, which can lead to the fault of the generator. Thus, when AVR is set to be out of service, and when there is no reduction in output voltage, this will cause the output voltage to be greater than the rated value and this can damage the generator. (Cowling 1).

Describe the method used to control the conduction of the thyristor.

The methods used to control the conduction of the thyristor are to employ phase control. It should be noted phase control has been known to be the most common method of controlling the conduction of the thyristor. Typically, with different loads, there is a possibility by which various voltages can be plotted to be against phase control Circuits. The phase control has the capability of producing the signal in the conduction of thyristor, which has the capability of detecting the anode-to-cathode of the thyristors. (Littelfuse, Patent Storm 2).

Choosing a suitable transducer and describing the type of signal and range.

To monitor the generator stator winding temperature using Bond Servoline Data Acquisition Unit. The suitable transducer to be chosen is ultrasound transducers, and these transducers are ideal to strengthen stator winding. It should be noted that the reliability of generator-motor is very important, and it is essential to take into account the need to choose a suitable transducer. Essentially, by taking into account the stator winding bars of the generators, there is a need for considerable constant checking of the stability of the parameter of the generator. (Kuleshov, Magruk, Rodionov). In addition, the frequency of the generator is essential before choosing the parameter of a transducer. The set power produced by a generator is the determinant of choosing the transducer. Thus, the signal should be variable amplitude and frequency. In addition, the signal should be a 60 kHz signal with a range of range between 0.5 kHz and 60 kHz. (William 3).

Select a suitable signal conditioning card to interface the transducer with a Bond Servoline Data Acquisition.

A suitable signal conditioning card to interface the transducer with a Bond Servoline Data Acquisition is a backplane interface card (BIF) of 28000F-BIF1-T. The card interface is very easy to manage with the transducer. (Precision Filters 2).

In addition, the IEEE 1451 is also a suitable transducer card with transducer interfaces that can allow the replacement of the transducer. Moreover, it is error-prone and supports transducer data and timing. (Johnson, Wicker, and Woods 8).

Why signal conditioning is required.

Signal conditioning is required to improve the accuracy of system measurement. Typically, signal conditioning is to enhances the accuracy and performance of a system. Moreover, the signal conditioning is also to ensure safety, and noise removal. (National Instruments 4).

In addition, signal conditioning is required to boost the transducers and to monitor the device to be used. It should be noted that with signal conditioning, the input cards can be used for application. (RDP Group 3).

How signal conditioning is achieved by the circuit?

The signal conditioning is achieved by the circuit because the developed circuit is capable of producing linear output with a wide range of measures. Thus, the circuit can provide linear output because the transducer has inverse relations. (Mohan 1).

## Works Cited

Cowling. J. Electrical Equipment-Course 230.2 Generators: Part 6 Non-Infinite Bus Operation, CANDU Technology Library, 2008.

John, Z. Deviation driver circuit. Free Patent Online, 1980.

Johnson, Wiczer, & Woods, Stan. A Standard Smart Transducer Interface – IEEE 145. NIST CENTENNIAL.2001.

Kuleshov, Magruk, & Rodionov, V.G. “Characteristics of the design, assembly, and experience in operating the generator-motors of the Zagorsk.” Experience in Operating Power Equipment 30.4 (2006) : 192-197.

LitteFuse. Teccor brand Thyristors AN 1003 Phase Control Using Thyristors, LitteFuse Inc, 2008.

Mahmmod, Abdelelah. K. Design of Antiwindup AVR for Synchronous Generator Using Matlab Simulation, college of Engg. University of Mosul. 2008.

Mohan, Madhu N. “A novel signal conditioning circuit for push–pull-type resistive transducers.” IOP Journal 16 (2005): 1848-1852.

National Instruments. What is Signal Conditioning?. National Instruments Corporation. 2009.

Patent Storm. US Patent 4320445 – Gate control circuit for thyristor converter, 2000.

Precision Filters. 28000 Signal Conditioning System. Precision Filters Inc. 2008.

RDP Group. Modular 600 Multi-Channel Signal Conditioning System. RDP Electrosense. 2008.

Tan, Lai, & Tse, Chi. K. A Pulsewidth Modulation Based Integral Sliding Mode Current Controller for Boost Converters. IEEE Explorer. 2008.

William. Puskas.L. Multiparameter generator for ultrasonic transducers. 1987.