Background of the Study
The York Minster, officially known as Cathedral and Metro-political Church of Saint Peter, is one of the oldest and largest cathedrals of its kind in Europe. 1 The cathedral houses the Archbishop of York, one of the highest-ranking officials of the Church of England.2 Archeological records show that the first structure was put up in 627, which was a small wooden church, to facilitate the baptism of King Edwin3. Although the church is still very active, many people- including those who do not share the same faith- consider it as a religious heritage in the United Kingdom. Established during the Angle-Saxon period and devoted to Saint Peter, the church has a wide Decorated Gothic, an architectural design that is believed to have originated from France before becoming popular in the United Kingdom. 4
Other architectural designs also present in the cathedral are the Early English North-South transepts and Perpendicular Gothic quire.5 The building has undergone various structural modifications over the years just to ensure that it does not pose any threat to its users, but it retains its original design. Currently, it has a heritage designation of Grade 1 as one of the still existing structures that symbolises the culture and tradition of the United Kingdom.
China Confucius Temple is a veneration temple of Confucius, a leading Chinese philosopher, politician, and educationist. According to Golbin and Legendre, Han Gao Zu, who was the founder of the Han Dynasty, started the process of canonising Confucius.6 The cult of Confucius continued to grow in popularity, and in 454, Liu Song Dynasty in Southern China constructed one of the earliest prominent Confucian temple.7 The Tang Dynasty made a decree that all schools in the kingdom should be affiliated to a Confucian temple.8 The decree was the genesis of the widespread construction of these temples across China and Vietnam. Confucian Temple in Qufu and Beijing are the largest and second largest Confucian temples in China. The one in Qufu is considered the oldest of the existing Confucian temples. They still serve their original religious and educational purposes, but many view them as monuments of Chinese society.
These institutions play a critical role in preserving the heritage of the two communities that apparently had different social and religious practices. Some of these historical events and practices are recorded in books and other documents. However, the existence of the actual three-dimensional structures is a confirmation to the modern society that some of these beliefs are not just mere tales. British society may understand the genesis of their current religion and the manner in which the ancestors developed the current religion. The same case applies to the Chinese, where temples are believed to be sacred places meant for worship. In this paper, the researcher focuses on comparing the United Kingdom’s York Minster and China’s Confucius Temple in terms of the religious heritage and new interpretation and management.
Religious heritage institutions mean different things to different societies around the world. According to Chrystal, many ancient religions have been forgotten because of the fall of certain kingdoms, assimilation, civilisation, and many other factors.9 Canaanite Religion, Finnish Paganism, Atenism, Minoan Religion, and Mithraism are some of the ancient religions that have disappeared.10 Others that have faced the same fate include Manichaesm, Tengriism, Authurism, Vedism, and Olmec Religion. In Africa, thousands of religious practices disappeared during colonisation and civilisation and it is almost impossible to trace them because of limited historical records. As such, institutions such as the York Minster and China Confucius temple mean a lot to the locals as heritage sites.
Despite the important role of these institutions play in their respective societies, their continued existence would depend on the current interpretation and management policies. As Chrystal notes, some of the oldest religious institutions would only survive if modern society attaches some value on them.11 The local community must have a strong conviction that they represent who they are and probably what they still believe in today. The management of these institutions also matters a lot. The recent case where a major fire engulfed Notre-Dame, a medieval cathedral and a famous landmark of Paris and France, in general, is an example of mismanagement of these religious heritage institutions.12 The Gothic building, which is over 850 years old, had its roof and spire collapse because of the fire, which authority says its source is yet to be established. It is not clear whether the accident was intentional, but the intensity of the fire and the time it took before it could be contained is an indication of the laxity on the side of the management.
Varutti notes that it may not be possible to reconstruct some of these Gothic buildings once they are destroyed.13 If the York Minster were to be damaged by fire, it would not be easy to have the original structure is restored without using the modern architectural designs. Through this study, it will be possible to determine the ability of these medieval structures to survive for the next several years based on the value that current society attaches to them and management policies that they embrace.
In the United Kingdom, about 60% of the population identify themselves as Christians while another 25% state that they are irreligious.14 Islam is the fastest growing religion in the country although only 4% of the population identify themselves with it.15 The trend shows that there is a significant drop in the percentage of people who still identify with Christianity in this country. At the turn of the century, one in every three Britons identified as Anglicans, which was the most dominant religious group in the country. Varutti notes that only 15% of adults in Britain identify themselves as Christians, 9% are Catholics, and another 17% identify with other Christian religious groups.16 The York Minster can only be preserved a religious heritage site if there is a significant number of people who still believe in the religion. There will be a desire to eliminate such major medieval structures and replace them with those, which are more economically viable.
In China, the New Culture Movement emerged in the twentieth century, and its elites blamed Confucianism as the source of the country’s weaknesses in the wake of the industrial revolution.17 It would then be replaced with the Three Principles of the People, a new ideology that led to the emergence of the modern-day’s People’s Republic of China and Maoism.18 Although the current Chinese cultural sphere is believed to be based on Confucianism, especially on issues such as the culture of work, relationships, and justice in society, the attachment that Chinese had towards Confucian principles and philosophies are becoming less relevant. Attempts to have Confucian churches such as the Holy Confucian Church to help make these principles relevant in the modern-day context have helped to preserve and protect these institutions. With a population of over 1.4 billion people, land space is one of the most important resources, and this society can only tolerate these structures if they consider their cultural connotations relevant and meaningful.
Historians and scholars in religious studies and theology may find these institutions very important heritage sites that should be protected for as long as they can last. However, socio-political and economic forces would determine their ability to survive that long. Through this study, it will be possible to learn about how the two societies view these institutions and their significance in the different societies. Chrystal explains that the York may not mean a lot to the irreligious or Muslims in the United Kingdom, but the design of the structure and the fact that it was constructed during the Anglo-Saxon period gives it a socio-cultural value of indefinite proportions.19 The local community can visit the institution and appreciate the steps that society has made over the last century even if they do not practice Christianity. The same is the case with the Confucius temples of China. These societies have to view these institutions beyond their original purpose of religious centres.
Research Aim and Objectives
The following are the specific objectives that the researcher seeks to achieve by the end of the study:
- To compare the United Kingdom’s York Minster and China’s Confucius Temple in terms of their religious heritage, new interpretation, and management
- To determine the religious and cultural significance of York Minster and Confucius Temple to the British and Chinese societies respectively;
- To explore the current management policies and principles used to run the cathedral in the United Kingdom and the temple in China;
- To discuss the cultural heritage of the York Minster in the United Kingdom and Confucius Temple in China;
- To predict, based on the past and current socio-political and economic events in the two countries, the ability of the two institutions to survive in the coming decades.
Scholars of theology and religious studies find traditional worshiping institutions critical in understanding the evolution of beliefs and practices that have happened over the years. The original design of the York Minster may help explain so many practices that were embraced by early Anglican Church faithful, some of which may not be existing today. Destruction of these institutions would erode the rich history that they hold. The following questions would help in collecting data meant to achieve the set research aim and objectives discussed above.
- How does the United Kingdom’s York Minster compare with China’s Confucius Temple in terms of their religious heritage, new interpretation, and management?
- What are the religious and cultural significance of the York Minster and Confucius Temple to the British and Chinese societies respectively?
- What are current management policies and principles used to run the cathedral in the United Kingdom and the temple in China?
- What is the future of the two institutions in the coming decades based on the past and current socio-political and economic events in the two countries?
- How can the two societies protect their heritage, beyond religious beliefs and practices, through these institutions?
Contribution to Knowledge
Religion plays a critical role in defining how people should relate with one another and the environment. According to Chrystal, a major part of the United States and the United Kingdom’s constitutions are based on teachings and principles in the bible.20 The current work ethics of the Chinese that have helped propel the country to become the second largest economy in the world are based on Confucius principles. Although a significant population of the global society is detaching itself from religious practices, they have to follow the law of their countries, which are largely based on some form of religious teachings.
This study has picked two religious institutions, which have played a major role in the civilisation of their countries. Christianity is the dominant religion in the United Kingdom and the world at large. Confucianism may not be the most common religion in the People’s Republic of China, but it played a major role in defining civilisation of the country. Comparing the two institutions would help to determine the value that these societies attach to their heritage. This study will be important to future scholars who may want to conduct further investigation of the two institutions or the religious beliefs discussed in this paper.
The dissertation has five chapters, the introduction, literature review, methodology, analysis of data, and conclusion. The first chapter focuses on the background of this study. It explains the rationale of conducting the research, goals that should be achieved, the impact that the project would have on the existing bodies of knowledge, and questions that should be answered by the end of the project. Chapter 2 provides a detailed review of the literature. Books, journal articles, and reliable online sources were used to explain various concepts and discuss relevant theories in relation to the topic. It made it possible to have a detailed historical analysis of the two religious heritage sites and their significance in the two countries. The third chapter provided a detailed analysis of the method used to collect and analyse data. The chapter also discusses the challenges met in this project and ethical practices that were embraced. In chapter 4, the researcher focuses on the analysis of primary data and its integration with the information obtained from secondary sources. The final chapter provides a summary of the information in the dissertation and recommendations that should be considered to protect these institutions.
In the previous chapter, the researcher provided a detailed background of the topic and the aim that this study seeks to realise. In this paper, the focus is to review the existing literature on this topic. Woodcock argues that research should address existing gaps in the body of knowledge or deal with contradictions that are yet to be addressed.21 The scholar argues that it would be a waste of time to reproduce information that is already published by other authors. As such, one should start academic research by reviewing what other scholars have found out to identify knowledge gaps that still need to be addressed. This chapter is dedicated to the review of the literature.
The Concept of Religious Heritage in the United Kingdom and China
According to Woodcock, many European nations have been involved in a continuous process of musealisation of religious buildings and artefacts.22 The increasing forces of secularisation of the western society have seen a significant portion of the population dissociate themselves with popular religious groupings. Although the majority of the population identify themselves as Christians because they were board and brought up in Christian families, the number of those going to church on a regular basis is dropping consistently. Barnes says, “The fact that the Western world of today recognises, politically defines, and legally formalises material religious heritage as a secular cultural heritage, more or less emancipated from its religious meaning and context, is a result of complex cultural and political processes.”23
In the past, churches and temples were viewed as sacred sanctuaries that had to be protected not just because of their cultural heritage but most importantly because of their religious roles, they played in society. Society valued these institutions because of their functional purposes, places of prayer, and not as institutions that preserve their heritage. Currently, some of the churches in the United Kingdom exist primarily because of the cultural values that society attaches to them. According to a report by Tsivolas, some of the largest and most magnificent buildings in the United Kingdom are churches.24 However, they are becoming empty as the population of regular churchgoers continues to drop.
The country has over 16,000 major churches, but it is common to find many of them having a population of less than 20 people.25 Others have been converted to libraries to ensure that they continue to be relevant. Although society still respects these institutions and is keep on protecting them, they are increasingly being viewed as secular cultural heritage sites instead of being holy sanctuaries. Tsivolas argues that the changing perception of churches in the United Kingdom is a major concern.26 When people embrace the perception that the empty churches are secular cultural heritage sites, then their existence would only be defined by how society perceive their relevance in light of other needs that continue to emerge.
The same trend witnessed in the United Kingdom is common in China. A growing number of Chinese identify themselves as non-religious. Some of them identify with Chinese folk religion based on how they were brought up, but they are not committed to these religious grouping. According to Davie, the Chinese government recognises Taoism, Buddhism, Protestantism, Catholicism, and Islamism as the official religion in the country.27 Confucianism, which played a critical role in defining cultural values and principles embraced by the modern Chinese society, is no longer recognised as one of the religions in the country. It is considered part of Chinese folk religion that defines the country’s cultural inheritance. The Temple of Confucius in Qufu has become one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site to ensure that it is given special protection as an institution that holds the history of Chinese people.28 Before being taken over by UNESCO, the temple was once destroyed by fire, and there was a fear that the local community does not find it relevant in modern society.
History of United Kingdom’s York Minster
The York Temple, officially known as the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, is one of the largest cathedrals in Europe that was constructed during the Anglo-Saxon period.29 The plan to construct the church was initiated in 314 when the Council of Arles summoned the bishop of York at that time and indicated that there was a growing population of Christians in York that needed a church. However, it was not until 627 that a wooden church was put up in the current site specifically for the baptism of King Edwin of Northumbria.30 During this period, there was a growing division between the Kingdom of England and the Roman Catholic leadership under the pope. In 637, King Oswald ordered the construction of a stone structure at the current site of the cathedral and dedicated it to Saint Peter. However, the church was destroyed by fire in 741 and had to be reconstructed. The church was once again destroyed in 1069 when William the Conqueror attacked the city, but it was once again restored.31 The growing religious tension at the period between the Roman Catholic and Anglican led to further destruction of the church in 1075 and in 1137, but in both cases, it was rebuilt or remodelled.
When Walter de Gray took over the leadership of the church as its archbishop in 1215, he desired to have a more permanent and magnificent structure that would match that of Canterbury.32 It was the first step towards the development of the current Gothic style the cathedral had today. He ordered an architectural design that would meet the local needs of the locals in terms of beauty and functionality. Narayanan reports that some of the architects who work on this design came from Italy while others were locals who had participated in the construction of other major structures for the royal family.33 Figure 1 below shows that final drawing of the plan for the cathedral that was approved by the bishop and other officials of the church.
The actual construction of the cathedral begun in 1220, at a time when the leaders were satisfied that the design would meet expectations. The complex design of the building, limited knowledge of construction workers at that time, and the mediaeval technology during this period meant that the construction of such a structure could not as fast as the leaders desired. The Southern and Northern transepts, which were the first structures to be completed in the church, were ready by 125035. The design used was the early English Gothic style, as Koehler observes.36 The construction of the Chapter House was started in 1260 and was ready by 1296.37 The construction of the wide nave begun in 1280 and by 1330s, the outer roofing was completed.
The vaulting took long to be completed, until 1360.38 In 1407 when the modelling of the inner part of the church was in progress, the central tower collapsed. It was not until 1472, over 250 years since the design was developed, that York Minster was finalised and consecrated.39 Figure 2 below shows the completed church. Although it has been subject to various attacks, the structure has remained strong for over five centuries.
History of China’s Confucius Temple
The Beijing Temple of Confucius is one of the largest Confucian temples in China, second only to that in Qufu.41 It was during the Yuan dynasty under the leadership of Emperor Hui-tsung, that the royal family considered it appropriate to have a Confucian temple in Beijing because of the growing relevance of its principles. The Imperial officials donated the land for the construction and provided the resources needed. Figure 3 below shows the architectural design of the temple that was approved before the construction begun. Berlow notes that clear records that show when the official plan for the construction was approved do not exist.42
The exact date when the construction of the temple begun is not existent in its archives, as Tan observes.44 However, many historians believe that the construction of the temple did not last as long as that of the York Minster. In fact, the work ethics and culture promoted by the Confucian philosophies of commitment and hard work meant that workers in this project must have dedicated their time to its speedy construction. The fact that it used Ancient Chinese architecture that the local community had perfected meant that it did not face the challenges that the cathedral went through. Records show that the temple was officially opened in 1302.45 Figure 4 below shows the completed Beijing Confucian Temple. It has been affected by the fire on several occasions but each time repairs are made, the architects and engineers are often keen ensuring that the original design is maintained. It occupies an area of 20,000 square meters.
The temple has evolved over the years in terms of its purpose in society, a fact that has made it possible for it to survive even during the period when the political rulers did not approve of some of its philosophies. The evolution has ensured that the institution remains relevant in the 21st century despite the emerging trends in religious beliefs and practices.
Trends in Religious Beliefs and Practices
Societies around the world have embraced different religious practices for millions of years. Tan explains that people often attribute things beyond their comprehension to the divine spirit.47 The creation of the world, the creation of the first man and woman, animals, plants, and other natural resources are widely attributed to gods of different communities. During the period of western colonisation, Christianity was spread to different parts of the world. Islam also emerged as a popular religion in the Middle East and Northern Africa during the rule of Omani Empire.48 Globalisation that is fuelled by improved means of transport and communication has led to constant interaction of people from different religious beliefs. Civilisation has also made other societies to consider their own religious practices repugnant. In Indonesia, the culture that required families to mummify their dead and keep them for decades hoping that one day they will gain life again has become irrelevant in the modern society where people are scientifically empowered.49 Some communities in East Asia practiced a religion where a virgin would be sacrificed in cases of drought as an offering to the gods of rain. Such practices are currently illegal and the religion have died or integrated into other religious practices.
Christianity was once closely intertwined with political leadership in many European nations, especially in Italy and the United Kingdom. In medieval England, especially in the Middle Ages, going to church was largely viewed as a family ritual that everyone was expected to embrace. Although it was a mandatory practice, many people considered it appropriate to attend the services. Anglican Church was growing popular, although there was a large population of Catholics as well. However, various forces in society have had a significant impact on church attendance today. As people become academically empowered, they get to question some of the religious principles and their relevance in the modern society. Some consider changing from one religious affiliation to another, while others consider becoming irreligious. Figure 5 below shows religious affiliation of Britons aged 18-24.
In a British society where an overwhelming majority identify themselves as Christians, 72% of individuals aged 18-24 are not consistently attending any religious events on a regular basis.51 It is also worrying to those keen on ensuring that York Minster remains sustainable and relevant to the immediate society that only 3% of young adults attend Church of England regularly.52 The same trend is witnessed in China where Confucian temples are becoming cultural sites instead of religious centres. Lagerwey and Marsone explain that as society becomes less religiously attached to these institutions of prayer, the only way that they can survive is when they are protected as heritage sites.53 Some of the Confucian temples in China have disappeared while a number of churches in the United Kingdom are being converted into libraries.
Professional Museum Theories
When comparing between the United Kingdom’s York Minster and China’s Confucian temple, it was necessary to review relevant theories that may help explain the trends and practices in these institutions. The theory of museology was considered most appropriate in explaining the current trends in religious practices in the two countries and the forces that the two institutions have to withstand. According to Israel, museology explains reasons why there are museums in society, the role they play, and institutions that should qualify to fall in this category.54 Israel argues that museums should preserve cultural heritage of society despite the changing socio-economic and political trends.55 The immediate society can only be supportive of an institution considered a museum if it gives an accurate representation of their heritage.56 In China, the modern architectural designs have led to construction of skyscrapers in almost every corner of the country. Houses designed using traditional Chinese architectural designs are disappearing very fast. The Beijing Confucian Temple and other similar temples provide an accurate representation of the Chinese heritage. The same is the case with York Minster. It is one of the few remaining buildings constructed during the Anglo-Saxon period using the Decorated Gothic designs.57 The irreligious members of British society and those who have embraced other faiths can still value the structure as one that is rich in history.
Protecting heritage structures that symbolises the heritage in a society where land space is increasingly getting scarce and expensive may be challenging and it requires the commitment of the members of the local community and the political class. They need to understand the significance of such structures and ways in which they can be managed to ensure that they can last for the next several decades without the need for restructuring. In the previous chapter, the researcher focused on a detailed review of existing literature. The researcher looked at the works done by other scholars in relation to the United Kingdom’s York Minster and China’s Confucius Temple. These sources talked about management of various religious heritage sites around the world and the manner in which manner others have disappeared because of mismanagement, negligence, and the new interpretation that makes them irrelevant to the modern society.
In this section, the researcher will discuss how data was collected from various sources. The chapter discusses the research philosophy that was used and the approach that was considered appropriate. It identifies the research strategy and data collection method that was considered appropriate. The method used to analyse primary data and ethical standards observed are discussed. Research onion showed in figure 6 below shows factors that should be considered when planning to conduct a research. As Brennen observes, one needs to start discussing issues on the outer layer of the onion before looking at the specifics in the inner layer.58
In social sciences research, such as this which focuses on the comparison of the UK’s cathedral and China’s Confucius temple in terms of their religious heritage, new interpretation, and management, one of the first steps should be to define the appropriate philosophy. Tracy explains that research philosophy defines the source, nature, and development of knowledge in a given study.60 It defines the assumptions and beliefs that should be made in the study based on specific principles. The assumptions are often needed in social sciences research because of the difficulty of manipulating study subjects, which happen to be human beings. One can use positivism, pragmatism, interpretivism, or realism based on the nature of the study and other factors that a researcher may consider relevant. It is important to discuss each of these philosophies before explaining why one of them was chosen to guide this study.
Positivism is one of the commonly used philosophies in social sciences. As Tracy observes, this philosophy holds the view that knowledge can only be considered factual and trustworthy if it is gained through observations and measurements.61 It emphasises the need to trust information that is observable and if possible measurable. It requires a researcher to focus on making specific observations, preferably using specific instruments, conducting an analysis of the collected information, and making conclusion based on facts observed in the field. The philosophy is popular in studies that require statistical analysis of data. Once an observation is made, the researcher would be expected to code the information and then conduct an analysis to interpret the observation.62 One of its fundamental principles is that meaning resides within the world independent of one’s consciousness.63 As such, a researcher should be as objective as possible. They should not allow personal interests to cloud their judgment when making collecting, analysing, or presenting data. It restricts a researcher from making a conclusion if it is not based on the observation made during the process of collecting primary data. The fact that it limits data analysis only to quantitative methods, this philosophy was not considered appropriate when conducting a comparison between the UK’s cathedral and China’s Confucius temple.
Individuals who were critical of positivism as a research philosophy developed interpretivism. Denscombe explains that interpretivism assumes that “access to reality is only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, and instruments.”64 It is of the view that it is not possible to avoid integrating human interest into a study. It rejects the objective view that a researcher should ensure that personal view and knowledge should not inform the conclusion that one makes. Interpretivists argue that sometimes respondents may lie over a given issue to protect the image of a given institution. It would be intellectually irresponsible of a researcher to ignore known facts and purely rely on misleading information provided by such respondents simply because of the desire to remain objective in a given study. Personal knowledge should also be considered a resource in a given study. It explains why people tend to trust a research conducted by an experienced professor than that done by a fresh college graduate even if they collected data from the same participants. Interpretivism emphasises the need to use of qualitative methods of analysis such as hermeneutics and phenomenology.65 Given fact that the philosophy is purely qualitative in nature, it was not considered appropriate for this study.
Realism is another common philosophy mainly used in scientific research. It holds the view that reality is independent from the human mind.66 People may want to believe things based on their experiences or indoctrination. Some stereotypical beliefs are so strong that an individual would be ready to commit a crime or sacrifice own life to protect them. Hindus believe in their many gods, Christians believe in Jesus, while Muslims believe in Prophet Mohammed. They may not have scientific background of their beliefs, but their way of life and teachings have indoctrinated specific principles that they hold dear. The problem is that different religious and cultural principles of people from different parts of the world may make it difficult for them to have consensus on basic issues. Realism as a philosophy holds that such beliefs and practices do not matter when conducting a research. The paramount issue should be the ability to conduct an empirical investigation and to provide proof based in scientific experiments. The philosophy is popular when conducting scientific investigations in laboratories. It may not be effective in this project.
Pragmatism is a popular philosophy in social sciences research. It holds a simple but crucial view that a concept can be acceptable and considered relevant only if it support action. According to Kara, pragmatics argue that “there are many different ways of interpreting the world and undertaking research, that no single point of view can ever give the entire picture and that there may be multiple realities.”67 It moderates the two extreme views of positivism and interpretivism. A pragmatics believes that people often interpret a concept in different ways based on their social background, experiences, and their knowledge. Having a rigid way of interpreting the world may be an unfair approach of gathering knowledge.
An individual who considers a glass half-full and the other that may argue that it is half-empty are correct, with the only difference being the premise upon which they base their interpretation.68 One places emphasis on the fact that the glass is empty while the other wants to demonstrate the extent to which it is full. Insisting that both have to interpret the world on a given point of view may not be realistic. Kara argues that pragmatism brings together fundamental concepts of pragmatism and interpretivism.69 When using this concept, a researcher would be at liberty to use mixed (both qualitative and quantitative) method of data analysis. It was considered the most relevant philosophy when conducting a comparison of York Minster in the United Kingdom and Confucius Temple in China in terms of the religious heritage, interpretation, and management. It would create a flexible environment where one can conduct analysis from different fronts.
When an appropriate research philosophy has been selected, the next step is to identify a research approach whose principles are in line with the philosophy. Kara defines research approach as “a plan and procedure that consists of the steps of broad assumptions to detailed method of data collection, analysis and interpretation.”70 The choice that one makes when selecting a relevant design should be based on the research problem and the preferred philosophy. As McNabb observes, one can use either of the two main research approaches.71 The two are deducting reasoning and inductive reasoning. The researcher considered it necessary to discuss each of them before explaining why one of them was considered more appropriate than the other.
Deductive reasoning is an approach of conducting an investigation where a researcher is expected to explore a given theory or phenomenon and conduct a test that would validate or reject them in a given circumstance.72 In this case, a researcher has to develop hypotheses based on a known theory or concept. Data would then be collected with the primary aim of confirming or rejecting the relevance of the hypothesis and the theory in a given context. Bryman and Bell state that the approach involves moving from the general to the specific.73 The analysis would in this case focus on establishing the relationship between variables. The approach is shown in figure 7 below. In most of the cases, this approach involves the use of mathematical methods to conduct the test. However, Brennen argues that one can only conduct an observation to determine the relevance of a given concept in a specific context.74 This approach of reasoning was not used in this study.
Inducting reasoning takes a completely different approach from that of deducting reasoning, as Brennen observes.76 A researcher is expected to start the research by making observations based on a given issue and then make theories or develop a new body of knowledge based on the results obtained from the observation. The researcher’s interest would be to identify patterns in a given phenomenon. The researcher is not expected to start the investigation in a given pattern, which creates a freedom to start investigation based on what one considers appropriate. As shown in figure 8 below, it starts with marking observation on the issue of interest, and then identifying a pattern. The pattern would then define the theory or conclusion that a researcher would make. In this study, the focus was to conduct a comparison between two religious institutions in different countries in terms of their heritage and new interpretations. In such a comparative study, it would not be appropriate to start investigation with a rigid theory upon which analysis has to be made. instead, inducting approach was considered more relevant. It made it possible to conduct observations, conduct a comparative analysis, and achieve the specific aim and objectives set in this study.
The third step, as shown in the research onion above, is to select the research strategies that would be used to achieve aim and objectives of the study. The strategy selected at this stage should be in line with beliefs and assumptions of the research philosophy and research approach. One can use different strategies to collect the relevant information needed form the field. However, the researcher considered survey, case studies, and archival research as the most appropriate ways of gathering data in the project.
Survey is one of the most popular ways of collecting primary data from a sample of respondents. According to Tracy, after reviewing literature and identifying knowledge gaps, the most important step that a researcher has to take is collecting primary data that would address the gaps.78 In this case, it was important to understand the religious heritage of United Kingdom’s York Minster and China’s Confucius Temple based on the new interpretations. The information obtained from these individuals would make it possible to understand how the modern society view and interpret the relevance of these religious institutions, the manner in which they are managed, the value they attach to them, and such related facts. The survey focused on two groups. The first group, which was very important for the study, was individuals who are actively involved in the activities of the institutions. They would include faithful who regularly attend York Minster in the United Kingdom and Beijing Temple of Confucius in China. These people, especially the top officials and the librarians, may have historical records about these institutions and they can shed light about how they view their importance in the modern society.
The second group was members of the public who interact with these religious institutions in different ways but do not use them as their church or temple. Given the fact that the second group of individuals does not use these institutions, it would be interesting to get their views about the relevance of the cathedral and the temple as institutions of heritage. The researcher would be interested in determining whether these people believe the institutions should still exist in their cities and be properly managed as a way of preserving their religious practices of their ancestors.
Case study would be another major method that would make it possible to compare the two institutions in terms of religious heritage, new interpretation, and their management approaches. Tracy defines case study research “an in-depth, detailed study of an individual or a small group of individuals, typically in a qualitative in nature, resulting in a narrative description of behaviour or experience.”79 In this study, the researcher will conduct two case studies for each institution. The case studies will provide a detailed discussion of the two institutions historical background, the current management principles, the manner in which the modern society interpret its relevance as a religious heritage, and challenges that they face. The York Minster, being the third senior most Anglican Church institution, must be concerned with the dropping number of faithful over the years. Through the case study, it will be possible to understand how the institution is dealing with the issue and measures out in place to sustain its operations and existence for the next several years. Facts gathered from case studies would inform the conclusion and recommendations that the researcher will make.
The third strategy that is relevant in this study is archival research. Tracy defines this method of data collection as one “involving primary sources held in archives, a special collections library, or other repository.”80 Information from the archives of these institutions can help in explaining the designs of the two structures, reasons why the architectures considered the designs appropriate, religions connotations of the structures, the roles they have been playing in society for over one century, and relevant issues that would make it possible to compare the two institutions. Denscombe notes that some libraries and other heritage sites have opted to have electronic records of primary data sources in their repository.81 Having access to such information would be crucial in this investigation.
Survey was considered the main method of collecting primary data from respondents. Denscombe explains that gathering data from specific individuals who have the needed information is the best way of creating new knowledge in a given field of study.82 The study focuses on comparing two religious institutions in two different countries. The researcher had to collect data from individuals who have interacted in one way or the other with the temple and the church under investigation.
Sampling and sample size
Sampling was important in ensuring that a manageable sample of participants was identified to take part in the survey. The researcher used purposive sampling to identify individuals who would participate in the study. As explained above, one of the most important inclusion criteria was that the individual should have enough knowledge about the institution, its historical background, and its current role and relevance in society. A random sampling would have a situation where a large majority of people selected to participate in the study lack information needed. The researcher was interested in collecting data from individuals who have played leadership roles at these institutions in different times of their lives. It was also necessary to collect information from people have been living close to these institutions for some time. A sample size of 20 participants was considered adequate for the study.
Instruments of data collection
It would have been desirable for the researcher to visit both the York Minster in the United Kingdom and one of the Confucius temples in China such as the Beijing Temple of Confucius when conducting primary data that would facilitate the comparison. However, the geographical distance between the two institutions and the limited time within which the researcher has to complete the project made it impossible to visit both institutions. As such, the researcher opted to develop a questionnaire that would make it possible to collect data through online survey. The strategy is time consuming and often effective when a researcher is unable to make physical visits because of geographic constraints.83 The questionnaire made it possible to standardise the approach of asking questions to the participants. The instrument had three main sections.
The first section of the questionnaire focused on the demographic background of the respondents. It focused on identifying their current residence, religious affiliations, and level of education. It was important to ensure that the participants were living close enough to the institution and understand the significance of the temple and the church based on the current trends in the two societies. This requirement also made it possible for respondents to provide accurate information about how well these institutions are managed based on what they see on a regular basis. Religious affiliation of the respondent made it possible to determine whether they view these institutions as their religious sanctuaries or mere heritage sites that reminds them of their history. Academic background would determine the authority they have in making specific interpretations on issues under investigation.
The second part of the questionnaire focused on specific issues relating to the religious heritage and the new interpretation and management of the two institutions. The researcher used both structured and unstructured questions to collect information from the sampled respondents. Close-ended questions were used to collect quantitative data that would be used to conduct mathematical analysis when addressing some aspects of the research. On the other hand, open-ended questions were used to collect descriptive data for qualitative analysis. They made it possible for respondents to explain why they were holding specific views on a given issue. The instrument (questionnaire) used to collect primary data is attached in appendix 1 of this document.
When data has been collected from participants, the next step is to conduct analysis. The analysis should focus on responding to the research questions. As mentioned above, primary data analysis will be conducted through mixed method research. Quantitative data was conducted using excel spread sheet to understand the extent of the similarity of differences between the United Kingdom’s York Minster and China’s Confucius Temple in terms of the religious heritage and new interpretation. This analysis will also help in predicting the ability of the institutions to survive for the next several decades based on the past and present trends. Findings made from quantitative analysis will be presented in the firm of graphs and charts to make it easy for the readers to understand the information. Qualitative analysis was used to explain specific phenomena and their relevance to the issue being investigated. It will help to explain why the two institutions share some facts and not others. Quoting some of the explanations provided by the respondents makes it easy for readers of the document to understand their views on the issue.
It is important to observe research ethics when conducting research, as McNabb observes.84 One of the most important ethical requirements is to protect the identity of the participants. According to Kara, it is important to understand that some issues relating to religion may be divisive.85 Some people may react differently when they realise that others do not share their opinion. In a society that is becoming increasingly intolerant, it is possible for someone to be attacked on a trivial issue simply because of the difference of the opinion. Others may also be uncomfortable when they realise that others are expressing their displeasure towards a religion they hold so dear. As such, it is always prudent to hide the identity of participants in a given study to ensure that they are protected from any form of intimidation.
In this project, participants’ identity was concealed by assigning them specific codes instead of using their actual names. Kara explains that it is important to inform respondents beforehand why it is important to collect data from them and state the significance of their study.86 The researcher met this requirement by explaining to them the benefit of this project to the local community and the role that they would play in this research. Before collecting data from each of them, the researcher assured every participant that their identity would not be revealed to anyone. Such an assurance was needed to encourage them to participate in the study.
The researcher made an effort to remain objective when collecting, analysing, and presenting primary data. It was necessary to ensure that personal opinion is not allowed to define the outcome of the study. The school has a set of ethical requirements that students must observe when conducting a research project. One of them is to ensure there is originality in academic assignments. In this project, the researcher avoided any form of plagiarism. The paper was written from scratch, and without copying context from other published sources. Any information obtained from books, journal articles, and reliable online sources was referenced accordingly using MHRA citation style. A list of all the sources used in the paper was provided on the bibliography page. The researcher also ensured that the completed project was handed in within the specified time.
Findings and Case Study
The previous chapter provided a detailed explanation of the methods used to collect, analyse, and interpret primary data from the respondents. In this section, the researcher will present the findings made from the analysis of the primary data. The analysis will help in comparing the two religious institutions, which are slowly becoming heritage sites in the two countries.
Findings from the Interview
The information obtained from was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to achieve the objectives of the study. The analysis was conducted both qualitatively and quantitatively. Each of the research questions in chapter 1 was addressed in this chapter. The first question focused in establishing possible similarities and differences that exist between the two institutions. Respondents were requested to state what they believe the two institutions have in common and what comes out as different.
How does the United Kingdom’s York Minster compare with China’s Confucius Temple in terms of their religious heritage, new interpretation, and management?
Similarities between York Minster and Confucius Temple
The respondents believe that the two institutions have a lot in common, one of which is the purpose for which they were constructed. York Minster in the United Kingdom and Confucius temple in China are religious institutions where people go to worship. They are considered sacred grounds among their faithful. The respondents also stated that both institutions are increasingly becoming museums and heritage sites other that worship centres, especially the Confucius temples. One of the respondents explained this trend in clear terms as follows:
Respondent 3 said, “Confucius temple in China has lost its religious appeal for which it was originally constructed. The principles and culture promoted by Confucianism is still relevant in the modern-day China, but the majority considers it their traditional way of life other than a religion that they should follow. The same trend is becoming common in the United Kingdom as the number of irreligious people continue to increase.”
This respondent believes that these institutions are both destined to become museums and heritage sites based on the new interpretation and management approaches embraced. Many other respondents share this perception, as they believe that these religious shrines are increasingly becoming irrelevant. Christianity is still the dominant religious group in the United Kingdom, but number of those who are committed to going to church on a regular basis is dropping at an alarming rate.
Respondent 2 said, “Both institutions have been classified as Grade 1 heritage destination and under the protection of UNESCO.”
The global society appreciates the significance of these institutions as a way of preserving socio-cultural heritage. The design of these structures shows the important milestones that have been made from the mediaeval period into modernism.
Differences between York Minster and Confucius Temple
The two institutions also have significant differences in terms of their designs, the materials used in their construction, and the purpose for which they were constructed. The respondents were requested to state what they perceive to be significant differences between the two institutions. They noted a number of differences.
Respondent 4 said, “York Minster is a church meant for worshipping among Christians while the Beijing Confucius temple is a religious institution for those who believe in the philosophy of Confucianism.”
It is clear that although both are centres of worshiping, groups of people who do not share the same belief use them. On the one hand, Christians interpret York Minster as a religious sanctuary. On the other hand, those who believe in the philosophy of Confucianism consider the temple a place where they can come together, share their views and experiences, and find common ethical ways of overcoming challenges they face in life.
Respondent 8 said, “York Minster was constructed using the Gothic architecture in the medieval Europe while the Beijing Confucius temple was constructed using Ancient Chinese architecture.”
The architectural designs of the two buildings are significantly different. Although the two institutions have managed to withstand environmental forces for over 500 years, the materials used for their construction, the space covered, and their shape are significantly different. It shows that at that time, the Chinese culture had not significantly interacted with that of Europe, especially the United Kingdom.
What are the religious and cultural significance of the York Minster and Confucius Temple to the British and Chinese societies respectively?
It was necessary to determine if these institutions have cultural and religious significance in their societies. The participants were asked to state whether they believe these institutions are relevant in the two contexts. It is evident, as shown in figure 9 below, that majority of respondents consider the York Minster as being more religiously relevant than the Confucius temple. On the other hand, the same respondents believe that the temple is more culturally relevant to the Chinese than the cathedral is to the Britons. The church is still viewed as an important religious sanctuary while temple is considered culturally important to the Chinese.
Some of the respondents argued that although the cathedral is largely interpreted as a religious sanctuary by the majority in the British society, the trend is changing and it may become more or a museum and a cultural heritage in the future. The locals have to continue embracing Christianity as their preferred faith for them to continue visiting the cathedral as their place of worship.
What are the current management policies and principles used to run the cathedral in the United Kingdom and the temple in China?
The manner in which these institutions are managed defines their ability to survive for the next several years. Other than their unique architectural designs that demonstrate the huge steps made in the construction industry, these buildings house precious cultural artefacts. The temple has become a major museum in Beijing where important historical records and items are kept. It means that the relevance of this institution in the coming years depends on its ability to protect and preserve these artefacts. The same case applies to the cathedral given that it has been classified as one of the most important heritage sites in the country. They have to be protected from damage, theft, vandalism, or arson. The case studies show that the two buildings have been affected by fire in their modern history. Such challenges may threaten their existence in society. The respondents wanted to determine the view of respondents about the suitability of the management principles at the institutions. Figure 10 below shows their response.
It is evident that the majority of the respondents strongly agree with the argument that the management principles embraced by the institution are suitable based on the emerging trends in society. The leadership of both the church and the temple has made an effort to understand how the institution can be relevant to the community based on the changing trends. The temple has become a major museum where people from all over the world can visit and learn about cultural practices and beliefs of Chinese people. On the other hand, the cathedral has a library that locals can visit and find relevant religious books that talk about the history of the church and the role it has been playing in society. Only a few of the respondents had a contrary opinion. One of the respondents explained how the temple has been transformed to become a major centre of attraction in the modern-day China.
Respondent 4 said, “Beijing Confucius Temple has become one of the leading sites of attraction both to the local and foreign tourists who want to learn about various Chinese philosophies and practices. It has gone through careful restructuring to ensure that visitors can move in and out with ease”
The management of this institution has realised the importance of transforming the temple from a teaching and worshipping centre into a modern museum that still has its medieval structural design. Such adjustments make these institutions relevant to the modern society.
What is the future of the two institutions in the coming decades based on the past and current socio-political and economic events in the two countries?
The York Minster and Beijing Confucius Temple are some of the most important religious heritages in the United Kingdom and China respectively. The Anglican Church was started in the United Kingdom and it has spread to different countries in the world. It is currently one of the largest protestant churches in the global society.87 The York Minster is one of its first churches. The existence of this cathedral means a lot to all the Anglican faithful all over the world. To the British society, it has both religious and political significance. Confucianism is accredited to some of the modern principles held by the Chinese, especially how it defines work culture and ethics. Protecting these two institutions is important. As such, the researcher was interested in determining the goodwill of the political class to protect them. As shown in figure 11 below, it is evident that the political class has goodwill to protect these institutions in both countries. They currently fall under UNESCO’s religious heritage sites, which mean that the two states have the responsibility of protecting them.
How can the two societies protect their heritage, beyond religious beliefs and practices, through these institutions?
The analysis of the primary data shows that one of the main challenges that the cathedral and the temple face is the increasing irrelevance of their initial purpose as religious centres because of the new interpretations. Currently, the Beijing Confucius Temple is a museum and it is no longer meaningful as a religious centre. York Minster is still one of the largest and most important churches in Europe. However, the trend where many young adults do not consider it necessary to attend church services on a regular basis would mean that in the coming years, it would face the same fate as the temple. One of the respondents had the following suggestion as a way of preserving these ancient religious sanctuaries.
Respondent 1 said, “Churches need to redefine their principles and beliefs in line with the scientific facts and emerging trends to ensure that they remain relevant.”
The classification of the cathedral as a grade 1 heritage designation means that it may not be easily destroyed even if it fails to become religiously relevant to the local community because of the new interpretations. However, one of the best ways of preserving this institution is to ensure that it remains relevant to the locals. It should focus on addressing socio-economic and political problems in ways that would attract many believers. Cases of rape and sodomy committed by the religious leaders against young children and youth taints the image of the church.88 Such concerns should be addressed objectively to ensure that the institution remains relevant.
Case Study 1: York Minster
The York Minster is one of the few remaining structures, which were constructed using the Gothic architecture. Currently holding a grade 1 heritage designation, the church is 524.5 feet long, 222 feet wide, and 99 feet high (nave height).89 Its choir height is about 102 feet. It has three towers, with the central tower being the tallest at 235 feet, and the western tower is 196 feet.90 It has been the diocese of York in York Province since 314. The institution is still one of the leading religious sanctuaries in the United Kingdom. However, its leaders appreciate that the institution offers more than prayer services to the local and international community. The institution is a rich heritage site that tells a lot about the history of the country. Besides the building, which has a unique design, the church has artefacts tells the history of the church, how it related with the country’s political leadership and members of society, and the role it played in the social, economic, and political environment.
The institution has faced numerous threats since the time its construction was completed. The biggest threat that the institution faced was the European wars of religion that started in 16th century and lasted until early 18th century. Narayanan explains that Protestant Reformations that begun in 1517 disrupted the religious and political order in various countries in Europe that were under the Roman Catholic.91 The York Minster, being part of the Church of England, was one of the main targets. It was attacked on various occasions, but the structure was not destroyed. In its modern history, it has emerged that the biggest threat of the cathedral is fire outbreak.
In 1984, the church suffered a severe serious fire incident that raged for several hours. It forced the fire fighters to collapse part of the roof as the only way of containing the inferno. The clergy and staff managed to protect the artefact and other historical records. The investigations did not find the exact cause of the fire, citing lighting, electric fault, or arson as the possible factors that could have led to the inferno at the church.92 From 2007 to 2018, the institution went through renovation to ensure that it is safe for use. The institution receives visitors who are interested in understanding its history or studying various artefacts that have been preserved here for over 500 years.
Case Study 1: Beijing Confucius Temple
The Beijing Confucius Temple was constructed during the Yuan Dynasty as the place where people would pay homage to Confucius.93 The original structure was put up in 1302, but it was expanded during the Ming Dynasty. The temple was further expanded during the Qing dynasty because of its increasing relevance in society. During that period, Confucius philosophies were held in high regards and institutions of higher learning was constructed adjacent to the temple to ensure that scholars could easily interact with the philosophers at the temple. The Imperial Academy (Beijing Guozijian) was affiliated to the temple and that gave the learning institution a prestigious position in the local community. During the Qing Dynasty, the compound of the temple was increased to 5.4 acres.94 It was associated with some of the greatest thinkers and educationists in China at that time.
The temple has four courtyards and two main gates, Xianshi Gate known as the Gate of the First Teacher, Dacheng Gate also known as the Gate of Great Accomplishment.95 It has two main halls, Dacheng Hall, also known as Hall of Great Accomplishment, and Chongshengci, which was the Worship Hall.96 It is evident that the institution was structured in a way that it integrated both religious beliefs and education. It created an environment where great thinkers and leading philosophers could engage with learners in what many believed to be a sacred ground. Inside the temple, 198 stone tablets are carefully arranged in the courtyards, bearing the names of some of the Jinshi (leading scholars at that time) of the Ming, Qing, and Yuan Dynasties.97
The courtyards also have an additional 14 stone stele pavilions, which are holding previous historical records of the ancient China, especially the Ming and Qing dynasties.98 A careful analysis of this temple shows that it placed more emphasis on learning and accomplishment than on worshipping. They believed that there was need to work and show commitment before asking for divine intervention. Although the relevance of the institution dwindled after the Qing Dynasty because of the new interpretation by the new rulers, it has remained one of the most important cultural heritages in China. It still houses some of the most precious historical records of China.
Conclusion & Recommendation
The York Minster is one of the earliest Anglican Churches in the United Kingdom. Currently the institution houses the Archbishop of York and is considered the third highest-ranking institution in the Anglican Church. The cathedral was constructed in over 500 years ago and has been playing a major role in the British society as a religious sanctuary. Its Gothic architectural design of the middle Ages is one of the few remaining structures constructed during the Anglo-Saxon period. The church is still an active prayer house that serves the local community. The Confucius temples in China were also constructed as religious shrines for those who believed in the Confucius philosophy. Although Confucianism as a religion has become almost non-existent in the modern China, this society still values principles and values that it promoted. In fact, many scholars believe that the current work culture, principles, and way of life of Chinese are based on Confucianism philosophies. The locals view Beijing Confucius Temple, which was constructed over 600 years ago, as a heritage site.
The two institutions share a lot. They were both constructed to serve as religious shrines where people could congregate and pray or engage in religious discussions. Construction in both institutions was completed over five centuries ago and they have been able to withstand environmental and other forces. It is evident that both are becoming viewed more as heritage sites than religious shrines. The majority of those who live in Beijing visit the temple as a museum than a religious sanctuary. It helps them to remember the strides society has made from the mediaeval period to date. It also reminds them of the religious beliefs that the ancestors held, which to them may not be relevant in the modern society.
The cathedral in York may soon follow the same path. It has already been classified as Grade 1 heritage site. As the number of Christians in the country continues to decrease, this mega church may become another heritage site that would have no religious meaning. The changing interpretation of the meaning of these institutions means that the current management of the cathedral should be willing to prepare the institution for a completely different purpose from which it was constructed. Studies show that the institution may soon become a museum, an eventuality that church elders and top officials may not be ready to accept. However, they need to prepare these institutions adequately as the only way of protecting their existence for the coming decades.
The leadership of the Anglican Church may not be looking forward to a time when York Cathedral, one of the most important churches in Europe, would become a heritage centre other than being a religious sanctuary. However, events and trends in Europe show that it may not be possible to avoid such an outcome. Some of the local churches have less than 20 people and are mainly used as libraries by the locals. In China, the locals and the leadership of Confucius temple have acknowledged the changing trends and allowed these institutions to be protected as a cultural heritage site based on the current interpretation of the modern society. In the United Kingdom, the leadership should be ready for a similar eventuality. The management of the cathedral should consider the following recommendations:
- In an attempt to redefine the interpretation of the meaning of the church among the local society and maintain its faithful, it will be appropriate for the leadership of the York Minster to redefine principles and practices of Anglican Church to be relevant to the emerging trends and practices.
- The church should be increasingly involved in social events with the aim of enhancing its relevance and dealing with the threat of becoming a museum other than a religious centre.
- The management of the York Minster should emphasise on preserving the church and all its artefacts to help protect the ancient culture of the kingdom.
- One section of the cathedral should be specifically dedicated as a cultural and religious heritage area where people can visit and get to understand the origin of the church, its history, and its relevance in the modern society.
- The management of both the York cathedral and Beijing Confucius temple should work with UNESCO and the local government authorities to ensure that the institutions are protected even if they are no longer interpreted as religious sanctuaries by a section of society.
- Both institutions need to develop proper ways of dealing with fire outbreaks. They need to have modern fire management systems that would help contain fire as soon as it is detected.
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- Elisa Koehler, Dictionary for the Modern Trumpet Player (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015), p. 28.
- Ibid, p. 43.
- Ibid, p. 45.
- Ibid, p. 56.
- Pamela Golbin and Yann Legendre, Couture Confessions: Fashion Legends in Their Own Words (Oxford: Oxford Publishers, 2016), p. 32.
- Ibid, p. 52.
- Ibid, p. 49.
- Lawrence Berlow, Reference Guide to Famous Engineering Landmarks of the World: Bridges Tunnels, Dams, Roads, and Other Structures (London: Routledge, 2015), p. 13.
- Paul Chrystal, Secret York (London: Amberley, 2014), p. 90.
- Ibid, p. 65.
- Ibid, p. 87.
- Gayle King, Note to Self: Inspiring Words From Inspiring People (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2019) 78.
- Marzia Varutti, Museums in China: The Politics of Representation after Mao (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press 2014), p. 63.
- Ibid, p. 65
- Ibid, p. 68
- Ibid, p. 79.
- Ibid, p. 78.
- Ibid, p. 54.
- Paul Chrystal, York in the 1960s: Ten Years That Changed a City (Stroud: Amberley Publishing, 2015), p. 75.
- Ibid, p. 77.
- Matt Woodcock, Becoming Reverend: A Diary (London: Church House Publishing, 2016), p. 61.
- Ibid, p. 23.
- Ibid, p. 29.
- Theodosios Tsivolas, Law and Religious Cultural Heritage in Europe (Cham: Springer, 2014), p. 79.
- Ibid, p. 90.
- Ibid, p. 61.
- Grace Davie, Religion in Britain Since 1945: A Persistent Paradox (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2015), p. 67.
- Ibid, p. 45.
- Ibid, p. 73.
- Ibid, 102.
- Ibid, 112.
- Yamini Narayanan, Religion, Heritage and the Sustainable City: Hinduism and Urbanization in Jaipur (New York: Routledge, 2015), p. 121.
- Ibid, p. 123.
- Ibid, p. 76.
- Ibid, p. 56.
- Koehler, Dictionary for the Modern Trumpet Player, p. 28.
- Ibid, p. 64.
- Ibid, p. 92.
- Ibid, p. 97.
- Ibid, p. 83
- Berlow, Reference Guide to Famous Engineering Landmarks of the World, p. 13.
- Ibid, p. 64.
- Ibid, p. 93.
- Charlene Tan, Confucius (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014), p. 77.
- Ibid, p. 45.
- Ibid, p. 64.
- Ibid, p. 75.
- John Lagerwey and Pierre Marsone, Modern Chinese Religion: 1, Vol. 2 (Leiden: Brill, 2015), p. 58.
- Ibid, p. 82.
- Ibid, p. 85.
- Ibid, p. 58.
- Ibid, p. 60.
- Ibid, p. 96.
- George Israel, Doing Good and Ridding Evil in Ming China: The Political Career of Wang Yangming (Leiden: Boston, 2014), p. 49.
- Ibid, p. 74.
- Ibid, p. 82.
- Ibid, p. 30.
- Bonnie Brennen, Qualitative Research Methods for Media Studies (London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2017), p.56.
- Sarah Tracy, Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact (New York: Cengage, 2013), p. 78.
- Ibid, p. 91.
- Ibid, p. 98.
- Ibid, p. 99.
- Ibid, p. 101.
- Martyn Denscombe, The Good Research Guide: For Small-Scale Social Research Projects, (New York: Open University Press, 2014), p 64.
- Ibid, p. 76.
- Ibid, p. 99.
- Helen Kara, Creative Research Methods in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide (New York: Cengage Learning, 2015), p. 55.
- Ibid, p. 61.
- Ibid, p. 74.
- Ibid, p. 77.
- David McNabb, Research Methods for Political Science: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods (New York: Routledge, 2015), p. 80.
- Ibid, p. 68.
- Alan Bryman and Emma Bell, Business Research Methods (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), p. 65.
- Brennen, Qualitative Research Methods for Media Studies, p. 89.
- Ibid, p. 91
- Ibid, p. 97.
- Ibid, p. 113
- Tracy, Qualitative Research Methods: Collecting Evidence, Crafting Analysis, Communicating Impact, p. 64.
- Ibid, p. 71.
- Ibid, p. 87.
- Denscombe, The Good Research Guide: For Small-Scale Social Research Projects, p. 36.
- Ibid, p. 41.
- Ibid, p. 52.
- McNabb, Research Methods for Political Science: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods, p. 80.
- Kara, Creative Research Methods in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide, p. 58.
- Ibid, p. 63.
- Ibid, p. 43.
- Tsivolas, Law and Religious Cultural Heritage in Europe, p. 73.
- Ibid, p. 86.
- Davie, Religion in Britain Since 1945: A Persistent Paradox, p. 69.
- Narayanan, Religion, Heritage and the Sustainable City: Hinduism and Urbanization in Jaipur, p. 121.
- Ibid, p. 64.
- Tan, Confucius, p. 79.
- Ibid, p. 54.
- Lagerwey and Marsone, Modern Chinese Religion: 1, Vol. 2, p. 51.
- Ibid, p. 62.
- Israel, Doing Good and Ridding Evil in Ming China: The Political Career of Wang Yangming, p. 44.
- Ibid, p. 74.