Data and Information Management and Administration

Subject: Tech & Engineering
Pages: 13
Words: 3605
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13 min
Study level: College


The administrator aims to incorporate GIS to provide precise data visualizations and mapping to manage the database. A “geographic information system” (GIS) refers to generating, accomplishing, examining, and plotting all kinds of data. It attaches information to a plan, assimilating location facts (where possessions are) through all categories of descriptive evidence. The GIS will aid in understanding geographic relationships and patterns for easier maintenance and performance of the database. GIS-based plots and conceptions greatly aid in considering circumstances and storytelling. The GIS denotes the new languages that improve messages between different teams, sections, persuasions, professional grounds, administrations, and the community. Therefore, the GIS will improve efficiency, communication, and better decision-making and management. GIS utilization syndicates spatial information from countless sources with several diverse people.

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If the database is shown under Recent, users go to File > Open and create tables. If this is not the case, they browse alternatives to find the database. Select the database you want to open in the “Open dialog” box, then click Open. Press the “Tables group” table on the “Create” label. Another table is created in the database, which appears in the Datasheet view. The Construct VIEW statement is used to create database views. A single table, many tables, or another view can all be used to generate views (“SQL – Using Views,” 2022). Users should have the required system permission to build a view per the particular development. Operators right-click on “Stored Procedures” or click CTRL + N to open the query window by clicking on the Database and expanding the “Programmability” feature. Afterward, users type their Pick statement in the query section between Start and Finish to pick items from the database.

To copy a database, open the databases and right-click the database you want to copy, click Tasks, and choose Copy Database. Select Next if the greetings to the Export Data Wizard screen appear. Choose a page from the Source Server: Choose the server that contains the database you want to migrate or copy. To attach or detach a database, make sure multiple users do not access the database. Start the SQL service with -m as the startup type, which will start the service in single-user mode as shown in figure 1 below:

SQL Server
Figure 1

As shown in figure 1 above, open a command-line window and link to the Microsoft SQL Server case. Users connect to the Backup Exec instance of SQL Express by typing: osql -E -S server nameINSTANCENAME. You can also use the below-mentioned command for putting a specific database under Single User Mode instead of putting the entire instance under Single User Mode: 1> EXEC sp_dboption ‘DATABASENAME,’ ‘single user,’ ‘TRUE’ 2> Go. Stop all Backup Exec related services. Use Windows Services. msc or in Backup Exec Services Manager. Individuals detach the database by typing the following command at the OSQL prompt: 1>EXEC sp_detach_db DATABASENAME 2>Go. To attach the database, type the following command at the OSQL prompt: osql -E -S server nameINSTANCENAME 1> use master 2> go 1> sp_attach_db DATABASENAME, ‘mdf files path,’ ‘ldf files path’ 2> go

The Link Wizard and import for External source – Access Database appear for users to import data from external sources. Manipulators then start typing the data in the Source file search box or press Browse to open the “File Open” combo box. To import the information, choose import to the existing database and connect OK. To baseline the database, users first update their SQL profiler before generating migrations and run their Prisma migrate resolution knowledge for each relocation that ought to be unnoticed.

Completing the Written Report

Introduction to The Database and Database Management System

A database denotes an organized cluster of structured data, particularly electronically stored in computer systems. Databases are often monitored by DBMS to facilitate easier access, management, modification, update, monitoring, and organization of data. Databases types are categorized into relational and non-relational depending on the functionality and nature of the data to be stored. DBMS types also include relational, object-oriented, hierarchical, and network management systems. Logical data structures such as tables, indexes, and views are separated from physical data stored in relational models. As a result of this segregation, database managers can adjust physical storage space without compromising conceptual data access. Rebranding data files, for instance, does not modify the tables contained within it. Attributes in the relational database systems are the defining qualities or properties that identify all objects belonging to a specific category and are assigned to all rows in a field.

Rows are regarded as packets and contain data sets that have been assigned to a particular entity to distinguish each item. A schema denotes a grouping of data items; storing data inside a database is represented by a schema, an arbitrary design. It explains the way data is organized and the connections between database tables. Developers create a schema ahead of time to understand the components required and how they relate. Users establish schema objects like tables and indexes store data, while others, such as views and synonyms, are only definitions. Changing data to ensure it is more organized and simpler to understand is called a manipulation. The WeWin Legal Services organization has various options of databases that fit the company’s operations. Nonetheless, MySQL is the primary database the corporation prefers due to its high performance and data security. In addition, MySQL DBMS plays a vital role in retrieving, storing, and running data queries.

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Recommendations on The Tools That Can Be Used to Visualize Data

Data visualization technologies simplify the data visualization process for designers to create visual representations of large data sets. The automated visualization technique makes a developer’s work more straightforward while working with data sets. Tableau has a desktop application, server, cloud-hosted editions, and a public-free alternative. Only a handful of the data import options available include Google Adwords, XML files, Salesforce data, and Analytics data. As an output option, you can choose from a variety of chart layouts and mapping possibilities (“10 Best Data Visualization Tools in 2020 “, 2022). Hence, designers could create color-coded maps that provide regionally essential data in a more consumable format than a table or chart. There are various possible applications of Tableau Public, ranging from reporters to political pundits to individuals who want to calculate and compare in their own life. They offer an extensive gallery of graphics and visuals generated with the published version to inspire others to make their own.

Numerous data import choices, mapping capabilities, a free civic form, and various video lessons that guide visitors on Tableau uses are among the Tableau usage benefits. Infogram represents a drag-and-drop visualization instrument that non-designers may also use to produce excellent data conceptions for promotion purposes, graphics, social media comments, maps, displays, and more. Google Charts is yet another visual representation of data that the database might use. Google Charts are designed for making interactive charts that can be embedded online. It uses dynamic data, and the outcomes are all Hypertext markup language and SVG; consequently, they may be observed in strategies without needing additional plugins (“10 Best Data Visualization Tools in 2020”, 2022). The data sources are Google Charts and graphs, Salesforce, Fusion Stands, and subsequent SQL records. Scatter charts, maps, bar charts, columns, histograms, pie charts, area charts, treemaps, gauges, timelines, and many other chart types are available. These graphs can be changed via easy CSS editing. Its advantages include the fact that it is free, supports a wide range of chart types, is cross-browser well-matched because it utilizes HTML5/SVG, and operates with operational data.

Effective Design of a Database

Various values guide the process involved in data modeling. The first guideline is that repeated data (redundant data) is undesirable because it occupies space and increases the likelihood of inconsistencies. The second premise is that reliability and quality of data are crucial. If a database has inaccurate data, all reports that draw data from it will display incorrect information. Thus, any choices organizations make depending on those findings are possibly incorrect. An effective database design splits your data into particular topic tables to minimize redundant data, gives Access to the information it needs to link the tables with each other as required, helps to support and assure the authenticity and precision of your data, and accommodate the data tracking and communication needs of the company. The design process includes the following steps: identifying the database’s purpose and preparing users for the next steps. The second stage is to gather all the information you would wish to store in the system, including product title and item number, and then find and organize it. The information is divided into central units or themes in the third stage.

The fourth stage entails converting information items into columns by determining the company’s information in each table. Each entry is twisted to the ground and revealed as a table column. A workers table, for instance, might have elements like Last Title and Hire Period. The primary key for each table is chosen in the fifth stage; product Identifier or Grants are two examples. Setting up table relationships is the sixth phase, which requires looking at every table and determining the evidence in one folder linked to the material in other columns. As desirable, add columns to fields or hypothesize new rows to explain relationships. Users can then fine-tune their design by looking for flaws, establishing tables, and adding a few rows of sample data. Inspecting the tables plays a significant role in allowing users to see if they can obtain the desired outcomes. Adjust the design as needed, and then run the data validation rules to determine if the tables are correctly formed. Make any necessary updates to the tables.

Database Design Lifecycle

The lifecycle shows how a database has evolved through time in a computer system. The life cycle begins with an analysis of the requirements and finishes with supervision and adjustment; the life cycle includes all phases required to develop a database. Since database surveillance, development, and management are all included in the cycle, and the activities keep going with a good performance and usage, the DBLC rarely stops. Database life span depicts how databases have evolved in computer systems over time. The cycle begins with the requirements analysis and includes all aspects of database design (“The Database Life Cycle,” 2022). The procedure involved in creating a database begins with a thorough study of the corporation’s business processes, boundaries, involved user groups, data requirements, and examples of published or existing documents. Therefore, the evidence must be obtained via interviews, inspections, and examination of various documents, including reports, questionnaires, and extra relevant records. A questionnaire is vital in gathering information from a large number of people. You can fully and accurately characterize users’ data necessities by collecting relevant facts.

Designing Databases requires users to conduct the conceptual design dependent on the consequences of the evidence analysis stage. There stand two methods to database strategy: entity-relationship paradigms are used in the top-down design. The design procedure commences with classifying objects, then transfers to interactions between units, and finally to cardinality or diversity. The bottom-up design uses the normalizing technique (“The Database Life Cycle,” 2022). Recognizing attributes is the first step in the design process, then organizing them into data sets to build relationships. The two methods are mutually helpful. The conceptual data modeling step of the design process is trailed by the rational designing of data and applied scheming database segment. If a DBMS is not installed, it must undergo installation first before implementation and be positioned on an existing or new server. Cloud database services, such as Microsoft’s Azure DBMS Service, Amazon RDS, or Google’s Cloud SQL, are options.

Following the installation of the DBMS, users build a database in the chosen DBMS using the database language SQL to accomplish and establish data where various relationships exist. Numerous DBMSs provide a graphical tool enabling database construction without typing SQL queries. Data essentially requires being entered into database tables as data from prior systems must be introduced. Transferring data to the data store can be performed easily if all information is in a similar relational database arrangement (“The Database Life Cycle,” 2022). The database is also tested and evaluated by administrators and application developers. Upkeep of the database. When a particular database gets life, it is checked to determine if the presentation standards are encountered, and user prospects rise in reply to higher presentation anxieties. Or else, changes are necessarily made to increase performance.

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Database administrators maintain databases regularly since people’s data frequently change, and maintenance includes eliminating the old and outdated data from the database. Several of the routine maintenance actions required include preventative maintenance is essential (backup), m Maintenance that corrects a problem (restoration), maintenance that adapts to the situation, access permissions are assigned and maintained for new and existing users, database access statistics are used to improve system audit efficiency and usability, as well as to track system performance. Security audits are regularly based on statistics produced by the system (“The Database Life Cycle,” 2022). For budgeting purposes, compile a monthly, quarterly, or annual summary of the system’s utilization. As needs change, additional adjustments may be required. Inspection, redesign, and modification are all part of the life cycle.

Effects of Poor Database Design

Various information tables are thrown everywhere, and changes must be publicized in various places. When a database is poorly designed, the content may be partially full; it appears in a specific table. The database may be unpredictable or uncertain information (poly interpretable), implying the database is highly complex and hacked in various ways since the designer made things much more convoluted than they needed to be. The database includes ‘hidden’ data, comprising the table columns’ order. The database is slow, restrictive, and hard to expand, and it cannot handle all real-life scenarios (“Database Normalization – Consequences of Bad Design | Database Tutorial 6g”, 2022). Wrong data structure contributes to countless problems down the road, including weak results, failure to create significant modifications, and low-quality information, which result in costly sources as the system evolves. Information is redundantly stored, consuming storage space, making it harder to ensure data integrity when upgrading the system, and consuming time. Additional constraints are required to ensure data integrity, such as ensuring that redundant data is consistent and insert, updating, and deleting anomalies.

Tools That Can Be Used to Visualize Data

Data scientists, investigators, actuaries, and other experts can use Tableau to evaluate data and draw clear conclusions from their results. Tableau is famous for its capacity to rapidly control large amounts of data and produce the necessary data visualization results while retaining security, knowing that security flaws will be rectified when they arise or are identified by individuals. Before generating graphs and charts that can be shared with several Tableau administrators, users can prepare, filter, and organize their information with Tableau. Tableau also denotes a data visualization software that can be utilized by data consultants or overall company teams and organizations. Looker may examine the data and derive useful information (“10 Best Data Visualization Tools in 2020 “, 2022). It provides organizations with actual data displays for broad study, making swift decisions based on data visualizations. Looker also links to Redshift, Big Query, Snowflake, and over 50 SQL languages, making it simple to attach to several folders. These conceptions may be viewed and downloaded in any arrangement. It also has customer support, where you may ask any question and have it addressed. You may get a price quote by completing a form.

Zoho Analytics allows users to build beautiful data visualizations depending on their data quickly. Users may combine data from numerous sources to build multiple database visualizations that allow viewing of company data from multiple perspectives. Sisense describes data visualization systems based on occupational aptitude that bid various apparatuses to aid data analysts to abridge complex data and acquire ideas for their company and strangers. Sisense assumes that every commercial will be driven by its data at long last, and each service will be somehow related to data (“10 Best Data Visualization Tools in 2020”, 2022). As a result, it makes every effort to deliver different techniques to business assemblies and data forecasters to support renovating their administrations to data-driven future enterprises. Sisense is very simple to install and use since it utilizes a short time for set up, enabling data scientists to acquire their jobs accomplished and get outcomes almost directly. It also permits users to publish their records in various arrangements, including MS Word, PowerPoint, Excel, and PDF. Sisense further proposes full-time purchaser support when users face problems.

IBM Cognos Analytics is the fifth visualization tool users may use in a database. IBM Cognos Analytics provides data analytics and allows users to examine and analyze data and share valuable intelligence with anybody in a company (“10 Best Data Visualization Tools in 2020”, 2022). Qlik Sense Qlik Sense provides an array of a data analytics platform, an advanced Artificial Intelligence scheme, and a scalable inter construction that consents organizations to implement any SaaS mixture, private cloud, or on-premises to help businesses become data-driven enterprises. Dominik Domo is a centralized platform where you companies can conduct analysis of data and generate visuals that help others comprehend your findings (“10 Best Data Visualization Tools in 2020”, 2022). In the Domo dashboard, you may blend cards, text, and photos to lead others through the information while presenting a data role as they live. Microsoft Power BI (version 8) Microsoft Power BI aims to instill an information business analytics culture in today’s businesses. To that end, it provides self-service analyses tools for analyzing, aggregating, and sharing meaningful information

Conclusion and Recommendation for Database Maintenance

To ensure the maintenance of various databases, companies should perform Index Disk fragmentation, File System Upkeep, Document Compaction, and Authenticity Checking. SQL databases indexes work similarly to the Roman Number digits in a store. Each Professional database table has at least one indexed field that users can utilize to retrieve a specific value when they request specific information from SQL (“Database Maintenance Explained – OfficeTools,” 2022). Well-designed indexes can improve the performance of a query since indexing and maintaining them is crucial. Hard disks and indexes are both fragments. Therefore, instead of being kept in a single cohesive formal parameter, the address is divided into numerous portions (possibly THOUSANDS) and scattered across the memory. And similar to computer hard drives, a fragmented database becomes extremely slow. Depending on the extent to which the index is poor, maintenance methods evaluate it for usage, size, and disintegration, and then perform an INDEX Reconstruction ONLINE, INDEX Rearrange, or perhaps an INDEX Restoration OFFLINE. SQL database log files record every transaction that occurs inside the database.

Users may truly recover a database to its original way using these log files. As a result, if something terrible happens to a database, users can restore their data to its state before the event. As a result, the file systems are critical components, and they need special attention. As users add more content to their database, their log records will logically grow. Organizations may condense the VLFs to reclaim our previous performance (“Database Maintenance Explained – OfficeTools,” 2022). The file size grows and shrinks as you utilize your SQL database. When the file requires extra space, it expands by a specific amount. As data is entered into the database, it is saved to any location with sufficient memory. Regrettably, data from a similar table is not always kept near other information from a similar table.

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Performing ‘Data Compaction’ reorganizes the data by combining all related data. The process clusters data and can free users’ space within the file, which the operating system can then use as free storage space on your hard drive. A database will undergo multiple changes throughout time. Tables would be entered, edited, and removed, and data would be introduced and removed (“Database Maintenance Explained – OfficeTools,” 2022). The entire schema of the database will change. There will be new indexes generated, rebuilt, removed, and re-constructed. Columns of data will be added, changed, and removed. The database gets updated regularly for the rest of its duration. Every change, therefore, has the potential to contaminate the system without considering how modest it is. Indexed pages may be destroyed, tables may have erroneous entries, and the design may contain improper references. These numerous types of corruption can occur, from modest performance issues to serious schema breakdown and data loss. Checking for further integrity reviews the entire database, finding and correcting most corruption. The integrity check is the most potent tool against disastrous data loss.


This report explored databases and DBMS by briefly explaining what a database is and a DBMS, including their various categories; relational and non-relational databases. The second part of the report recommended the tools users may use to visualize data, including the Tableau software, google charts, and Klipfolio. The third segment described how a database could be designed effectively by splitting data into tables to prevent redundancy. The fourth part outlines the database cycle, which starts with an analysis of the requirements and finishes with supervision and adjustment. The life cycle includes all of the phases required to develop a database. The fifth section analyzed the effects of poorly designing a database, including data redundancy and loss of data integrity. The next part explored visualization tools in general, while the last part explained database maintenance recommendations, including performing Index Disk fragmentation, File System Upkeep, Document Compaction, and Authenticity Checking. Ensuring data integrity in a database is crucial since it eliminates data losses.


10 Best Data Visualization Tools in 2020 – GeeksforGeeks. (2022). GeeksforGeeks. Web.

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Theoretical Computer Science (2020). Database Normalization – Consequences of Bad Design | Database Tutorial 6g [Video] YouTube. Web.