Evolution of Personal Standards for Choosing a Spouse

Subject: Sciences
Pages: 19
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Study level: PhD


The contemporary world is multicultural although the global changes and transformations in human activities have enhanced mutual dependence and mutual bond amongst individuals of different cultures (Perilloux et al., 2011). Whilst efforts to enhance multiculturalism among nationalists and immigrants are currently underway across the world, the notion of cultural diversity continues to elicit heated discourses. Although the 1960s marked an important moment when several interconnected and mutually supporting socioeconomic, cultural, and technological factors among different communities merged to form modern families, cultural differences between the easterners and Americans are still eminent. Conventionally, research assumes that marriage is one of the fundamental cultural aspects that impel successful acculturation between two different communities (Perilloux et al., 2011). Cultural backgrounds of people have a significant influence on several human social aspects and marriage is one of the social and ritual practices that influence human lives. Akin to immigration, education is one of the modern issues that force culturally differing individuals to interact.

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The majority of the modern societies, especially in the developing economies, continue to anticipate Americanization including adopting several socioeconomic and cultural aspects that seem to influence their entire lives (Perilloux et al., 2011). The ethnic Arab communities continue to increase in millions in population with a number of them scattered across the United States of America (Perilloux et al., 2011). While the American cultural influence continues to manipulate several nations with the increasing emigrational trends and other nations supporting multiculturalism, cross-cultural differences between the Americans and Asians prevail tranquility. Almost all the Arabic nations constantly disprove the American culture influence and rarely tolerate any form of Americanization and perceptions of the Americans against the Arabs and Islamism are nonetheless pessimistic (Buunk et al., 2008). Although it is political and economic capital, Kuwait is among the Eastern Asian countries that remain independently and culturally rooted in the notion of global transformation and it has remained subservient to their mainstream Islamism culture.

Cultural disparities or cross-cultural differences between the American adolescents and youths nearing matrimony are becoming eminent and this aspect seems to attract the attention of social work research into examining their perceptions on different lifestyle issues (Buunk et al., 2008). Following such cross-cultural differences among students who are mainly adolescents, the issue is eliciting different reactions in higher institutions where students begin understanding issues about spousal selection and marriage affairs. Wiesel and Al-Krenawi (1999) appreciate that the perceptions about marital quality and choices vary across different cultures. With each of the cultural groups having dissimilar cultural standards, their perceptions against culturally-rooted issues including marriage and spousal selection always demonstrate some divergence. American-Asian studies indicate that Muslim and American adolescents continue to demonstrate significant disparities in their insights concerning the selection of their spouse, marriage expectations, and even attitude towards love (Wiesel & Al-Krenawi, 1999). Although it is becoming evident as research grows, little knowledge exists on differences in marital preferences between Asians and Americans.

Description of the problem

While the Americans continue to Americanize the world, cultural conservancy in many eastern Arabic nations remains an undisputable issue that influences many families and adolescent life behaviors (Macdonald & Jessica, 2006). Numerous contemporary studies have deepened their interests in examining the concept of Arab awakening in terms of political power and economic supremacy and their strained relationship with the United States, but the cultural disparity amongst them continues to receive minimal attention. Notwithstanding the significant educational exposure in higher institutions, adolescents from eastern communities have persistently demonstrated familial and religious influences on their spousal selection, courtship, and mating behaviors (Buunk et al., 2008). Contrarily, their American counterparts demonstrate high levels of maturity, autonomy, and resilience towards cultural courtship and marriage. Although the Arabic and American adolescents have some significant ethically grounded disparities in their standards of choosing their spouses and deciding their marriage providence, little remains are known about it (Apostolou, 2007). Therefore, there is a need to examine this issue.

Significance and rationale of the problem

Social work stretches beyond health matters and family affairs including family relations are core to the continuity of the social work realm (Macdonald & Jessica, 2006). Marriage is a family, legal, cultural, as well as a social entity where personal preferences grounded on emotional and affection attraction is an important facet to consider. While the world continues to transform into significant advancements, countries are existing on mutual dependence, and hence the notion of multiculturalism becomes an essential factor (Macdonald & Jessica, 2006). Cultural diversity is a social concern and it extends beyond learning institutions and the idea of cultural influence on an individual’s selection of spouse, courtship, and marriage is integral to understanding. Kuwait University (KU) and the US University of Kentucky (UK) are international institutions, but they are located in regions that culturally differ and this aspect motivated the study to examine the impact of cultural differences on spousal selection. While marriages happen often, little is known about the influence of cultural backgrounds on spousal selection and the future of marriage.

Family influence on an adolescent’s marriage decisions and cultural differences are two issues that this social scientific inquiry seeks to examine. With the existing cultural disparities, no one can refute that culture affects and shapes an individual’s perception on how to select and treat a spouse and regard marriage and family (Buunk et al., 2008). Even though mate choices influenced by genetic relatives may not have detrimental repercussions on two married couples, socio-scientific research indicates that spouses may struggle with unforeseen health implications in the future. Perilloux et al. (2011) assert, “Health may be a more salient adaptive problem for parents because health concerns generally increase over the lifespan” (p.257). With culture potentially affecting the social living of individuals and even bringing some health repercussions during the marriage life, constantly reexamining the impact of cultural dimensions on the lives of individuals is essential (Perilloux et al., 2011). Essentially, higher institutions have become centers where real courtship and possible marriage occur, hence the need to explore this idea.

Purpose of the study

Whilst marriages and courtships are cultural practices that occur frequently in day-to-day living, certain cultural aspects are known to determine the course of the courtships remain largely unknown (Al-Nasr, 2011). Kuwait is an Arabic eastern nation grounded on cultural leadership and cultural conservancy, but universities open ways through which traditions collapse and multiculturalism occur (Al-Nasr, 2011). In their modern transformations, Kuwaitis have awakened to new courtship styles that have elicited sharp reactions amongst the communities (Al-Nasr, 2011). The tenet purpose of this study is to examine the influence of culture on an individual’s standard preference on choosing a spouse. In retrospection to the concept, the purpose is to examine the differences between Arabian students and American students in terms of their standards when choosing their marriage partners. The research will expound on the notion of the connection between certain cultural background aspects of students from the eastern world in comparison to those of their counterparts from the United States.

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Whilst issues regarding passionate love grounded on sexual desires and intimate relationships are among mate selection strategies for the contemporary youths, the matter is eliciting different cultural, social, and even religious debates (Al-Nasr, 2011). Universities being significant meeting points where culturally different adolescents converge and interact socially, highlighting the issues about marriage, multiculturalism, and cultural disparities are also fundamental issues to this study. The study examines whether there are significant differences between students from KU and the UK on matters about their selection of spouses. If there are cultural differences, the interest of this study to analyze also hinges upon examining these differences and their possible impacts on the courtships, selection of spouses, and possibly mating behaviors among students. If there are no significant cultural differences among these university students and potential couples, then the study will aim at examining the reasons as to why a majority of the Kuwait students are currently shifting from their traditions towards adopting the American culture.

Research hypothesis

In investigating the research inquiry, the study will follow the following hypotheses

  • HO1: The majority of the student population thinks that culture does not harm spouse selection choice.
  • HO2: The majority of the students’ population thinks that culture does have a negative impact on choosing spouse decisions.
  • HO3: In essence, Student of KU agrees more on the cultural effects of choosing a spouse than students of the UK.

Dependent and Independent variables

The study also relies on a conceptual framework that has classes of variables, which are independent and dependent.

  • Dependent Variable – The freedom to choose the spouse
  • Independent Variable – Culture and cultural effects

Literature review

Summary of literature

This section of the proposed research discusses the accumulating literature pertaining to the influence of the culture of spousal selection and marriages and the prevailing differences between adolescents from the United States and eastern nations. The section investigates the existing literature on perceptions of previous studies on the differences between Arabian students and American students in terms of their standards in choosing their spouses. Journals and books are used as sources.

Gaps in literature

Nations with a majority of the Arab population understand that culture is one of their important life aspects that remain undisputed even despite criticisms (Rashad et al., 2005). While capitalism and transformations towards achieving American economic and cultural aspects are eminent across many Arab states, the notion of cultural marriages is deeply rooted in national and communal harmony (Hatfield & Rapson, 2005). Youths and adolescents from Arab communities have a long conviction of understanding culture and Muslimism as two inseparable communal aspects that influence their social lifestyles (Rashad et al., 2005). Youths and adolescents also understand that their Arabic and Muslim cultural values are important to their lifestyles including being influential in their courtship practices and marriage preferences (Wiesel & Al-Krenawi, 1999). The culture of Arab communities continues to influence adolescents’ attitudes towards love, mate selection processes, and even the expectations of youths regarding marriage (Al-Nasr, 2011). As love is a social concern, it is imperative to examine this issue.

The Arab belief system rests on the survival of “six main concepts namely atomism, wishes versus reality, justice and equality, faith, paranoia, and the essence of family over individuals” (Perilloux et al., 2011, p.254). From their study on the behaviors and culture of the Arab communities, Perilloux et al. (2011) state that Arabs have a sense of atomism, as they tend to view the world events as remote incidents that occur in particular moments. The Americans instead are interested in unifying concepts, as opposed to the Arabs, who focus on portions of life world aspects and not the wholeness of the aspects (Al-Nasr, 2011). The Arab faith based on Muslimism is a strong communal aspect that largely interconnects with their cultural aspects. In their wishing and reality issue, the Arabs express their emotions and affections in a persuasive manner and animated design (Al-Nasr, 2011).

Another cultural concept envisaged in the Arabic culture that possibly interconnects with the marriage and courtship issue is the notion of justice and equality among community members (Zechenter & Bockiu, 1997). Arabs value equity, justice among Muslims, and are less concerned about non-Muslims, and all unethical actions taken by the non-Arabs against their members are weighed in the context of their traditions and religious standards (Wiesel & Al-Krenawi, 1999). This aspect ultimately hampers their social interaction with other races, which forces them to remain culturally conservative. The concept of the power of Arabic families and relativism individual community members is undisputable as the Arabic communities live in tight-knit groups bound to tighter large family groups (Hatfield & Rapson, 2005). Family, relativism and communal honor and pride are paramount elements and more worth than individual reputation, and thus all individuals should respect communal cultural standards (Al-Nasr, 2011). Muslims and Arabs mistrust the Americans and are paranoiac to the American standards, thus living with suspicion of the Americans’ interest in their properties.

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Love is a two-person fondness issue and in the modern world, romantic relationship is the major basis of advanced courtships, which ultimately determines the course of the marriage and its expectations (Buunk et al., 2008). Arabs still dwell in the traditional arranged marriages in which relatives decide. As previously mentioned, the community reputation among the Arab adolescents receives more attention and tribute than the interest of individuals, youth behaviors towards courtship and spouse selection reflect cultural adherence where individual courtship and romantic love are an abomination (Buunk et al., 2008). Although families in the Arab world have awakened to major, social and cultural changes that greatly influence the emergence of new patterns of marriage and family development, norms of cultural marriage are still eminent (Rashad et al., 2005). Youths approaching marriage from Arab communities still understand that respect towards communal marriage practices and spouse selection is important, and this knowledge influences their personal preferences (Macdonald & Jessica, 2006). Arabic families thus are autonomous to the lives of individuals including influencing their relationships and marriage destinies.

Cultural studies on the Asian communities and eastern countries have frequently indicated that Muslimism and the Arabic cultural systems largely influence adolescent behaviors including their social interactions (Crockett & Voas, 2006). According to Buunk et al. (2008), many Asian communities have since historical times considered love to be an uncontrollable, precarious, and explosive affection that potentially disrupts family structures. Family approval on the kind of spouse that one should interact, engage, and marry is mainly the responsibility of relatives and families and this aspect influences the emotional dependence of the youths and adolescents in courtships (Macdonald & Jessica, 2006). The majority of the youths and adolescents in the Arab communities are rooted in traditional education about their cultural values especially during the serious adolescent ages that include their late 20s (Buunk et al., 2008). Therefore, when choosing marriage partners, adolescents in Asian and Arabic communities are cautious about the reputation of the family and the community, which subsequently affects their spouse selection behaviors.

Families are the most powerful and honorable social groups in the Arab communities, and despite personal interests, family and kinship systems are the centers of good reputation, honor, loyalty, and devotion (Apostolou, 2007). According to Rashad et al. (2005), “the family has always been at the center of life in Arab societies, held in great esteem among young and old alike” (p.1). Families form the foundation of the Arab society since history and fathers are the authority figure in these familial associations (Zechenter & Bockiu, 1997). When engaging in relationships right from their childhood, the community expects that children should continue receiving cultural education to conform to norms and traditional values of the Arab society (Buunk et al., 2008). Parents remain vigilant on the relationships of their children and in most cases attempt to control the mate choices of their children by even placing restrictions on certain social interactions (Al-Nasr, 2011). Families thus provide social security to the youths that even influence their courtship behaviors.

The Arab culture affects almost every single aspect of youths and adolescents and it goes beyond determining their dressing code that also associates with their religious convictions (Al-Nasr, 2011). With their cultural values closely connected with their religious beliefs and stipulations, the community forces the youths to understand that the dressing code of all decent women should resemble the one that their community accepts culturally (Macdonald & Jessica, 2006). As the American women’s dressing code continues to influence the entire world by growing with trends in the modern relationship patterns, the Muslim Arabic women understand that the community does not tolerate such attires (Wiesel & Al-Krenawi, 1999). Coupled with the power manifested upon the family units who have autonomy and a great role in determining the feasibility of romantic love, the male adolescents shun any dressing code that contradicts their cultural beliefs (Zechenter & Bockiu, 1997). The males have a great contempt against women dressed in the American manner and this aspect acts as a factor in selecting their love partners.

Still, on families and kinship ties, it is clear that such elements influence and determine the viability of a youths’ romantic relationship, social organization, and social behaviors (Apostolou, 2008). The female adolescents and children undergo strict familial guidance and the only way to ensure that their daughters remain marketable; parents always ensure vigilance to keep their virginity, veiling throughout, physical seclusions, and other physical constraints (Ingoldsby et al., 2003). For the male adolescents, veiled women demonstrate individual respect and devotion to their culture as compared to those in American clothing (Zechenter & Bockiu, 1997). This practice assures men that these women have the desired qualifications to make the most appropriate lifetime couple to bring up families with. Women as well disapprove of any form of relationship that does not respect the stipulations of religion and important cultural values for the Arabic society (Apostolou, 2008). For most of their lives, Arabic youths remain influenced by families in their courtship behaviors.

Although both approach a similar lane through the current cultural transformations that seem to influence the world into moving in the same direction, the American culture differs distinctively from the Arabs culture (Wiesel & Al-Krenawi, 1999). Familial ties, kinship systems, community cohesion, old conventional ideologies, and unnecessary commitment to traditions in the modern Americans are foregone issues, with youths accorded maximum freedom and autonomy (Hatfield & Rapson, 2005). Straight from the notion of Americanization, which has its roots in the United States, the social behaviors of the youths and adolescents from the United States communities behave differently not only compared to their Arab counterparts but several other world races (Macdonald & Jessica, 2006). Relationships within Americans have remained grounded to the notion that the prevalence of romantic love is without contempt the most appropriate manner in which partners remain bonded for a long time marriage (Macdonald & Jessica, 2006). Families and parents respect their children’s interests and this influences their courtship behaviors.

Great contrast between the Americans and the easterners (Asians) exists in the way individuals interact with their families, and whereas Asians stick to family ties, the Americans have little attention to their relatives (Abe, 2004). In a cross-cultural study that examined Chinese and Americans’ perceptions of romantic love, Hatfield and Rapson (2005) revealed that the “concept of romantic love fits in well with a North American cultural perspective but not with a Chinese cultural orientation” (p.233). The issue is not exceptional with most Asian countries where the Arab countries are inclusive. In the American culture that has evolved significantly towards complete modernity, personal feelings and romantic affection towards a relationship determine one’s choice of spouse and his/her marriage commitments (Wiesel & Al-Krenawi, 1999). According to Abe (2004), while Arab adolescents fear social seclusion due to a breach of cultural standards, the American youths enjoy independence and avoid love distress and give much attention and respect to their romantic partners.

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Both the American parents and their offspring understand that romantic love is universal and they assume that people across the world appreciate individuals’ attitudes and perceptions towards a social affair (Buunk et al., 2008). Choosing whom to interact with, engage with, and even mate within the American culture is a requisite of the two partners to make it a mutual decision, and families rarely have an objection (Apostolou, 2008). While Arab communities and families scorn close relationships between different sexes among the youth as required by their cultural values, the American culture allows great freedom and self-autonomy, which determine the social organization structures (Crockett & Voas, 2006). Early entrepreneurship and financial capability among American adolescents allow them to have adequate independence over individual social welfare, which allows them to be extra autonomous on their social affairs (Abe, 2004). With the financial stability realized early among the male youths, the Americans possess higher independence on social security that influences their autonomy on their lifestyles including courtships.

An evolving assumption in cross-cultural studies indicates that the extent of individual freedom varies significantly depending on the degree of the socioeconomic organization across the cultural setups (Zechenter & Bockiu, 1997). Individuals “living in non-stratified communitarian societies have a relatively high degree of independence from the group (Zechenter & Bockiu, 1997, p.337), including enjoying individual rights and countering communal power over self. The American community gives the youth self-autonomy that provides them with high self-determination on making social interaction decisions including their attitudes towards love, mate selection processes, and their expectations regarding marriage (Wiesel & Al-Krenawi, 1999). Modern lifestyle is integral in the exposure of youths towards certain social interactions and as the Arabs condemn alcohol, American cultures are liberal to this practice among the youths. Al-Nasr (2011) postulates that dressing and choice of attire is an individual choice in the American culture, thus youths in the American communities adore stylish modern dressing that also influences the form of spousal selection and courtship behaviors.

Theoretical perspective

Theories on human evolution and its implications on social organizations have developed significantly over years and are frequently impelled by changes in human behaviors across ethnic communities (Buunk et al., 2008). Interest in understanding human conflicts arising from cultural differences and ethical disparities placed evolutionary psychologists into identifying several implications within families (Perilloux et al., 2011). The parent-offspring conflict theory (POCT) is one of the integral theories in human revolutionary theories that best suits the investigation of cultural influences on spouse selection between Americans and Asians. Schlomer et al. (2011) developed the parent-offspring conflict theory that aimed at providing an evolutionary framework that enhances an understanding of the prevailing conflict with human families regarding youth’s spouse selection. In their perception, Schlomer et al. (2011) appreciate that conflict in human social life shapes and permeates an extensive range of family processes, with the spouse selection process being one of the potential sources of misunderstanding amongst members of the same family or community.

The initial conception of the parent-offspring conflict theory developed from an earlier version of Triver in 1974, who defined parental investment (PI) as any form of investment by a parent on an individual offspring that enhances chances of the progeny survival and hence manipulating even its reproductive success at the expense of parent’s ability (Schlomer et al., 2011). The theory postulates that given the inability of the offspring to possess self-maximum social security in which economic stability is essential, most likely maternal manipulation extends even in their social interaction (Buunk et al., 2008). Apart from offering social support and investment, as it seems evident in the Arabic societies, parents will be impelled to control their offspring affairs including being attentive to their children’s mates (Schlomer et al., 2011). As Buunk et al. (2008) postulate, “parents may be especially attentive to traits suggesting that the potential mate of their children will contribute to family and group cohesion” (p.58).

Statement of research questions

The core intent of the research is to investigate the differences between Arab culture students and American students in terms of their standards when choosing their spouses. However, the research will have some research questions that will guide the entire research.

  1. To what extent, and how does culture influence personal standards in the selection of spouse between the Arab and the American adolescents?
  2. To what extent, if any, does Americanization influence personal standards in the selection of spouse as noticed in the modern social interaction patterns amongst the Arabs?

Research methodology

This section of the proposed research will seek to present the process of primary research that forms the basis of the research methodology. The research methodology will cover the intended research design, data collection processes and instruments, target population and sampling techniques, involved ethical research consideration for the proposed study, and the intended techniques for data analysis.

Proposed research design

Research design in scientific terminology connotes the systematic strategy of examining a scientific inquiry including all approaches and strategies involved in investigating the stated research problem (Sofaer, 2003). In investigating the underway problem, the proposed research intends to utilize a qualitative survey study design where two universities, Kuwait University (KU) and the University of Kentucky (UK), operating in culturally different regions will form the main participants of the study. Creswell (2006) understands that qualitative research normally seeks to analyze human issues from real-life experiences purposely for inductive or theory-driven research. The issue of social interaction involves real human experiences and theories have tried to develop strategies to examine the relationship between certain variables, hence qualitative research is integral in this case. Rowley (2002) asserts that survey studies are essential in examining contemporary issues in certain scientific research. Survey research design is also one of the foremost strategies relied on by health scientists and social researchers.

Research data, data collection instruments, and data gathering

Research data is the information that enriches the study on the investigation undertaken (Kelly et al., 2003). The proposed research focuses on obtaining two forms of data, which are primary data and secondary data for the entire study. Secondary data will be essential only in the literature review section, but primary research is core to the conclusion of the research. The research will collect both qualitative and quantitative data in which the two forms of data will complement each other. Since both data types will be essential, the proposed research will use both self-administered open-ended and closed questionnaires to collect qualitative and quantitative data. Questionnaires are the main source of qualitative research renowned by scientists where respondents have some familiarity and the research enjoys its affordability, cost-effectiveness, and ease in the data analysis process (Rattray & Jones, 2005). The data gathering process will take approximately three weeks of the entire research period and it will solely involve the male and female American and Kuwaiti students from the two universities.

Validity and reliability

Validity refers to the credibility of the research in terms of the information that produces the conclusion. Three validity issues are common in social and scientific researches and they include internal, external, and construct validity (Onwuegbuzie & Johnson, 2006). However, the intended research will emphasize construct validity, which covers the credibility of the data collection instruments that entail the questionnaire in this study. In a bid to identify whether the questionnaire will be effective in the actual study, the researcher will develop the questionnaire while seeking guidance from multiple sources of evidence. As Rowley (2002) suggests, important informants including the research lecturer will help in reviewing and discussing the content of the questionnaires developed. Just as Kelly et al. (2003) suggest, after a systematic review of the contents of the questionnaire, the final construct validity determination towards the questionnaire will involve undertaking a pilot study to identify the possible errors that respondents will make. After successful piloting, fixing the identified errors will help.

Target population, sampling design, and sample size

The proposed research targets both male and female American and Kuwaiti students from the UK and the KU universities respectively. Since the population is normally large and presents challenges in data collection, sampling of the targeted respondents is essential (Levy & Lemeshow, 2013). The proposed study intends to employ a purposive sampling technique, which involves identifying a specific population (students from UK and KU) and selecting specific respondents intended for the study. Since the study covers respondents from two races who link directly to the study, purposive sampling will help in identifying the specific Arabs and Americans integral to the findings of this study. Qualitative research includes qualitative surveys that are most common in social sciences (Rattray & Jones, 2005). Purposively sampled from the study, the research intends to obtain a sample size of 100 students, comprising at least equal numbers, viz. 50 American students and 50 Arabic students from KU and UK.

Research ethical considerations

This study appreciates that social sciences and research studies concerning social work entail using human beings as respondents to provide the needed information, thus ethical research standards are crucial in the entire research. Rowley (2002) postulates that the data collection phase is where the researcher expects to meet and interact with the participants and the ethical issues likely arise from this phase of the study. According to Kelly et al. (2003), “researchers should approach the data collection rigorously and ethically” (p.264). The study will ensure that respondents participate in the study through their own will, but not through coercion. Relevant authorities including the management of institutions involved should acknowledge and provide consent to the research investigations. Religious, cultural, and even social welfare of the respondents will receive maximum respect and the integrity of the respondents in the information they will produce will receive considerable attention. The researcher will not disseminate personal information without the consent of the participants.

Proposed strategies for data handling and analysis

The intent of data analysis in research studies is to put the collected information into an easily understood and coherent manner for reviewers and other users to comprehend how the research reached its conclusion. The researcher will carefully examine the data to ensure that all the questions raised in the questionnaires receive the desired attention in a bid to enhance the credibility of the information and the findings concluded. Kelly et al. (2003) suggest that appropriate statistical tests will approximately suit the analysis of quantitative data that may come in numerical form, before drawing possible relevant conclusions and discussions. Content analysis techniques, as also suggested by Rattray and Jones (2007), will be imperative in evaluating the responses coded inform of judgments, perceptions, and ideas. The two analysis techniques will provide a systematic manner in analyzing both qualitative and quantitative data collected in the study.


Expected Findings

As demonstrated in theory, this qualitative survey approach is a theory-driven approach or inductive approach that aims at examining the problem right from the theoretical approach to its contemporariness. The theory and prevailing research indicate that culture continues to be more influential in determining courtships and spouse selection amongst the easterners (Arabs and Asians), while it poses little influence on American adolescents. The findings of this study should somewhat replicate the conclusions drawn from previous studies to remain in line with the existing evolutionary theories. The study expects to find the difference between students of different cultures in their standards of choosing a spouse due to cultural effects. However, the study also expects to find a new trend among KU students moving toward different standards of choosing a spouse than the traditional ways. The assumption of the study is that Americanization is becoming a universal issue and Arabs students well exposed are finding it uneasy to deny it.

Application to practice and future implications

The study reflects on the basics of cultural diversity, which is a social arrangement that is becoming most adorable across the world. The study should assist people in understanding how cultural differences affect personal attitudes towards love, perceptions over romantic relationships, the courtship processes including the mate selection procedures, and their expectations towards marriages. It should instill the significance of having a population that acculturates through cultural diversity principles that include shunning individual and cultural differences towards social interaction patterns. To the social science realm, it should develop a perception that connects cultural differences with affected lifestyles that include unintended mate selection, although it should not reflect any essence of Americanization among communities. With the continuing political attritions, fight for economic power, internalization that remains ethically routed, religiously contested, and socially argued, it may seem difficult to bring the expected cohesiveness between Arabs and Americans. The possibility of intermarriage between these two races remains miniature.

Expected Weaknesses and limitations

The research is likely to encounter significant problems especially regarding the cooperation of the selected respondents. Whereas the study may seem to be a mere educationally purported investigation from the researcher’s perspective, there may exist fear of participation among the participants. The research expects to receive challenges in gathering data from the two racial groups as the learners may feel that the investigation has a hidden agenda. The notion of cultural influence on spouse selection is an issue argued in several studies and while some studies from the American side give their conviction about the issue, researchers may have personal interests and differences that guide their researching practice. This aspect is likely to affect the quality of the secondary data, which may provide a significantly different opinion. Kuwaitis and their youths have advanced significantly towards the American culture and students may not reveal the cultural aspects as expected in the study.


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