To undertake critical analysis and evaluation, the assessment selected two journal articles from the Electronic Reserve readings representing qualitative study and quantitative study. The first journal article by Baxa (2015) is a qualitative study, whereas the second journal article by Han and Finkelstein (2013) is a quantitative study. Critical analysis and evaluation of the two journal articles started with the assessment of the introduction. The next step entailed the assessment of the literature review to determine their relevance to the topic and introduction components. The third step involved the assessment of concurrence between the literature review and methodology in various aspects such as research design, target population, sampling method, and sample size (Rodriguez & Toews, 2005). In the fourth step, the assessment examined how authors demonstrate literature synthesis by considering contents, such as assertions, inferences, and assumptions. Ultimately, the assessment outlined insights gained that are essential in the development of the dissertation
The Qualitative Article
Critical analysis of the introduction section of the article shows that there is a seamless alignment of the problem statement, purpose statement, research questions, and hypotheses. The problem statement of the article is that students, particularly fifth-graders, do not get adequate feedback in the course of their learning for teachers who do not explain what constitutes learning goals and quality narratives. The purpose statement is in line with the problem statement because it aims to employ instructional practice to boost feedback and promote the learning process among fifth-graders. The research questions seek to determine how instructional practice would enhance understanding of the learning targets, the capability to cause feedback, and the ability to improve writing. Based on the problem statement and research questions, the study hypothesizes that instructional practice improves the feedback process, boost the capacity to explain learning aims, and increases the propensity to set goals and revise writing. The author used numerous studies that elucidate the role of active learning in encouraging students to perform well by creating and owning their goals.
Analysis of the literature review indicates that diverse researchers used to buttress the theoretical framework of constructivism described in the introduction. According to the theory of constructivism, learners ought to be active in the learning process so that they can create and own their goals. The article used diverse researches in describing how the instructional practice of rubric-referenced self-assessment boosts feedback and engagement of students in learning.
Moreover, the analysis of the literature review shows that it supports the methodology section of the article. In research design, the study explained how numerous studies utilized the qualitative approach, cases, and interviews in performing similar studies. In this article, the researcher borrowed from the previous studies for it utilized the qualitative approach, multi-case study, and structure-interview in data collection. Regarding the population, the study focused on fifth-graders because previous studies had dwelt on other grades. Although previous studies in literature used large samples, this study used three students randomly selected from fifth-graders.
The author has mastered literature synthesis as assertions, inferences, and assumptions made are pertinent in elucidating learning among fifth-graders. Based on experience, the author asserts that instructional practice enhances the feedback process and the capacity to set and attain goals. In this view, the author infers that instructional practice enables students to become active, set their goals, own learning process, and improve their performance in writing. The author assumes that three students without previous experience of special education are adequate to present valid findings regarding the role of instructional practice in enhancing feedback and the learning process.
The analysis and evaluation of the qualitative study have provided substantial insights that would enhance the manner of developing a dissertation in the future. One insight is that experience is central to the identification of a research problem and synthesis of the literature to elucidate it. Another insight is that the literature review needs to support the research problem, the theoretical framework, and the methodology for concurrence to boost the validity of the study (Hajli, 2015). Insight concerning the sample is that the study has a low sample size (N = 3), which makes the findings have limited external validity.
The Quantitative Article
The analysis and evaluation of the quantitative article indicate that the research problem has its basis in an extensive literature. According to Han and Finkelstein (2013), the research problem is that the use of Clicker Assessment and Feedback (CAF) with few items has generated results with low reliability and validity, and the interactions between professors’ teaching and students’ learning process remain undefined. Thus, the purpose of the study aligns with the problem statement for it aims to debunk criticism against the credibility of CAF. The research questions align with the problem statement and the purpose of research for they seek answers to underlying dimensions of students’ perception of CAF, the relationship between students’ perception and professors’ CAF development, and the impact of CAF on the learning process of students. Sufficient literature indicates that the purpose and research questions are in tandem with the hypothesis that CAF improves the learning experiences of learners because it boosts their cognitive, emotional, and motivational experiences.
The literature presented in the article is relevant to the study for they support the conceptual framework of the instructional strategy approach. The literature examines the genesis and progressive use of CAF in the provision of instruction in classrooms. In this view, literature links with the instruction because it identifies gaps in the present findings, and thus, necessitates resolution of the problem noted in the introduction.
The literature review supports the methodology because it describes various studies that have used different methods and came up with inconclusive findings regarding the validity and reliability of CAF. Based on other studies, the article indicates that the study adopted the previous methodologies and replicated classroom settings as professors attended workshops where they acquired knowledge on how to develop and utilize CAF in teaching. Evidently, Han and Finkelstein (2013) acknowledge that they designed CAF-Questionnaire using Likert items obtained from 27 studies. The study employed convenience sampling to increase the representation of the target population to over 83%. The utilization of small sample sizes by the previous studies informed the essence of a large sample size of professors (n = 74) and students (n = 5459) to increase the external validity of the findings. To increase the internal validity of the findings, the study employed the quantitative approach to quantify the effects of CAF on the learning process.
The analysis and evaluation of the article show that the authors have an immense ability to synthesize literature as they researched widely. The authors reviewed 27 studies and noted major themes that stand out and lessen the reliability and validity of the findings. The major assertion is that CAF plays a central role in learning among students for it increased cognitive, emotional, and motivational experiences (Alam, 2014). The article made assumptions about data collected consistent with factor analysis and multivariate analysis. As an inference, the article holds that CAF is the most effective teaching and learning approach, which boosts the performance of students.
The insight gained from the article is that the use of extensive literature review enriches research by elucidating and contextualizing research problems. Moreover, another insight is that the use of large sample sizes increases the external validity, whereas the utilization of many Likert items improves the internal validity of the findings (McKinley & Rose, 2016). The principal component analysis provides robust statistical analysis for extracting significant Likert items from a given scale.
Alam, F. (2014). Using technology tools to innovate assessment, reporting, and teaching practices in engineering education. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference.
Baxa, S. (2015). Enhancing students’ understanding and revision of narrative Writing through self-assessment and dialogue: A qualitative multi-case study. The Qualitative Report, 20(10), 1682-1708.
Hajli, N. (2015). Handbook of research on integrating social media into strategic marketing. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference
Han, J., & Finkelstein, A. (2013). Understanding the effects of professors’ pedagogical development with clicker assessment and feedback technologies and the impact on students’ engagement and learning in higher education. Computers & Education, 65(1), 64-76.
McKinley, J., & Rose, H. (2016). Doing research in applied linguistics: Realities, dilemmas, and solutions. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Rodriguez, A., & Toews, M. L. (2005). Training students to be better consumers of research: Evaluating empirical research reports. College Teaching, 53(3), 99-101.