History, Archaeology, and Bible


The account of how and why the Bible was created – and how it fits the unusual history of the people of Israel – is intimately associated with a fascinating account of modern detection. The search has focused on a tiny land, edged in on two sides by wasteland and on one side by the Mediterranean, that has, over the millennia, been overwhelmed by recurrent famine and almost frequent warfare. Its cities and citizens were tiny in contrast with those of the neighboring realms of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Similarly, its material culture was pitiable in contrast with its splendor and profligacy. And yet this land was the hometown of a literary masterwork that has exerted an unparalleled collision on world society as both hallowed scripture and history. (p. 6)

Over the periods there have been many censures leveled against the Bible relating its historical dependability. These disapprovals are generally grounded on a lack of confirmation from outside sources to substantiate the Biblical record. Since the Bible is a sacred book, lots of scholars take the location that it is biased and cannot be believed unless there is a confirming verification from extra-Biblical sources. In other words, the Bible is blameworthy until proven innocent, and a lack of outside confirmation places the Biblical explanation in doubt.


This standard is far dissimilar from that applied to other earliest texts, even though many, if not most, have a spiritual component. They are regarded to be precise unless there is confirmation to show that they are not. Nevertheless, it is not probable to confirm every occurrence in the Bible, the detections of archaeology since the mid-1800s have revealed the dependability and plausibility of the Bible story.

More than two hundred years of thorough research of the Hebrew text of the Bible and ever more extensive investigation in all the lands between the Nile and the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers have empowered researchers to starts understanding when, why, and how the Bible appeared. Detailed research of the language and characteristic literary types of the Bible has led researchers to classify oral and written sources on which the current biblical text was grounded.

Simultaneously, archaeology has provided a dramatic, almost encyclopedic knowledge of the material situations, languages, communities, and historical expansions of the centuries during which the institutions of ancient Israel steadily crystallized, spanning approximately six hundred years – from about 1000 to 400 BC. Most significant of all, the textual approaches and the archaeological confirmation have joined to assist researchers to define between the power and poetry of biblical narration and the more down-to-earth occasions and processes of antique Near Eastern history. (p. 3)

Not since ancient times has the world of the Bible been so available and so methodically explored. Through archaeological excavations, it is known now know what yields the Israelites and their neighbors grew, what they ate, how they created their cities, and with whom they ended. Dozens of cities and towns revealed in the Bible have been classified and uncovered. Current excavation techniques and a wide variety of laboratory tests have been applied to date and investigate the cultures of the ancient Israelites and their neighbors the Philistines, Phoenicians, Arameans, Ammonites, Moabites, and Edomites.

In a few matters, dedications and signet seals have been determined that can be unswervingly associated with personalities stated in the biblical text. But that does not mean that archaeology has confirmed the biblical account to be true in all of its aspects. Far from it: it is now obvious that lots of events of biblical history did not take place in either the meticulous epoch or the manner narrated. Some of the most well-known events in the Bible are claimed that never to happen at all.

Role of Archaeology

Archaeology has always acted an essential role in disputes on the matters of the contents and historical consistency of the Bible. Impressive discoveries along with decades of archaeological excavations have offered that the Bible’s accounts were generally trustworthy in regard to the narration of ancient Israel. Thus it seemed that even if the biblical text was created long after the occasions occurred, it must have been based on precisely conserved memories. (pp 14-15)

Archaeology has assisted to reconstruct the history behind the Bible, both on the extent of great kings and realms and in the modes of casual life. And as we will elucidate in the following chapters, we now know that the early books of the Bible and their eminent stories of early Israelite history were first codified at a classifiable place and time: Jerusalem in the seventh century BC. (pp 14-15).

The most documented Biblical occasion is the worldwide flood defined in Genesis 6-9. A number of Babylonian documents have been revealed which define the same flood. The Sumerian King List (pictured here), for instance, lists kings who rule for long phases of time.

Then a great flood happened. Following the flood, Sumerian kings ruled for a much shorter time. This is the same prototype stated in the Bible. Men had long life durations before the flood and much shorter life spans after the flood. The 11th tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic narrates an ark, animals taken on it, birds sent out during the track of the flood, the ark landing on a mountain, and a forfeit offered after the ark landed.

Professor Finkelstein is an Israeli and has attained a lot of censure in Israel for his work from traditional components in the community that is aware of what it means for the Biblical foundations of Zionism. The most available book is The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s new apparition of ancient Israel and the source of its sacred manuscripts, written with Neil Asher Silberman and issued by The Free Press in 2001. Finkelstein is one of a group of essential archaeologists that is turning the sphere of biblical archaeology on its head.


Verbal conflict often procures the armor of archaeology. By the middle of the 19th century, detections in antique Egypt and Mesopotamia also clarified lands between them, particularly that corridor known as Canaan, Palestine, Israel, the Holy Land, or the land of the Bible. Geographical examinations of Palestine, held by Edward Robinson, an American, classified many mounds or ruins with biblical places. Excavations of them, conducted by another American, William Foxwell Albright, happened in the 20th century.

These labors empowered scholars to join the Bible with outside resources and to build a context for confirming its historicity. But by now, aims, decisions, and conclusions depart strikingly from those of previous generations.