Human Resources Information System
GenRays has implemented a financial management system that has greatly contributed to success in its financial management. In a bid to enhance its performance in human resource management, GenRays intends to implement a new Human Resource Information System (HRIS). HRIS involves a computerized management system that assists human resource managers to collect, organize, update, store, and retrieve employee information. Consequently, the HR manager is in a position to undertake effective employee management. The HRIS will assist GenRays in its performance management efforts.In only 3 hours we’ll deliver a custom GenRays Company’s Project Management essay written 100% from scratch Learn more
Firstly, the firm’s employees will be given an opportunity to track their career progress. By accessing the HRIS, employees will also be in a position to perform other HR functions using the electronic documents saved in the systems. Consequently, the wait time to receive conventional paper is eliminated. The elimination of the manual documentation process will also contribute towards improvement in the level of organizational productivity, which will emanate from an increment in the time allocated to other projects. For example, the firm’s HR manager will focus on other important responsibilities focused on attaining organizational objectives. Therefore, the system will not only save employee time, but will also be more cost effective for the firm, which means that employees can be in a position to design their career development plans on the basis of the information stored in the HRIS database.
On the other hand, GenRays will be capable of undertaking various human resource management tasks more effectively. A high degree of transparency will be attainable in the recruitment process. The system will improve transparency by allowing employees to view and apply vacant positions in the organization. Additionally, the firm’s payroll management activities will improve tremendously. The new HRIS system will provide the firm with an opportunity to undertake payroll tasks activities automatically. Expense checks and paychecks will be processed automatically, which is relatively faster and easier hence cost effective. In the event of a mistake, it will be relatively easy for the firm to make adjustments using the auto-pay option. By accessing the system, employees will be informed on possible changes that the firm might have implemented on the payment options. Implementing the HRIS will also contribute towards the firm being more efficient in its recruitment process. The firm will be in a position to undertake effective online recruitment by selecting only the qualified candidates hence saving time and money. The need to attain the above purposes has stimulated the firm’s effort to implement the new HRIS. It is the firm’s objective that the new HRIS will positively influence work-life.
Project management knowledge areas
|Project management knowledge areas||Recommended tools||Justification for tool|
|Project integration management||Development of a cultural-fit-analysis tool||Cultural analysis tool will aid in determining the degree to which the employees will accept the new HRIS. |
Cultural analysis is appropriate in order to determine the degree to which the software will be utilized.
|Project scope management||Designing the project scope plan||The plan will aid in determining the boundaries to which the project will apply.|
|Project time management||Development of a time management plan||Time management will aid in ensuring that the project is completed within the set timeframe.|
|Project human resource management|| || |
|Project quality management|| ||Factual approach will aid in ensuring that the decision made is valid.|
|Project communication management||Development of a communication plan||Communication plan will ensure that all the stakeholders involved in implementation of the new HRIS are effectively informed on its progress. Communication plan will eliminate project breakdown.|
|Project procurement|| || |
|Project risk management||Risk management plan||The risk management plan will outline the various risks that the project manager expects to experience. Some of these risks relate to system configuration challenges and limited utilization by the employees.|
|Project cost management||Cost management plan||The cost management plan will entail undertaking cost budgeting, cost control, and resource planning.|
The new system will enable GenRays to undertake career tracking. Therefore, it will be possible for the firm to determine whether its employees’ career progresses align with the firm’s goals. Moreover, the system will improve transparency of the recruitment process in addition to promoting equal employment opportunities. The system will also enhance provision of equal employment opportunity by improving the employees’ ability to identify and apply for vacant positions in the organization.
On the other hand, by tracking the employees’ career progress, GenRays will be in a position to ensure that qualified personnel fill the vacant positions. Consequently, the firm will improve its competitiveness with regard to human capital. The HRIS will also focus at automating its payroll hence reducing mistakes such as double entry that the firm has previously experienced. Additionally, the firm will be capable of making its payroll management activities more effective, which will be attainable via integrating the new payroll system with the employee self-service system [ESS], hence enabling the firm track employee attendance and time, and thus ultimately attain its goals.
The implementation of the financial system has considerably improved the firm’s saving ability. The firm projects that the implementation of the HRIS will extensively improve the firm’s savings. The savings will be invested in projects that will fuel the firm’s growth and expansion hence improving its workplace conditions. The savings may be invested in employee training projects hence promoting employee growth and development.
This project aims at achieving a number of objectives as outlined below.Academic experts
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- To improve and modernize management of employee information
- To improve the rate of employee retention by making the workplace more comfortable
- To improve the effectiveness with which employees receive and share information
Success Criteria or Expected Benefits
The firm expects to achieve a number of benefits by implementing the new system. The new system will contribute towards improvement in a number of human resources management roles as outlined below.
- The firm’s recruitment process will improve significantly. The system will make the recruitment process broad by undertaking online recruitment; therefore, the probability of the firm hiring qualified personnel will also improve. Online recruitment will make the process cost-effective and timesaving.
- The system will enable the personnel manager to undertake his or her calculation on employee benefits automatically hence saving time and money.
- The system will improve the effectiveness with which GenRays undertakes human resource planning activities. The system will increase the firm’s savings due to its auto-fill functionality. Employees will complete the necessary HR management files automatically.
The budget for the entire project will be determined through an appropriation method. The project manager expects the cost of the project to remain constant in the entire course of its implementation. GenRays appreciates the fact that the implementation of such a project will consume a substantial amount of money. Consequently, the firm’s Finance Department has set aside $103,000 in its annual budget to foresee the implementation of the HRIS project. This amount also includes all the procurement that will be undertaken.
The main deliverables intended to be achieved in this project include the development of a comprehensive work package detailing the project activities and expected outcome at various stages. In addition to work package, another major deliverable for the project will entail the attainment of a high rate of utilization for the new HRIS. Other deliverables in the project will include the necessary recruitment requirements, development of an effective project analysis, and monitoring tool coupled with the development of a career self-service module by the employee, which will allow employees to track their performance.
Project scope management
Project scope management constitutes an important component of project planning. The objective of scope management is to ensure that the desired outcomes are attained. Effective designing of a project scope contributes towards the attainment of a high level of satisfaction amongst the target group. According to Ghuman (2010), project scope outlines the extent to which various project activities are undertaken. In the process of project scope management, it is important for project managers to ensure that the project is divided into small, manageable, and deliverable components.
Scope management also entails authorization of a particular project with the relevant authority. A scope statement detailing the foundation upon which future decisions related to the project will be made is also formulated at this phase. Some of the parties involved in the formulation of project scope include the steering committee and sponsors.
Customer requirements and characteristics
Upon the implementation of the project, employees expect that it will contribute towards the improvement of their performance management activities. Employees will be in a position to assess their performance and thus develop an effective personal development plan. Tracking their performance will play an important role in promoting employee satisfaction hence their continued existence in the organization. Currently, the firm does not have an effective human resource information system. Employees are not in a position to access information regarding their job performance. Therefore, employees require a system that can assist them to engage in self-service.
The firm’s employees require GenRays to be effective in undertaking monitoring and reporting mechanisms, which underscores the only way that the firm can be in a position to undertake employee development. In the course of their operation, employees require GenRays to be effective in undertaking performance review management. Additionally, employees require the organization to be effective in its compensation processes.15% OFF Get your very first custom-written academic paper with 15% off Get discount
Statement of work
Kerzner (2009) defines statement of work to a statement that describes the activity to be undertaken in order to attain the desired project deliverables. Alternatively, statement of work provides a description of the activities to be undertaken in the procurement process. The implementation of the HRIS will hinge on the need to ensure that GenRays improves its functionality with regard to human resource management. A well-configured human resource information software and hardware will be paramount to ensure that the system functions appropriately. In the initiation stage, the system will be launched in the firm’s headquarters prior to being rolled to other stations. The implementation period is expected to take 6 months starting immediately after the project is approved. It is expected that all work must be completed within the set duration. However, any adjustments on the duration within which the project should take will be made formally. All the parties involved in the contracting process will be involved in reviewing the process.
During the project implementation phase, the vendor will assume the responsibility of ensuring that the necessary tasks to ensure that the system is implemented successfully. This move will aid in minimizing the probability of the project failing. The project manager will be required to develop a comprehensive project plan outlining the training plan, the transition plan, the work breakdown structure, and the timing schedule.
In the process of implementing a particular project, one of the main aspects that must be taken into account includes taking into account a number of assumptions as stated below:
- One of the major assumptions in implementing this project is that GenRays will undertake the entire project including training of the candidates. This goal will be realizable by providing the necessary financial and non-financial resources to foresee the implementation of the project. It is also expected that the project will be successfully implemented.
- It is also assumed that the firm will undertake future maintenance of the HRIS system.
- In a bid to ensure that the project has the most effective HRIS system, it is assumed that the market has a substantial number of HRIS vendors for GenRays to select from in its selection. The vendors are also expected to assist in the configuration and implementation of the software to ensure that it attains full functionality. One of the aspects that will be taken into account in the process of configuring the software will entail aligning the software to its human resource needs.
- In a bid to ensure that the new HRIS is fully implemented, it is expected that the Project Manager will receive approval from the necessary authorities.
Project managers must be prepared for possible problems that might occur in the implementation process. Consequently, project managers must appreciate the existence of risk in the project implementation process. Proactive risk identification is paramount in designing solutions to counter identified risks and challenges. Some of the main sources of risk in the process of implementing the project relate to time constraints, budget loss, resource conflicts, lack of utilization by the target users, and system configuration challenges. The project manager must develop mechanisms to mitigate the risks that occur. The specific risks expected in the process of implementing this project are outlined below.
Similar to other software implementation processes, the project manager is cognizant of the fact that the allocated budget for its implementation might not be sufficient. This aspect means that the firm might experience shortage of finances. Budget loss is a major risk in project implementation. Considering the fact that the new human resource information system is a new concept to GenRays, the firm might not purchase the required materials in totality, which means that the project will experience an additional cost. Additionally, failure to purchase the required resources may result in poor software configuration. Consequently, the firm might not fully accrue the intended benefits due to the possibility of errors in the firm’s day-to-day operations.
In a bid to deal with this challenge, the project manager will ensure that the project requirements are clearly defined. Moreover, the project will be characterized as “Top Project” in the firm’s operation, which will ensure that the project is considered as of strategic value. By giving the project a high strategic value, the risk of the budget being compromised will reduce significantly. In addition to the above issues, the following aspects will be taken into account in order to eliminate budget risk. All the project requirements will be purchased 2 months prior to the project initiation.
This risk occurs if the total cost of implementing the project is larger than what was earlier forecasted. In a bid to eliminate this risk, Microsoft Excel software will be used in determining the actual cost. This aspect will aid in eliminating possible calculation error. Additionally, it will be ensured that the most effective cost method of cost estimation is utilized. Consequently, clear budget estimates will be determined.Get your customised and 100% plagiarism-free paper on any subject done for only $16.00 $11/page Let us help you
The project manager cannot eliminate the occurrence of resource conflict. Such an occurrence can adversely affect implementation of project. In extreme situation, resource conflict might result in the entire project being deferred. Consequently, the project manager will ensure that effective Microsoft Project software is implemented to aid in effective software allocation. A contingency fund will also be set aside to ensure the mitigation of resource conflict. In the event of the project experiencing workforce shortage, the necessary personnel will be outsourced.
In most cases, projects experience time conflicts regardless of their size or complexity. Time conflicts emanate from ineffective time allocation. The occurrence of time conflicts results in the project being delayed, which might limit the attainment of the intended objective. In an attempt to mitigate this risk, a number of steps will be taken into account. Firstly, Microsoft Project Server will be used in managing the entire project, which will facilitate in identifying the most important critical paths, lags, and slacks. Considering the fact that numerous organizations are increasingly implementing HRIS, the project manager can take advantage of the tremendous amounts of data available in mitigating time conflict. The project manager will undertake a comprehensive review of the entire project in order to ensure that it aligns with the set timeline.
System configuration challenges
Considering the fact that the HRIS system is a new concept to GenRays, the firm faces the risk of the system being poorly configured. Poor configuration may arise from the fact that employee may not have sufficient knowledge regarding the new software. Additionally, the best system practice will be incorporated by ensuring that effective data documentation is followed. The data documentation from the HRIS vendor will exclusively be used in undertaking system configuration.
Failure of the new system to meet the intended needs
The project manager foresees a situation whereby the new software may fail to attain the intended objective. In such a situation, the entire project may not be launched or may be launched ineffectively. Such an occurrence may affect the employees’ morale and productivity severely. Additionally, the probability of employees supporting such a project in the future will be limited. Therefore, to deal with this constraint, the project manager will undertake a comprehensive need analysis definition, which will aid in ensuring that the project team has a comprehensive understanding of what the project targets to attain. Need analysis definition will be realizable by conducting a brainstorming session with the relevant parties. Additionally, mitigation steps will be undertaken by formulating mechanism for the firm to engage in a long-term need analysis.
System lack of buy-in
The project may also experience a challenge emanating from an ever-present risk whereby the targeted parties [GenRays employees] may fail to buy the idea. In a bid to eliminate this challenge, a number of steps should be taken and they include implementation of a comprehensive training plan, development of a training manual, which will be presented using PowerPoint, and undertaking a comprehensive system review with the relevant staff. The training plan will ensure that employees appreciate the importance of the new system and hence its implementation. All the project members will receive a training manual in order to familiarize with the system as project implementation progresses.
In the attempt to manage possible risk that might occur in the implementation process, a scale of 5 points has been developed based on their likelihood, detection difficulty, and their impact. The chart below illustrates a summary of the possible risk event.
|Risk event||Probability||Impact||Difficulty in detecting the risk||Instant at which the risk is identified.|
|Budget loss||1||5||1||Project scope definition phase|
|Resource conflict||2||3||1||System configuration and training phase|
|System configuration||3||4||3||Training and configuration phase|
|System buy in||2||4||3||Training and configuration phase|
|Inability to meet the desired need||2||3||3||Launch|
|System buy-in||2||3||4||Launch phase|
In the process of implementing projects, it is difficult to eliminate constraints. Consequently, the project manager will experience a number of constraints. One of the major constraints that the project manager will experience relates to the existence of time and financial constraints. Project implementation requires a substantial amount of finances. Consequently, an organization implementing a particular project is expected to ensure that enough money for the project is allocated in its budget.
However, the amount allocated in the budget may not be enough due to economic changes. Therefore, the amount that an organization might have allocated may deviate due to such occurrences. In such situations, the project manager should ensure that a contingency plan exists to counter such unforeseen events. This move will minimize the probability of project failure. However, it is assumed that GenRays will provide sufficient funds to ensure that the project does not stall. GenRays expects that the project will be operational within one year. However, this milestone might not be attainable in the event of the configuration challenges. As a result, the due date for completion will have to be adjusted.
Project deliverables refer to the various outputs that must be attained in order to complete a certain task. Project deliverables vary from project to project and can include a product, a prototype, or a detailed design document. When implementing the HRIS project, GenRays intends to achieve a number of deliverables which as outlined below.
Need analysis document
This document will outline what GenRays intends to achieve by implementing the new HRIS.
Development of a training program
In a bid to increase the rate at which the new HRIS system will be utilized, the firm will ensure that an effective training program is created. A detailed training manual outlining the activities to be undertaken in the training program will be created. The training program will incorporate various parties such as the workforce and employees in the management levels. The training will mainly focus on how to utilize the new system. Some of the aspects that will be taken into account relate to how to use the new HRIS to make non-routine decision. Additionally, employees will also receive training on how to utilize artificial intelligence, which will be attainable via training on expert systems. The training will aim to improving the extent to which the new system is utilized. Additionally, the project manager will ensure that the training program is effectively designed in order to eliminate possibility of employees being overburdened with information hence reducing their understanding.
Launching of the training program
Upon completing developing the training program, the project manager will ensure that actual training is conducted on all employees. The training will be undertaken using PowerPoint presentations and manuals. The essential deliverable in launching the training program will be to ensure that the candidates are fully trained.
Selection of HRIS vendor
In a bid to ensure that the most effective HRIS technology is implemented; the best HRIS vendor will be selected. The vendor will be selected by evaluating the performance of their HRIS implemented by other organizations. Effective vendor selection will increase the probability of HRIS succeeding upon its implementation.
An effective system configuration will be undertaken. The effectiveness with which system configuration is undertaken will determine initiation of the data migration phases. In this step, the most important deliverable is to ensure that the system is totally configured and ready to be used.
Completion of data migration
Once the system is fully configured, GrenRays will ensure that all data relating to employees in the old system is fully transferred to the new system. At this stage, the key deliverable will include full transfer of employee data.
Launching of the HRIS
The firm will ensure that the new HRIS is initiated in accordance with the set time and budget.
Project acceptance criteria
Prior to implementing the project, a comprehensive analysis of its impact will be conducted. The analysis will evaluate its long-term and short-term effects in order to determine its effectiveness. In the analysis phase, the firm will conduct an employee survey. Additionally, an annual review of the project will be conducted in order to determine its compliance with the firm’s Human Resource Management policies. The project will be considered a success if the new HRIS increases the effectiveness with which position control is attained. Most human resource information systems implemented by the firm’s management teams conventionally track their employees’ performance based on their name, which is quite ineffective. If the new HRIS increases the firm’s ability to analyze employees’ performance based on their job title and salary grade, it will be considered as a successful project. Additionally, the project will be considered a success if it improves a firm’s recruiting capabilities. The project acceptance criteria will also hinge on the degree to which the employees utilize the system in reviewing their performance.
Work Breakdown Structure
In a bid to ensure that the project is implemented successfully and effectively, the project manager will ensure that the project is broken down into manageable components. The constituent parts of the project will be assigned to specific project team members. However, the project manger will ensure that the constituent parts can be effectively integrated into the whole project. Additionally, the constituent parts must be measurable. The following entails the work breakdown structure of this project.
Schwalbe (2010) asserts that projects should have clearly defined milestone in order to assess its success. However, this aspect requires a substantial amount of time, resources, and numerous activities. In the process of establishing milestones, it is important for the project manager to ensure that all the necessary activities are identified. This aspect underscores the importance of effective determination the intended milestone. In the process of implementing the new HRIS, the following milestones are expected to be attained:
- Increase in the rate at which the new HRIS technology is utilized by both the employees and the top management. The new HRIS is expected to increase the rate at which the new system assists employees in their career development efforts.
- Increased in the effectiveness at which the new HRIS is utilized in undertaking internal communication.
- Improving in the level employee satisfaction and hence organizational identification, and this aspect will contribute towards a decline in the rate of employee turnover. The improvement in organizational identification and employee satisfaction will enhance organizational identification considerably. The ultimate effect is that the organization will attain a high level of productivity.
- The project manager intends to attain a high level of task-technology fit by implementing the new HRIS.
Prior to its implementation, the project plan will be sent to a number of parties for approval. One of the stakeholder groups that will approve the project includes GenRays management team. On the other hand, the opinion of the selected vendor will also be sought in order to determine its applicability in the organization.
In the course of its implementation, sufficient human and financial capital resources are required. With regard to human resource, the firm will source human capital from both within and without the organization. A strong project team will be selected amongst GenRays members. The selection criteria will be based on their past project performance, level of education, and years of experience. The project team will be selected from various departments in order to ensure that it is inclusive. Additionally, a number of well-experienced consultants specifically from the vendor will also be incorporated in the project team. This move will aid in improving knowledge sharing amongst employees. Every project team member will be assigned a specific responsibility in accordance with his or her skills and level of experience. The chart below illustrates some of the project team members who will be incorporated in the HRIS implementation process.
|Labor Resource||Description||No of years employed in GenRays|
|Shannon, Marketing Research||Has MBA with emphasis in marketing. |
Has experience with CRM systems.
|Bailey, Marketing Communications||Uses a CRM system for communications management||3|
|Ryan, Sales, Spokane||Uses a spreadsheet to keep track of sales staff addresses and important dates |
Was part of team to define and implement the centralized system for finance, purchasing, logistics, and accounting?
|Chris, Sales, Sacramento||Has 10 years of prior experience working with CRM systems.||7|
|Cameron, Accounting||Was in charge of payroll at prior position |
Was team lead to define and implement the finance and accounting portions of the centralized system for finance, purchasing, logistics, and accounting
|Amari, Buildings & Facilities||Maintains the time card clocks at each site and the time cards||15|
|Alex, Human Resources, HQ||Manages the training record |
Tries to record certifications the employees have gotten on their own. Was in the team that was charged with the responsibility of implementing a system that would facilitate different functional aspects of the firm
|Jamie, Human Resources, Mfg Site 1||Works with attendance and payroll |
Records performance review data in file cabinets.
Recruits interns and potential employees to work with HR office
|Logan, Human Resources, Mfg Site 2||Recruits interns and potential employees to work with HR office |
Communicating with employees for effective running of the firm especially at the manufacturing plants
Projects should be implemented within the set timeframe in order to achieve the intended goal. Failure to adhere to the set period may result in the intended goal being missed. Additionally, project scheduling is important in that it aids in eliminating cost increment in the course of implementing the project. According to Satzinger and Burd (2008), projects experience cost increment due to changes in the macro-environment, for example, the global economic recession experienced in 2007-2008. This aspect underscores the importance of organizations undertaking effective time management.
In an effort to attain the intended project goal, the project manager will ensure that a clear definition of the activities is undertaken, which will aid in the process of undertaking time allocation. The project manager will ensure that the project schedule is controlled effectively. Possible changes in the schedule will be effectively adjusted.
The various activities that will be undertaken in a quest to ensure that the new HRIS software is effectively implemented are illustrated in the Gnatt Chart below. Additionally, the expected timeframe within which the activities will be implemented have been clearly illustrated.
|Project activity||1st-15thMarch||16-30 March||1-15 April||16-30 April||1-15 May|
|Project Initiation – searching the vendors and development of a project team||X|
|Project definition- Development of a clear project definition for the involved stakeholders to understand and project definition will entail outlining the project plans. |
Gaining approval from the from the firm’s top management.
|System’s evaluation and selection in order to determine the most effective system and some of the areas that will be evaluated relate to knowledge management such as the transaction support functionality.||X||X||X|
|Development of a communication plan||X||X|
|Testing the system||X|
|Free-launch system training||X|
|Designing systems support||X|
The following activities will be undertaken in implementation of the projects.
Deliverables and milestones
- Clear definition of the HRIS vendors
- Selection and evaluation of HRIS vendors
- Integration of the HRIS system with the old system
- Setting up and configuration of the new HRIS
- Pre-launching training program
- Launching the HRIS system
- Implementation of post-launch training
- Configuration of all the organizations computers with the new HRIS parameters
- Incorporation of application service provider
- Configuration of security systems
The project manager expects the following project activities to be completed within the set period. However, in the event of any deviations, the project manager will ensure that the necessary adjustments are made.
Project scheduling is an important component of project management. Project scheduling enables organizations to implement the intended project effectively. This aspect emanates from the fact that project scheduling enables the project manager to develop a comprehensive and understandable insight of the project and the activities to be undertaken. Scheduling will also provide the project manager with an opportunity to ensure that the project is completed within the set timeframe, which increases the probability of the project manager successfully implementing the project. Additionally, project scheduling also provides the project manager with an opportunity to evaluate the various activities to be undertaken and hence developing an effective project implementation plan.
Project scheduling will also assist the project manager with an opportunity to identify and determine the volume of workload. This aspect will increase the effectiveness with which the various project tasks are undertaken. In addition to this element, project scheduling will enable project managers to determine and track the project implementation progress. This goal is achievable by evaluating the project milestone. Additionally, project scheduling incorporates graphical features such as Gnatt chart whereby the various work assignments are outlined. By designing a communication plan, project scheduling will ensure that the entire project implementation is undertaken with a high degree of collaboration from the various stakeholders.
Additionally, system’s evaluation and selection will aid in the determining the most effective HRIS technology to implement. Therefore, one can assert that the process of project scheduling contributes towards the entire project being more manageable. Effective definition of project activities and setting the time within which the tasks will be completed aids in improving the degree of success, which arises from the fact that the entire project is kept on track. Effective understanding of the tasks and the timeframe for their completion will keep the project manager focused. Project scheduling and activity definition play an important role in project implementation with regard to cost management. This assertion emanates from the fact that it provides a clue on how to estimate cost and time. Therefore, project scheduling play an important role in project planning at various stages.
In a bid to increase the probability of its usability, effective systems configuration and implementation is necessary, which highlights the importance of the project manager ensuring that optimal training on employees is undertaken. The training program should be implemented prior to and after implementation of the project. Employee training will increase the chances of employees supporting the project. Considering the diverse activities that the project manager is required to undertake, it is estimated that the $ 103, 000 allocated to the project might not be sufficient. Consequently, it is important for GenRays’ management team to develop a contingency budget, which will aid in preventing the entire project coming to a halt.
Ghuman, K. (2010). Management: Concepts, practice, and cases. New Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Kerzner, H. (2009). Project management a systems approach to planning, scheduling and controlling. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons.
Satzinger, J., & Burd, S. (2008). Systems analysis and design in a changing world. Cambridge, UK: Course Technology.
Schwalbe, K. (2010). Information technology project management. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.