General definition of the types of research methods
The Traditional Academic Research method involves elucidating, foretelling and scheming educational experiences (Mills, 2011). There are two methods of data collection that can be used in Action Reaction Research and they are quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative research involves collecting numerical data in a controlled manner to test theories (Mills, 2011). On the other hand, qualitative research uses narratives or descriptive approaches to collect data (Mills, 2011). The qualitative model is the best research method for action-reaction studies although there are other options like the mixed-method design. Therefore action-reaction research can use both quantitative and qualitative methods in the same study (Mills, 2011).
Action-reaction is an organized inquiry conducted by teachers, researchers, principals, and school counselors among other stakeholders (Mills, 2011). This model of research is meant to help the involved parties to understand teaching and learning environments. It helps in gathering information that can show how the school operates in reference to the methods used in teaching as well as the quality of learning in schools (Mills, 2011). Action-reaction has two major goals,
- to improve children’s lives
- to enhance teaching skills
It is divided into three different models i.e. Critical Action Research, Socially Responsive Research, and Practical Action Research.
Interviews are the most common sources of data in most qualitative studies. Interviewing methods are divided into two different types. An interview can be closed or open- ended depending on the goals of the study. However, in Action-reaction studies, the best type that can be used is the open ended interview (Mills, 2011). This is mostly done through a Person-to-Person format although it can also be appropriate to have group interviews. In an action-reaction study, the researcher needs to capture the real response from the interviewee.
When a researcher uses predetermined questions, the answers may not capture additional data outside the scope of his/her questions. a person-to-person interview is very effective in action-reaction studies because it enables a one-on-one conversation. The advantages of a one-on-one conversation are unlimited. It is easier to tell when a respondent is giving factual or inaccurate information and it gives the researcher an opportunity to grill the respondent for more clarification.
Observation is a research method that involves spending enough time while observing a subject. Using this method, one can take notes or record the events that are happening in the research setting. Taking notes is one of the commonly used methods. However, with the current technology, researchers are considering other options such as using cameras (Mills, 2011). In an action reaction study, the best method of observations is taking notes. Recording makes most respondents nervous and this can comprise the quality of the data collected.
Observation and note taking are the most appropriate methods especially in a research that involves students and other school shareholders. To collect data about human behaviors, researchers prefer collecting raw data discreetly (Mills, 2011). This helps them to gather real and authentic data since the respondents are not aware that they are being watched. Therefore, a responded will be in her normal state as the research is in progress. Data is collected from an observation-room or a concealed surveillance mirror. However, this is not a common strategy. Most researchers prefer having a notebook and a paper to record what they see.
Mills, G. (2011). Action research 4TH ed. Boston, MA: Pearson. Web.