Descriptive Statistics on Aviation Security Threats

Subject: Sciences
Pages: 4
Words: 1362
Reading time:
5 min
Study level: College


Aircraft cybersecurity threats have been an increasing area of interest to aviation due to advancements in technology that complicate the operations and delivery of services in the aeronautics industry. With improvement in the operations systems from both in the ground and airline operations, there is increased interconnectivity between various points of communication hence the possibility of cybersecurity attacks.

Currently, most organizations worldwide are focusing on strengthening the weakening points in terms of their communication and the delivery systems to safeguard their operations and protect their aircraft from the frequent attacks experienced (White House, 2018). Therefore, the statistics presented in this study explain the relationship between offering pilot and crew training and the reduction of cybersecurity threats usually experienced in most aircraft operations.

The data was collected from the training conducted on the pilots and crews from different periods and later presented to demonstrate the key descriptive statistics such as the mean, standard deviation, and variances. The dataset aimed to respond to the key research question and show the relationship between the variables. Therefore, the data analyzed and presented conclude that regular pilot and crew training combat the potential of cyber security threats among the aircraft operations.

Data Source

The data represents values from knowledge tests administrated arbitrarily on 150 pilots and crew from Triple, R aviation industry of Colorado. A fictitious data set has been created to explain and interpret how conducting training to the stakeholders can help mitigate aircraft cybersecurity threats. The key sites used in generating the reports included the government accountability office (GAO), the federation aviation administration (FAA), and the NITS.

The data analyzed comprises the results from training conducted from various institutions expressed in Likert scale from 1-10 and 1-50 for five years between 2015-2020. According to the data collected and presented, there is a general conclusion that the high values presented reflected that when training is conducted on the stakeholders, there is a potential decline in the threats posed by cybersecurity in the aviation industry since most of the pilots and crew should be aware of the causative agents and develop a strong mechanism towards preventing their effects.

Data Type

The discrete data is arranged using the performance outcomes of the pilot test and the crew tests conducted and administered at each period separately. The pilot scores have been ranked from 1-50 to indicate that the highest performance was 50 and the lowest was 1, while the crew test was administered on a scale of 1-10 to demonstrate that the highest performer would score 10 and the lowest score 1.

The number of participants was 150, and they scored various marks according to their ability. Through the marks scored by each participant, we can generalize that there was an understanding of the cybersecurity threats among the stakeholders involved in the industry. We collected the data periodically and in session, based on the different times the tests were administered amongst the participants.

Research Question

What effect does pilot and crew training have in combatting aircraft cybersecurity threats? The response from this question forms the basis of understanding how the security attacks endanger airline operations and affect stakeholders’ performance, such as the pilot and crew. The data analysis was used to evaluate the effect of conducting pilot and crew training in alleviating the cybersecurity threats specifically on the Colorado aviation industry.

Data Analysis

The data was downloaded from the GAO website and FAA library sites and extracted in the form of M.S. Excel spreadsheets which changed to reflect the requirements of this study. The data collected were then entered into SPSS, from which we extracted descriptive statistics. The results were expressed using the available data of 150 participants from both the crew and pilots’ teams. The analyzed data was presented in figures 1, 2, and 3 to demonstrate the performance outcome from each set of questions administered.

The SPSS generated a report including all the descriptive statistics such as the range, minimum, maximum, sum, mean, standard deviation, and variance. After analyzing the data, we compared each case to show the relationship between each independent variable (pilot and crew training) against the dependent variable (cybersecurity threats). The comparison involved the real effects of training on airline traffic and aviation industry cybersecurity threats.

Data Interpretation

The total number of individuals under the study who took part in the knowledge test was 150, and each participant was tested differently from the others. The range between values presented varied significantly since the two sets of data gave different range sets. From the sample of 150 tests conducted from the various regions and institutions, the range of crew training outcomes was 6 from a scale of 1-10 while the pilot training outcome was 34 from a scale of 10-50, indicating that most of the individuals trained performed in the cybersecurity tests administered.

The crew performance outcome recorded a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 7, while the pilot training outcome recorded a minimum and maximum of 5 and 39, respectively. The maximum and minimum performance outcome is essential in analyzing the key parameters of combatting cyber security threats using training. The federal aviation association notes that when the pilots and crew are trained sufficiently on the potential threats, there would be a likelihood of reduced attacks on the aviation industry.

The standard deviation of the pilot training outcome was 4.286, while the standard deviation of the crew performance was 1.641. in addition, the means from each set of performance were 31.81 and 4.07, respectively, indicating a higher knowledge performance from the training conducted. Using the confidence level of 10%, the standard errors of the mean were.350 and.134 from each set of the performance.

The statistics form the base of answering a key question on the effect of conducting pilot and crew training on cybersecurity attacks. The implication of the knowledge imparted on the crew indicates a reduced occurrence of aircraft security threats. These results indicated that conducting regular training on the pilots and crew could significantly combat Colorado’s widespread aircraft cybersecurity attacks.

Summary of Research Findings

Descriptive Statistics
N Range Minimum Maximum Sum Mean
Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic
pilot training results 150 34 5 39 4771 31.81
crew training outcome 150 6 1 7 610 4.07
Valid N (list wise) 150

Figure 1: Range, sum, and means

Descriptive Statistics
Mean Std. Deviation Variance Skewness Kurtosis
Std. Error Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic
pilot training results .350 4.286 18.372 -3.103 .198 15.174
crew training outcome .134 1.641 2.694 .030 .198 -.736
Valid N (list wise)

Figure 2: Means, standard deviation, variance, and skewness

Descriptive Statistics
Std. Error
pilot training results .394
crew training outcome .394
Valid N (list wise)

Figure 3: Kurtosis and standard error


The data indicates potential recognition of the frequent cyber security attacks in the aviation industry after training the stakeholders involved in both aircraft operations and safe handling. Conducting training for both the pilots and the crew assists them in identifying the key areas which are likely to be affected by these attacks in the industry and effectively improving them (NIST, 2020). When consistent training is conducted on the recent developments in the aviation industry and the potential risks, there would be reduced cases in future operations, which would positively impact the airline operations.

In addition, the knowledge imparted to the crew and the pilots enable them to develop various strategies to deal with the potential threats and risks issues that are consistently experienced in the aviation industry. In Colorado, most of the threats that have been reported in the aviation industry involve data losses from airplanes, hiked flight prices as a result of wrong data usage, and other internet-related challenges such as the WIFI associated problems.

Therefore, these risks and cyber threats can be managed when all the stakeholders involved are well trained and advised on the key mechanisms to adopt when faced with such challenges (GAO, 2019). In conclusion, offering training to these crew and pilots requires the involvement of all participants in the industry. Technological advancement assists in identifying the threats, and therefore, there is a need to involve and integrate the technology in training conducted to the pilots and crew.


Daniel, R. C. (2019). Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community testimony before the Senate select committee on Intelligence (116th Cong. 1st session). Directorate of National Intelligence Worldwide.

GAO. (2019). Critical Infrastructure Protection: Actions needed to address significant cybersecurity risks facing the electric grid. Government Accountability Office.

NIST. (2020). Managing Information Security Risk: Security and privacy controls for federal information systems and organizations (Rev. 7). NIST Special Publication: Special Publication, 800-39.

White House. (2018). National strategy for aviation security of the United States of America. Aviation Industry Journals.