Homeland Security and Border Control in the UAE

Subject: Law
Pages: 24
Words: 15531
Reading time:
57 min
Study level: College

Abstract

Homeland security and efficient border control measures are highly significant for the United Arab Emirates. Rapid economic development increased threats to the country’s borders and homeland security. The condition of regional tension in the Middle East and increased militancy movement in the region has made the borders of the country extremely vulnerable to foreign as well as regional threats. The region currently faces threats from conflicts and war in Bahrain and Yemen. The strategic location and substantial amounts of natural resources make the country attractive while challenges and threats emerge. The research aims to investigate the current stage of border control and homeland security in the United Arab Emirates. The methodology adopted for the study is secondary and primary data analysis, which is evaluated to understand the areas where the threats are imminent on the country and how the citizens perceive these imminent threats. The paper uses both primary and secondary data to understand who the security threats are perceived by the citizens of the country and how the media and other bystanders view the issues. Further, the paper looks into the rise of security issues that the country face and how it has affected it. On evaluating the awareness of residents of the United Arab Emirates about the importance and protection of border control and homeland security it is found that the residents of the country are aware of the impending threats to the nation but believe proper measures are being taken to counter such threats.

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Introduction

Background of the Problem

From the perspective of ‘no country is immune from crisis’, the United Arab Emerita has put a priority in developing its border security apparatus for its natural resources. The United Arab Emirates has experienced a variety of transformations and improvement in many sectors. In 1971, the United Arab Emirates was 62nd in the Human Development Index. In 2010, this indicator increased and made the country the 30th in the Human Development Index (CPC 2015). In terms of economic development, specifically in the airline sector, the country exceeded Singapore (CPC 2015). Today, the United Arab Emirates has the third largest GDP per capita (CPC 2015). The infrastructure of the country has undergone significant changes. The country’s sudden modernization led to the implementation of one of the most well developed infrastructures in the world with the massive usage of social media and mobile industry (CPC 2015). The country now enters the global arena. It has become a significant participant in global affairs. United Arab Emirates has been increasingly assertive in the political developments in the Middle East, especially against Iran, Muslim Brotherhood, and other extremist Islam groups (Katzman 2015). Its open economy and borders have helped the country to prosper economically but also has increased threats to security (Katzman 2015). Economic prosperity and open economy coupled with anti-extremist stand has made it a target of many aggrieved neighboring countries and extremist Islamic organizations (Katzman 2015).

Since its creation, the United Arab Emirates experienced a rapid growth of the economy (CPC 2015). The boom in oil prices predominantly caused this growth (Katzman 2015). The recent oil boom occurred in the period between 2002-2008 (Saif 2009). This boom resulted in the rapid development of economies of six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council including the UAE. The oil boom was a result of other countries’ lack of resources and the ability of the UAE to satisfy that need. It was the second oil boom since the 1970s (Saif 2009). Besides, the country had a forceful progress in the property market. United Arab Emirate economy has increased by seven percent every year since the year 2000. The aim of the state is not to be dependent on energy resources. Although the oil resources make the country prosperous, the United Arab Emirates cannot rely on it because all natural resources are exhaustive. The country faces two major challenges including the diversification of non-oil sector of the economy and governmental policies (Saif 2009). The government of the United Arab Emirates supported the diversification of the economy. The country aims to accomplish this goal via the improvement of three sectors: finance, tourism, and education (Saif 2009). Consequently, a substantial amount of assets is further contributed to the development of other spheres of activity such as infrastructure, improvement of science, a public-private partnership, and education.

The rapid expansion and development of the United Arab Emirates, makes it a significant figure both in the Middle East and in the world (Katzman 2015). Still, the country faces a variety of internal and external challenges (Katzman 2015). The primary external challenges concern the potential geopolitical instability in the region (World Economic Forum 2007). The military threat from Iran is about the territorial dispute over few islands in the Strait of Hormuz (Linden 2007). Although Linden believes that the UAE does not face threat from the Al Qaeda or the Islamic extremist organizations, primarily because they do not have their base of operations in the country, the country faces threats from the regional instability brewing in the Middle East (2007, 82). For instance, after the Second Gulf War, the countries of the Arab world realized the need to create a safety region that cannot undermine the security of the Arab countries. Al Nahyan writes, “No single Arab country can individually achieve a political and national security out of the other Arab Countries whether on the region or national level” (2000, 34). This peculiarity of the Arab countries predetermines the dependence of the country’s security on the situation in the region.

Border control problem

Disputes over border and its control have been present from time immemorial. Each state defines their border in accordance to their principal of sovereignty and hegemony. Barakat points out that several countries in the region have fought over dispute over boundaries (Barakat 2005). For Instance, United Arab Emirates and Oman has decided to sign an agreement to define the common border between the two countries in 2007 (WAM 2008). Furthermore, Barakat also points out that there were political borders between countries in the Gulf region as they followed administrative boundaries since the Ottoman rule (2005).

The security issues in the Gulf States arise both internally and externally. In GCC countries, there has been a rise of the “new border approach” to propagate national and regional security (Ulrichsen 2009). These oil-rich countries have tried to strengthen internal and regional policies that would lead to greater cohesion internally to create a long-term inclusive and sustainable politics (Ulrichsen 2009). However, in the post-Cold War era, the approach to control border security has become increasingly cooperative. The rise of transnational terrorism, cross-border criminal network, and global issues related to climate change, there has been an increased collaboration between nations to develop a strong internal and external strategy that is mutually beneficial to nations (Ulrichsen 2009). However, this change has not occurred in the Middle East, where security discourse is predominated by the presence of “regime security” and “national security” (Ulrichsen 2009).

Thus, the paradigm of Gulf security will shift towards an open economy and political transparency (Ulrichsen 2009). According to Karasik, bilateral agreements was the key solution to solve several border disputes, the most threatening problem within the GCC – such as those between Saudi Arabia and both Oman and the UAE (Karasik 2013). Saudi Arabia, for example, refused to recognize the new federation because of an unresolved border dispute with Abu Dhabi over the Al Buraimi Oasis (Morton 2013). The United Arab Emirates aim to strengthen their border security to the optimum in order to assist rapid economic development. The challenges and threats to border security undermine the United Arab Emirates’ confidence in future stability of its borders because of the continuous volatility in the Middle East region. For instance, the civil war in Syria and ISIS trying to hegemony in Arab region (Inbari 2014). Consequently, there is a need to assess the current condition of the border control, possible threats, and ways of their prevention and further development. As mentioned by Al Nahyan, the ability of the country to restore and protects its political independence and social norms lead to political and economic stability (Al Nahyan 2000). In its turn, this stability depends on the organization and division of the governmental power in the United Arab Emirates (2000).

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The affluence of the country due to its rich oil resources and export revenue has made it a target of criminal and terrorist activities. The UAE has tried to shift its economic focus solely from oil-sector to non-oil sector such as tourism and infrastructure. H.H Shaikh Mohammed announced that the country aimed to invest more in industrial and tourism sectors, air and maritime transport, import and re-export, as well as supporting a range of projects and initiatives based on the knowledge economy (D’Mello 2015). These factors may be considered as signs of immense potential for the future growth and improvement. However, the prosperity of the country has attracted a lot of undue attention and posed a threat to tis border security (Ulrichsen 2009).

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the research is to assess the future strategies of the United Arab Emirates to protect its political and economic stability via the improvement of the border control and homeland security. The study aims to analyze the implications, potential threats, and solutions concerning homeland security issues. The paper under consideration has the following objectives:

  • Provide relevant information about strategic border security issues in the United Arab Emirates;
  • To examine the present framework of border control and homeland security in the country;
  • To analyze the potential threats and imminent challenges related to border security;
  • To evaluate the awareness of homeland security issues on the residents of the country as well as employees of border control systems.

Theoretical Framework

Scholars believe that there are no homeland security theories at all (Bellavita 2012). Christopher Bellavita argues that there is no universal theory of homeland security for countries and their government (2012). The existence of a universal theory is impossible due to the variety of factors that influence the choices of border control approach of the particular country (Bellavita 2012). The United Arab Emirates, like many others countries in the Middle East, have developed their economy to the abundance of natural resources. Peculiarities of the region and neighboring states also predetermine the border control measures. The pattern of development of the security issues in the Middle East has been historically volatile and evolving. The predominance of regional conflict such as the Gulf War of 1991 entails external threats while domestic conflicts reflect internal threat to the country (Maoz 1997). The Iran-Iraq War and the Gulf War of 1991 escalated regional tension and jeopardized regional security (Maoz 1997). Several civil wars that afflicted the region are the Algerian Civil War, massacre of the Kurds by Iraq, civil war in Sudan, and Yemem Civil War (Maoz 1997).

These regional conflicts have affected the safety and security issues within the region. Further, military escalation of the USA in the region to combat the transnational terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and then its attack on Iraq to oust the autocratic Saddam Hussein regime have created security threat for the UAE as it had allied with the US to help in these cooperative anti-terrorism operations. Further, the regional instability between UAE and Iran pose a serious threat to the country. The state-financed Islamic militancy, Hezbollah’s trans-border operations, growth of the ISIL and ISIS have posed serious threat to the border security of the UAE (Malek 2015). The recent socio-political turmoil in the form of Arab Spring has raised fresh challenges for the country (Malek 2015). The future challenges that are faced by the country are regional instability and China’s role in the region will create fresh challenge to the country (Malek 2015). Security threat

Rentier state theory (RST) tries to explain the impact of external payments on the state’s relation with the society and impact on governance (Gray 2011) Gray defines RST as “a political economy theory that seeks to explain state-society relations in states that generate the large proportion of their income from rents, or externally-derived, unproductively-earned payments” (2011, 1). The RST has two definite approaches – first is the relationships between the government and its citizens and second, is the relation between the ruling families. In the UAE, the revenue from oil comprises almost eighty percent of the overall income of the country. However, the government has managed to develop a flexible system of taxation (no taxes are imposed on individual earnings). Since 1990s, the UAE government has tried to deviate its dependence on oil sector. The second factor concerns the relationships between ruling families. Thus, no family owns oil. It is a state resource, and it belongs to every individual in the country (Aartun 2002). The economy is a crucial aspect that defines the need to implement an advanced border control. The rentier state theory aims at the evaluation of current potential and challenges to the economy and their relation to homeland security. A rentier state is a state that depends on the existing natural resources to receive wealth and revenues (Sadik 2010).

Zicchieri also argues that using a rentier state theory is not relevant for the United Arab Emirates (Zicchieri 2016). He believes that most rentier countries offer minimal support of the non-rent sectors of the domestic economy. The United Arab Emirates’ interest in public and private sectors demonstrate that Zicchieri’s thoughts should be taken into consideration (Zicchieri 2016).

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Still, the investigation of Aartun demonstrates that the government of the United Arab Emirates uses the oil-based economy in the maintenance of stability in the country (2002). The research also shows that the United Arab Emirates is estimated to be one of the most stable countries in the Middle East region (Aartun 2002). However, the current rapid development of the country is necessary to implement the most efficient systems of border control. Situations in Yemen prove the existing insecurity in the region.

Since 2015, the United Arab Emirates became involved in the long lasting and exhausting conflict in Yemen. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia became the primary opponent of the rebels in Yemen while the United Arab Emirates supported Saudi Arabia (Abdullah 2015). War, according to Abdullah, is costly and politically unproductive (2015). The instability within the region is expected to grow further due to the state of war and is expected to make it more volatile.

Efforts have been made to ensure greater security within the country. The UAE Armed forces general has signed a deal with an Abu Dhabi based national security company of DH271 million called the HARES project to provide total border security solution tot he country in 2005 (Kumar 2008). The aim of the project is to provide “highly automated target detection, identification and tracking border security system designed to integrate fully automated system to respond to external threats for the UAE border” (Kumar 2008). Such integrated solution system is expected to lessen the threats to homeland and border security that the UAE faces.

Security threat to the UAE is imminent and the reason for the threats are varied some believe the economic prosperity of the country is responsible for the threat and others blame regional instability for the rising issues related to border control. The UAE therefore, makes greater efforts to control the threats that the country faces through its borders. The security issues have gained great importance in the country’s political landscape and efforts are being made to control the security hazards that the country faces.

Proposal

The aim of the paper is to understand the security issues faced by the UAE and how it can improve it in future. The analysis of the various sides of the socio-economic and political background of the country helps to assess the threats that the country face. The United Arab Emirates is located in the Middle East. This region is characterized by constant instability. The situation may aggravate any moment due to the rise in the difference with the neighboring countries over oil trade and other issues. The rise of terrorism and social unrest also contributes to the rising threat. Other threats to homeland security include cyber-attacks, terrorism, drug trafficking, and weapon smuggling.

The country realizes the significance to eliminate these perils. The paper proposes to provide a holistic view of the overall security issues, the past steps that have been taken to counter the increasing threat from terrorism and regional military escalations as well as the internal economic threats that may cripple the economy and pose a serious threat to the security of the country. The physical threat posed to the country is by terrorism, rising regional unrest, social movements, and military escalation along the borders of the country. Apart from these, cyber threat looms large over the UAE, as the country has already been targeted to such occurrences in the recent past. The paper proposes understanding these threats in depth and provides recommendations regarding policy issues to counter such threats. The paper proposes studying all social, economic, and political issues that the country presently face and then analyze how they contribute to increasing or dissipating security threats to the country. The paper uses both primary and secondary data to understand who the security threats are perceived by the citizens of the country and how the media and other bystanders view the issues. Further, the paper looks into the rise of security issues that the country face and how it has affected it.

Research Questions

Border security has gained immense importance in the UAE. The security in the country is evolving with changes in the socio-political and economic condition of the country. The process of globalization and the effect of international events has rendered the Gulf region vulnerable to militant movements and therefore made security of the UAE volatile. The rising regional volatility has made the UAE’s borders susceptible to infiltration. Further, there is a distinct need to differentiate between the internal and external forces that act as the hindrance towards security of the country. The threat that the UAE faces is from both internal as well as external forces. Therefore, the security measures cannot be restricted to the external sphere as is usually done in the western idea of security (Ulrichsen 2009). Following the concerns regarding the current state of unrest and volatility in the UAE regarding threat across its borders and brewing of threat from within the country, concerns regarding the country’s security become imminent. Therefore, the first question that the research tries to answer is regarding the current state of border control and homeland security in the country.

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What is the current state of the United Arab Emirates’ homeland security and border control?

Border control is no longer implies only land borders. It may imply borders over international water or airspace. As the danger of terrorist attacks, have become omnipotent, especially after the 9/11 attacks on US, threats over the airspace have become a serious concern for many nations and the UAE is no exception. Given this rising concern regarding the UAE’s airspace, as the country has one of the maximum numbers of airports and air traffic, the next question assumes its relevance.

What is the role of aviation in border security?

Some of the other questions that will be aimed to be answered in this research are related to homeland security and the primary areas of concern with that regard. How the economic development of the country may have influenced the rise of threat to border control and homeland security is also analyzed in this paper. Further, the laws that would help to eliminate these threats to border control and homeland are also discussed in the paper.

  • What are the fundamental concerns and challenges connected with the homeland security?
  • What is the connection between the economic development of the country and homeland security?
  • What are the most useful ways for the elimination of threats?
  • What are strong and weak sides of laws concerning border control and homeland security?

Methodology

This research is divided into two distinct parts. The first area looks into the secondary data on border and homeland security and ascertains the various measures that have been undertaken by the government to eliminate threats tot eh nation. The second area looks at the primary level analysis that tries to understand how the common citizens of the country perceive the threat that their country faces.

Qualitative research is employed because its methods are the most appropriate for the evaluation of the homeland security and border control issues in the United Arab Emirates. A qualitative approach is used to evaluate the available literature related to the topic. Qualitative research is utilized for collection of data concerning personal opinions of ordinary people and representatives from the government (Trochim 2006). The current research is essential for the realization of the connection between the population of the United Arab Emirates and the homeland security and border control. The questionnaire of ten questions was sent to fifty individuals (Appendix C). The survey contains questions concerning border control issues.

The inductive approach will be used for the evaluation of results of the questionnaire. This type of approach is efficient for several reasons. First, it is useful for the analysis of various data and making summaries of them (G. Thomas 2015). In addition, the inductive approach assists in seeing connections between links and sources. As Thomas writes, “The general inductive approach provides an easily used and systematic set of procedures for analyzing qualitative data that can produce reliable and valid findings” (G. Thomas 2015, 123).

The snowball sampling or chain sampling is a method used for the logical arrangement of known factors. The results of the qualitative research will provide implications for future studies in the area of homeland security of the United Arab Emirates. The results of the research are analyzed further in Chapter VI. Quantitative methods are used to explain the nature of the problem. Besides, quantitative research assists in the evaluation of the effectiveness of some methods for border security improvement such as iris recognition. An interdisciplinary research has been used for data accumulation from various fields. In Appendix B, one can observe that questions from different fields such as economy and homeland security are used in the questionnaire. Data from the economy are used for the evaluation of the need to improve the border control in the country.

Importance of the Study

The significance of the study is predetermined by the need to improve our border control security and applying new technology. By applying new technology such as Iris recognition will speed up the time that truck driver has to wait in order to crossing border. For example, the case that happen in 2012 were a Truck drivers’ tempers were getting shorter early Tuesday afternoon as the queue of trucks waiting at the UAE border to cross into Saudi was getting longer (Mick O’Reilly 2012). According to Theodore Karasik, “Biometrics, E-Government, CCTV, UAVs are all part of keeping border security”. At border crossings biometric facial recognition software is now playing an integral role in filtering possible criminal elements (Karasik 2013).

Border security remains one of the most important issue that the UAE government faces. The high level of infiltration and open borders has increased number of illegal immigrants, terrorist, and smuggling activities through porous borders. The lack of border security from the existing mechanisms clearly raises the need for a better border control system.

Scope and Limitations

The research examines threats and challenges that are most urgent nowadays such as cyberspace, terrorism, and drug trafficking. Furthermore, the unstable situation in the Middle East likes ISIS in Iraq and civil war in Syria.

The limitations of the study refer to the lack of comparison of the homeland security and border control in the United Arab Emirates and neighboring countries such as lack of information about the sleeping cells inside UAE and when they about to make they move. It could be useful for the evaluation of the situation in the region.

Homeland security and border control are of primary significance for the United Arab Emirates at the current stage of country’s development. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the country’s economy increased almost by seven percent annually (World Economic Forum). The primary source of prosperity is the oil-based economy. At the current stage of development, the United Arab Emirates aim to develop a domestic economy and decrease its role as a rentier state. The geopolitical instability in the Middle East region is the key threat to the successful improvement. Consequently, there is a need to evaluate border control and homeland security.

Literature on Border Security

Before beginning our discussion on the literature of border security, certain terminologies must be explained. In this paper, from here on, the term border will be used in its legal sense. Here border would imply the territorial boundary between two neighboring countries which are controlled in accordance to international and regional laws. Homeland is associated with the cultural identity of the nation though for the purpose of this research we will adhere to the legal parlance of the definition which implies that the are of the land within the boundaries of the country is homeland.

Security and border control has assumed great priority in the Untied Arab Emirates due to the unstable in the gulf region such as ISIS (Katzman 2015). The emergence of ISIS as a force in Syria and northern Iraq has changed UAE’s perspective towards Iran (Guéraiche 2016). Due to the spread of radical Islam and the fear of Shi’a expansion in the Gulf, the UAE has taken a conciliatory stand with Iran. On 2014, Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai announced that “we have no problems with the Islamic Republic of Iran” (Guéraiche 2016, 75). The issues of homeland security and border control in the United Arab Emirates have been developed over time since 1970 (Karasik 2013). However, with the development of recent events, international coordination in border control has become important to the country (Guéraiche 2016). Recent study suggests regional cooperation in military strategy has become an important issue for the GCC countries (Salim 2015). The primary responsibility of the country is to evaluate potential challenges and threats and prevent them such as challenges related to identity management and verification (Al-Raisi and Al-Khouri 2008). Nevertheless, new threats will always appear. The article “Iris Recognition and the Challenge of Homeland and Border Control Security in UAE” examines the new way of improving border security in the United Arab Emirates (Al-Raisi and Al-Khouri 2008, 117).

The modern warfare has breached the walls of conventional border-based warfare. Now there is no physical border over which war is fought. This faceless border and enemy has become more difficult to identify and ascertain. Proper identity management and verification is crucial for the efficient border control. Iris recognition is a new method of biometrics that aims at improving security systems. The primary advantage of the iris recognition refers to the fact that it gives immediate results. Although fingerprint, facial and hand are efficient for the same purposes as well, but it takes time until results will be viewed. The authors of the article discuss the significance and the role of this change for homeland security and border control in the United Arab Emirates (Al-Raisi and Al-Khouri 2008) United Arab Emirates is in need for the new biometric system due to the increase in traveler’s number (Proença 2009).

According to Proença, 9500 people have been caught by the Iris recognition system while travelling with forged identities (Proença 2009). Moreover, the need of iris to speed up travel entry through United Arab Emirates due to more than a 6500 passenger enters the United Arab Emirates via airport, land or seaport (Daugman 2004). Apart from identity identification systems, the United Arab Emirates realize the importance of other methods of border protection (Daugman 2004). For this purpose, flying remote control drones were manufactured to monitor the territory of airports (The National 2014). These pieces of writing are important for the research as far as they demonstrate the current condition and possible improvements of the border control and homeland security in the United Arab Emirates. However, the practical enhancement of the border control measures is nothing without the proper legal implications.

The legal system of the country plays an essential role in border security (Fitzpatrick 2008). The United Arab Emirates realizes this fact and implements a system of strict export and import laws. The aim of such laws is to prevent terrorist attacks. The article “Export Control and Combating Terror Financing” has been published on the official site of the Embassy of the United Arab Emirates in the United States of America. The article presents information about the United Arab Emirates’ policies concerning the export control and combating terrorism. According to the article, the United Arab Emirates supports all sanctions imposed by the European Union. In addition, the most significant export control laws are described in the paper. The article provides readers with information about the collaboration between the United States of America and the United Arab Emirates (Fitzpatrick 2008). The United Arab Emirates has reaffirmed its intention to promote peace in the world by stating that the county has plans concerning the establishment of free of nuclear weapons zones in the Middle East (Katzman 2015).

According to them, there are some of the U.S. policies in regards of reducing nuclear threats (Katzman 2015):

  • Securing nuclear materials worldwide
  • Protecting the homeland against nuclear threats
  • Stopping North Korea and Iran from producing uranium enrichment.
  • Ensuring credible deterrence
  • Modernizing U.S. deterrent forces and infrastructure
  • Revising U.S. declaratory policy
  • Pursuing missile defense
  • Reinvigorating arms control
  • Shoring up the nonproliferation regime
  • Promoting the safe expansion of civil nuclear energy

Malek points out, that the UAE’s non-proliferation credentials are well recognized internationally. This makes it an important layer in regional and international non-proliferation and disarmament efforts” (Malek, Praise for UAE stand on non-proliferation 2014). The UAE has strengthened its nuclear and other radioactive security framework since the 2014 Nuclear Summit (National Security Summit 2016). The UAE has taken several recent steps towards increasing security of its nuclear arsenal. The country has established a nuclear power program and has also accepted a bid of $20 billion from a South Korean company to build commercial nuclear power reactors in Barakah by 2020 (“Nuclear Power in the United Arab Emirates” 2016). The UAE decided to enrich its uranium arsenal after Iran announced its decision to enrich in 2009 (Flietz 2015). Though many believe that this was the beginning to an end to non-proliferation aggrement of the GCC countries with the US, but this step is considered essential from the point of view of regional safety and security (Flietz 2015).

Such intention is of extreme significance for the United Arab Emirates’ homeland safety as far as it can be achieved only when the whole region is stabilized. This fact makes this aspect of the country’s activity important for the current research.

The United Arab Emirates aims at a continuous enhancement of its border control measures. According to the article “UAE Sets $10 Billion for Homeland Security,” the government of the United Arab Emirates decided to double investments in homeland security. Such decision is motivated by the economic development of the country and the growth of population (WAM 2014). It should be noted that the cyberspace is a new dimension that requires precise control of homeland security (Neaimi and Lutaaya 2015). The increased cyber attack on the financial sector has made it an important issue for the country (Brouwer 2015). The United Arab Emirates has become an object of numerous cyber conflicts because of the developed economy (Neaimi and Lutaaya 2015). Consequently, there is a need to develop an efficient system of cyber security. As Neaimi and Lutaaya describe it, “The fundamental drivers to the cyber security market age geared towards increasing the digital risk from cyber users by creating greater vulnerabilities because of more pervasive utilization of engineering and cloud computing” (2015, 295).

The above literature review provides us an insight into several important aspects connected with border control and homeland security in the United Arab Emirates. It should be noted that the county develops homeland security in several directions. First, the government encourages the implementation of recent technologies for the efficient security at borders such as Iris recognition. The state is concerned with the legal aspects of border control and law enforcement such as export or importing prohibited equipment. However, the United Arab Emirates spares no financial resources for the improvement of border control measures. For example United Arab Emirates Sets a budget of $10 Billion for developing Homeland Security (WAM 2014).

Aspects Related to Border Control and Homeland Security

Area Reporting and Geographical Location

The United Arab Emirates includes seven smaller parts. They are Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Dubai, Umm al-Qaiwain, and Ras al-Khaimah. (UAE Government,” Seven-emirates”)

UAE 7 Emirates
Source: “UAE 7 Emirates.” 

The general area of the United Arab Emirates is more than 80,000 square kilometers. The United Arab Emirates extends for one kilometer along the Gulf of Oman, and for more than thousand kilometers along the lower Gulf. The total coastline of Abu Dhabi is more than 450 km while Dubai’s coastline encompasses 70 km (Middle East Research Institute 2015). Three largest emirates are Abu Dhabi (67340 square kilometers), Dubai (3885 square kilometers), and Sharjah (2590 square kilometers). Abu Dhabi is the most western emirate (Middle East Research Institute 2015).

UAE Map with Roads
Source: “UAE Map with Roads.” 

Dubai is located in the east. Sharjah is situated on two sides of the Ras Musandam peninsula. A range of mountains known as the Hajar Mountains divides the whole peninsula. The highest peak of the Hajar Mountains in the United Arab Emirates is two thousand five hundred meters (Middle East Research Institute 2015).

Knowledge of area is significant for the evaluation of country’s potential in terms of border control. The following map depicts the location of the United Arab Emirates and its neighbors. This situation is valuable for border control. The strategic position of the United Arab Emirates is advantageous from both military and political perspectives. That is why it may become the target of terrorist attacks.

State Borders UAE
Source: “State Borders UAE.” 

Demographics and Population

The population of the United Arab Emirates comprised 9.4 million residents in 2014 (World population review 2015). The population of the state is extremely diverse. The full list of the population of the United Arab Emirates can be found in Appendix A. Thus, approximately ten percent of the overall population forms Emiratis while the rest of population is representatives from other countries and nations.

Population of UAE by nationality graphic depiction
Source: “Population of UAE by nationality graphic depiction.” 

This information is proved by the fact that the United Arab Emirates has the highest migration rate in the world. It comprises more than twenty percent. Such a high rate is predetermined by the legal ability to apply to the country’s citizenship after living in the state for twenty years. The other distinctive feature about population refers to the male to female ratio. The gender imbalance is 2.2, and it is the highest imbalance in the world after Qatar (World population review 2015).

Data about demographics and population are important for the evaluation of possible attacks of terrorists. According to Krane, “UAE authorities see their biggest security threat in the groups of Indians, Iranians, and Pakistanis who outnumber Emirati citizens” (Krane 2009). The following image proves the statement of Krane (“Top 5 Nationalities Living in UAE”).

TOP 5 Nationalities Living in UAE
Source: “TOP 5 Nationalities Living in UAE.” 

Population rise and increased migration comes with economic growth. As the UAE succeeded economically, expats from different Asian countries flocked to the emirates. However, this open environment also increases the influx of antisocial elements that may have entered the nation to spread terror. Therefore, rising influx of foreign nationals may become a threat to the country.

Economy and GDP

The economy of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is influenced by the system of the free-market economy that levies little restriction on private sector activities, foreign trade, and capital movement (Shayah 2015). The GDP, as in December 2015, was $402 billion and the economy has a high per capita income growth of $66,300 and a trade surplus of 13.6% (Forbes 2016). The UAE is also world’s eighth largest oil exporter, and this is the principal reason behind the country’s economic development (Shayah 2015). Even though there have been efforts towards diversification of the economy, the oil sector contributes 25% of the GDP (Forbes 2016). Figure 1 shows the mining sector, which comprises the oil sector and some other mining activities as the largest contributor the to GDP (Federal Competetiveness and Data Authority 2016). The global financial crisis of 2007-2009 significantly affected the country’s economy resulting in layoffs, departure of foreign workers, and large amount of nonperforming loans in the banks (Katzman 2015). The fall in real estate prices collapsed many banks and the federal government has to interject money from the sovereign fund and increasing liquidity to bail out these failing organizations (Katzman 2015). However, by 2011, these crises were over (Katzman 2015).

The open nature of the economy ensures business competition, even though the distinction between the private and public sector is blurred. For example, some of the companies are owned by the government, which makes the ruling parties active participants in the financial structure of the economy (MERI 2015). Anti-trust laws are restrictive in nature as major sectors such as government agreement and industries are exempted from it (Shah, et al. 2013). Although the World Trade Organization recommends the state to eliminate monopolies, such policies have to be developed (Shah, et al. 2013). The UAE has expanded its foreign trade. For instance, since 2011, the country became partners with Latin America and Africa (Krane 2009).

Economy and GDP
Source: Federal Competetiveness and Data Authority 2016.

The dependency of the economy on the oil sector and the international dependency on the oil sector of the region put the country in a precarious position in term of national security. The Iran-Iraq war in 1980 and Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 increased the need for tight security network among the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Katzman 2015). Regional unrest, due to the various socio-political and economic reasons has affected oil trade and other areas of the economy (Katzman 2015). In addition, over dependence on oil trade (trade done mainly with US dollar) increases the dependency of the economy on foreign currency, thus making it susceptible to changes in the value of the dollar. This may pose a threat to the economic security of the country.

The economy’s dependency on the oil sector increases the vulnerability of the country. This has become clear with the recent fall in oil prices that has stalled the country’s economic growth (Augustine 2016). The regional unrest and mutual distrust between the oil trading countries in the Middle East may escalate a regional war that would affect the security of the country. Therefore, economy is one factor that contributes to diminish security in the country.

Infrastructure

Infrastructure is the largest non-oil sector in the UAE (Fahy 2015). The government has allocated 13 percent of its budget only to the infrastructure development of Dubai (Fahy 2015). The increased infrastructure spending is intended to diversify the sector wise share of GDP in non-oil sectors. Hence, the government has planned to spend extensively to build tourist attractions. In 2015, infrastructure investment in the UAE is expected to be more that $300 billion by 2030 (Algethami 2014). The UAE government has undertaken a $55.11 billion for six major infrastructure projects (Deulgaonkar 2015).

Planned Infrastructural Development in the UAE.
Figure 2: Planned Infrastructural Development in the UAE. Source: Deulgaonkar 2015.

Figure 2 shows the expected spending in specific projects in the UAE. Transportation is essential for tourism boost. Keeping this mind, the UAE government has targeted the completion of Dubai Metro by 2030 (Deulgaonkar 2015). This infrastructure project cost the government $14.35 billion (Deulgaonkar 2015). Further, plans are in place to increase the railway network and the airport. Dubai RTA has plans to expand the Emirates Roads and then the Etihad Railways (Deulgaonkar 2015). Plan to expand the airports, a project undertaken by the Dubai Airport Authority, aims to expand the Abu Dhabi Airport and Abu Dhabi Metro (Deulgaonkar 2015).

One of the major airports is Abu Dhabi International Airport with Etihad Airways expansion. This extension allows serving fifteen million travelers annually (Deulgaonkar 2015). Dubai World Central International Airport and Dubai International Airport are other important airports in the country (Algethami 2014). Initially, there was a supposition that there were too many airports in the United Arab Emirates. A large number of airports were caused by the nature of relations between sheikhs in the state. Thus, every sheikh considers it to be a sign of prestige to have a personal airport. Nowadays, the abundance of airports is only useful for the United Arab Emirates. The country is a center of leisure, health care, and business for many people.

The system of roads is also well-developed in the United Arab Emirates. The government realized the need to build an advanced system of internal roads to support the local economy and business. Construction programs commenced in 1970. In that year, for instance, the largest road construction that connected Qatar and Ras Al-Khaimah was built. Roads are necessary for the efficient moving of goods in the country. It is the second most useful means of transportation after airways (Al Nahyan, Sohal, et al., Transportation infrastructure development in the UAE: Stakeholder perspectives on management practice 2012).

Seaports of the United Arab Emirates are also the most developed in the Gulf region (Al Nahyan, Sohal, et al., Transportation infrastructure development in the UAE: Stakeholder perspectives on management practice 2012). Major ports are Port Zayed in Abu Dhabi and Jebel Ali Port in Dubai. After the gaining of independence, Dubai was the only one city capable of accepting increasing imports (Deulgaonkar 2015). The port was already built in Dubai, and it became the basis for future expansions. As in previous cases, the government of the country financed the building of airports because of the need to prepare the basis for the potential development and increase of economy. The system of infrastructure is connected to the condition of the economy of the United Arab Emirates. Consequently, there is a need to know the most developed and less developed sectors and their relation to security issues.

In addition to the expansion of roads, rails, and airways, the UAE has concentrated on the expansion of its ports. Aligning its goal to expand the tourism industry and to facilitate trade, the country is planning to build the largest cruise ship port in Dubai (WAM 2016). Further, continued investment in the port and in other transportation infrastructure will boost international trade (WAM 2016).

The reason behind the surge in growth in the infrastructure of the country is due to the GCC’s stress to reduce dependency on the hydrocarbon sector (Deulgaonkar 2015). Hence, there has been an increase in the capital investment as a percentage of GDP in the infrastructure sector (Deulgaonkar 2015). Therefore, the rise in investment in the country is to build infrastructure to attract tourists and boost trade.

In addition to the growth in the infrastructure expense in construction of transportation and other tourist related projects, the country has major infrastructure investments in the hydrocarbon sector. Oil pipelines are critical to the economy. Such critical infrastructure is essential for oil trade, which is the primary source of the country’s earnings. Therefore, pipeline infrastructure of the country is an asset and important to national security.

Security of infrastructure has become an important issue for the UAE government. A threat to the transportation infrastructure and to that of the hydrocarbon industry is abundant (Malek, “UAE needs better protection of critical infrastructure” 2014). Protecting the critical infrastructure is a challenge for the country’s authorities and major unrests in the region puts them in a vulnerable position. Critical infrastructure for the UAE is oil, gas, water, and electricity (Malek, “UAE needs better protection of critical infrastructure” 2014). The essential infrastructure services like transportation and the critical sectors like water, oil, and gas are essential for the UAE and hence are easy targets by different threats (Malek, “UAE needs better protection of critical infrastructure” 2014). Hence, protecting the infrastructure that the country builds is essential as it depends on such sources. Attacking these critical infrastructures may put the country in a vulnerable position.

The United Arab Emirates has substantial benefits from its aviation and transporting systems. In most cases, the benefits to the economic development are taken into consideration. It is predetermined by the fact that the economic development is the most vivid example of the positive outcomes (Oxford Economics 2009). Thus, the aviation industry in the United Arab Emirates enhances the GDP per capita. In addition, the well-developed aviation provides more residents with job opportunities. Finally, taxes are also influenced as the country receives more revenues. Still, Oxford Economics emphasizes the fact that the “economic footprint” is not the only positive aspect of the country’s aviation and transportation systems. Positive influences can be divided into three sub-groups. The first one has been already discussed. The second point refers to the issue of customers’ satisfaction. Thus, all people who use services in the United Arab Emirates (passengers of planes or ships) enjoy the high-quality services and facilitate the further development and intention to meet all consumers’ needs (Oxford Economics 2009). In addition, the advanced system of connections between cities and even countries leads to increasing investments and expansion of the business.

The location of the United Arab Emirates and the availability of resources predetermine the need for the continuous improvement of homeland security and border control. The United Arab Emirates consists of seven emirates that are developed in terms of infrastructure. Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the most significant emirates. The geographical condition and the economic vision of the country make infrastructure imperative. The increasing threat to its infrastructure and economy from non-Emirates and other foreign forces creates the necessity to revamp the security system in place within the country (Malek, UAE needs better protection of critical infrastructure 2014). The political unrest in the Middle East and neighboring African regions increased security instability within the country. Further, the large expatriate population of the UAE (mostly Indians and Pakistanis) poses a threat to the security of the country as the socio-political unrest in their countries make spillover to the UAE (“United Arab Emirates 2015 Crime and Safety Report: Abu Dhabi” 2015). The country, since its independence in 1970 from the British Empire, has shown significant growth. However, the 2008 financial crisis negatively affected the economy, even though it was quick to recover from it. The two major sectors of the country are hydrocarbon and infrastructure. The country has extensively its infrastructure both in the critical and services sector. However, economic growth, infrastructure development, and oil resources need security from external threats. That is why security is an important concern for the UAE.

Peculiarities of Border Control and Homeland Security

Background information

The UAE was formed by six “Trucial” states when they gained independence from the British Empire in 1971 (Katzman 2015). The country adopted a constitution in 1996 (Foley 1999). Ras al-Khaimah tried to gain independence but due to the lack of resources and international support it joined the federation in 1972 (Foley 1999, Katzman 2015). Presently, UAE is formed by the states of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras al Khaimah, Umm al-Qaiwan, and Ajman (Foley 1999). Post-independence there were a problem with the control of power and the warring Emiratis as well as opposition from neighboring states (Katzman 2015). For instance, Saudi Arabia did not recognize the United Arab Emirates as the federative country because of the disagreement about the Al Buraymi Oasis (Katzman 2015).

In the 1981, Iran-Iraq War and the 1990 war with Iraq questioned the security policy of the country (Katzman 2015). Further, during the Iran-Iraq war, there was a split in the support for Iran, when Abu Dhabi and Ras al-Khaimah supported Iraq while Sharjah, Umm al-Qawain, and Dubai supported Iran (Foley 1999). The reason for such dissent was due to the autonomous nature of the Emiratis and their armed forces (Foley 1999). In 1980, due to the increase in instability in the region, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) (Katzman 2015).

One of the main adversaries of the UAE is Iran. The whole of GCC has formed an alliance with the US to counter Iran that destabilizes peace in the Middle East (Katzman 2015). The strife between Iran and the UAE stated due to a dispute of many islands on the Persian Gulf. During 1971, Iran, then ruled by Soviet-backed shah, seized many of the Greater and Lesser Tunb islands from Ras al-Khaymah (Katzman 2015). Further, in 1992, Iran claimed Abu Musa and assumed complete control over the island (Katzman 2015). To settle the disagreement peacefully, Sharjah agreed to let Iran establish military objects in the northern part of the island while Sharjah’s civilian population lived in the southern part of the region (Katzman 2015). The situation was peaceful until the 1990s but tension began when Iran refused to allow workers from the UAE to disembark on Abu Musa, despite the agreement with Sharjah (Katzman 2015). Even though, this issue was solved without aggravation but it signals that Iran’s actions may be unpredictable.

Current Stage of Development of the United Arab Emirates

At the current stage, the level of development of the country (especially of Dubai and Abu Dhabi) predetermines the need for the advanced border control (Saif 2009). The location of the country in the unstable region makes it necessary to be ready for possible aggravations at any time. The history of the Gulf region has proved several times that safety is more about illusion than reality there. The region itself is important for the global community because of its wealth due to natural resources. In the last thirty years, the region, including the United Arab Emirates, became an area for such conflicts as the Iran-Iraq War, The Gulf War of 1990-1991, and the invasion of the US’ military forces in Iraq in 2003 (Al Kaabi and Al Kaabi 2011). After these events, the political power of Iraq decreased drastically, and Iran became of the main disturbing powers in the Arabian states. As Al Kaabi et al. write, “Under the pretext of wanting to establish a new reign of hegemony, Iran has been meddling in the internal affairs of the Gulf States and the region by using Shia minorities as a tool to spread its influence” (Al Kaabi and Al Kaabi 2011, 1).

International Collaboration

Nonproliferation Treaty

The UAE became the member of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NTP) in 1995 and the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) in 2003, signing an additional protocol in 2005 (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2016). The United Arab Emirates displayed desire to promote peace in the world by signing the Nonproliferation Treaty (Malek, “Praise for UAE stand on non-proliferation” 2014). The Nonproliferation Treaty means that the UAE will not become the manufacturer of the atomic bomb and weapons of mass destruction. This factor is important for the current research because it provides an insight into the country’s security issues. The treaty did not allow the UAE to import enriched uranium preventing the possibility of nuclear enrichment (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2016).

In 2014, the United Arab Emirates discussed the creation of the zone in the Middle East that would be free of weapons of mass destruction (Malek, “Praise for UAE stand on non-proliferation” 2014). The United Arab Emirates aims to accomplish this aim to make the Gulf region safe for any international and regional transactions and collaborations. According to the information in the article, the International Atomic Energy Agency’s protocol concerning the nuclear collaboration between the United Arab Emirates and the United States of America was signed in 2013 (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2016). Thus, the first state admits its devotion to avoid works related to plutonium separation or enrichment of uranium. However, it is still clear that the formation of the zone free of weapons of massive distractions is impossible now (Malek, “Praise for UAE stand on non-proliferation” 2014). This conclusion is logical because of the Iran’s nuclear activities, the Yemen War, and other conflicts.

The international collaboration of the country is important to represent its status as a reliable, safe, and secure country. In addition, the international collaboration is a part of homeland security as far as the country receives necessary support and protection in case of some threat. The United Arab Emirates has been demonstrating its commitment to the peaceful existence in recent years. In 2008, the country actively supported “White Paper” which meant the dedication to the ideas of the use of nuclear energy for peaceful aims (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2016). In 2009, the state signed an agreement on nuclear collaboration with the US to forego uranium enrichment and contributed ten million dollars into the IAEA fuel bank — an international organization that fights with illegal enrichment of uranium (Nuclear Threat Initiative 2016).

Fighting Terrorism

The United Arab Emirates signed the International Convention on the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism in 2005. Mohamed Ali Al Shamsi supported the country’s devotion towards fighting terrorism at the Fourth Review of the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. This is because the country has dedicated a lot of energy on arresting Al Queda operatives, denouncing terror attacks, improving border security and so on (Katzman 2015). Al Shamsi described national policies of the United Arab Emirates concerning the promotion of peace (The National 2014). Fighting terrorism is a significant part of the border control (The National 2014). Terrorist attacks are extremely dangerous for the country’s security. Thus, the initiatives and policies devoted to eliminating and preventing terrorist attacks are necessary for the country.

The Development of the System of Law

The UAE has restricted trafficking of illicit goods through its borders. The aim of the law is to stop the transportation of illicit materials on the borders (Dunne 2012). The government presented a law in 2007 that presupposed the exact and stringent regulations for export (Dunne 2012). According to the Chapter 1 of this law, “new law authorizes the concerned authorities to ban or restrict the importing, exporting or re-exporting of any commodity for reasons related to safety, public health, environment, natural resources, national security” (WAM 2007, par. 1). There was also the right to ban the export of weapons or any other military materials as well as biological and chemical substances. This law enforced the establishment of the special committee that should handle the processes of import and export. A year later, the regulations became more severe. The law contains detailed lists of prohibited materials for export or import. It describes all necessary actions in case of violations and potential fines (WAM 2007).

In 2014, the 14th International Export Control Conference called for increased security measures to enhance nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction (Dubai Customs 2014). The Committee was accountable to the Council of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and it, in its turn, to the President of the United Arab Emirates. The enhancement of this Law Committee is of great significance for the border security (Dubai Customs 2014). It conducts necessary procedures for control including the supervision of licensing, the entrance of materials, inspection, investigation, reporting, disclosure, and documentation of all transactions. There are representatives of the Committee in every emirate (Dubai Customs 2014).

Since 2010, the United Arab Emirates continued improving the system of law especially for export control. It was done as a reaction to the severe imposition of a new wave of sanctions on Iran. The country aimed to prevent the re-export of technologies to Iran by implementing stricter measures of export control (Katzman 2015).

In 2014, the director of Dubai Customs introduced intentions of the Committee by stating, “We at Dubai Customs are committed to rigorously implementing both local and international export control regulations instituted to curb the spread of weapons of mass destruction globally” (Dubai Customs 2014). This shows the country’s emphasis on control of terrorism and illegal transactions through its borders.

The United Arab Emirates has a unique system of the approach to border control known as “strategic trade control” (Dunne 2012). The government has signed many treaties to enhance the enforcement of strategic trade controls. These agreements include the Non-Proliferation Treaty of 2006, Chemical Weapon Convention 2000, Missile Technology Control Regime, and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (Dunne 2012).

These issues are crucial to the investigation of the legal regulations connected with homeland security and border control. The United Arab Emirates, being a rapidly developing country, faces numerous challenges connected with the protection of borders. The significance of the legal system should not be underestimated in this respect. Regulations of border control procedures predetermine the country’s readiness and intention to prevent possible aggravations and violations. International collaboration and national laws of the United Arab Emirates demonstrate the country’s aim to become a superior country in terms of border protection.

Border Control

Land Border

Land Border
Source: (Maps of World 2016).

Oman and Saudi Arabia surrounds the UAE on the south. The Gulf borders it in the north. Land borders of the country may be observed in the map.

The United Arab Emirates has built fences along borders with Saudi Arabia and Oman to enhance border control (Katzman 2015). The country has signed a treaty with the US to stop the proliferation and terrorism through its borders (Katzman 2015). Such protection of land borders is necessary for the prevention of illegal activity.

The land outlets that the UAE has can be divided according to the Emirates they belong to. Abu Dhabi has the maximum number of land outlets (five land outlets), Dubai has one, Sharjah has one, and Ras al Khaima has one. The names of the land outlets in Abu Dhabi are – Al Gwifat outlet, Al Hili outlet, Al Maqdif outlet, Mazeed outlet, and Khatam Al Shaklah outlet (General Authority of Ports Borders and Free Zone Security 2013). Border security, especially over the land outlets, has been increased in the UAE. One particular checkpoint was that of the Dubai’s Hata outlet that leads to Oman that allows all nationals to cross the border to Dubai into Oman. However, other checkpoints such as Al Madheef and Al Hilli are open only to GCC nationals (Gulf News 2016). Security over border check posts were increased in Hilli Border, where until 2012, UAE residents could cross by showing their passport and not getting it stamped. However, since 2013, immigration stamp has become mandatory for all. Increased restrictions for travellers show the importance of border security for the UAE. Border security has been continually increased in the UAE to fight threats of terrorism through its borders.

Sea Border

United Arab Emirates shares sea borders with Qatar, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, and Bahrain. Besides, the Strait of Hormuz (the most significant import point in the area) is located along its coastline (Cordesman 2015).

Sea Border
Source: (World Atlas 2016).

The latest innovation for the protected of ports was launched in Abu Dhabi — two flying drones that control the zone (The National 2014). The significance of sea borders in the United Arab Emirates cannot be overestimated. The state borders with Persian Gulf (the most significant gulf in the region), and all activity should be monitored there (The National 2014). The reason for such need lays in the fact that the United Arab Emirates shares sea borders with unstable countries. Consequently, there is a need to protect all sea borders to prevent illegal activities (The National 2014). Further, the Dubai Customs Intelligence Unit at Port Rashid in Dubai collaborates with the US Customs and Border Protection Force to do a checkup of US containers that originate from Iran (Katzman 2015). The country also a signatory of the Megaports Initiative that aims to stop the proliferation of illicit products through ports (Katzman 2015).

The UAE has many ports. Abu Dhabi has four ports – Zaid Port, masfah port, Magraq port, and Al Hor port. Dubai has four ports – Rashid port, Jabal Ali port, Al Homariah port, and Dubai Drydocks world. Sharjah has three ports – Khalid port, Al Homariah port, and Khorfakkan port. Ajman has Ajman port and Umm Al Quwain has Ahmed bin Rashid port. Ras Al Khimah has five ports – Saqr port, Al geer port, Ras Al Khaimah Creek port, Al Jazeerah al Hamra Port, and Ras Al Khaimah Maritime City. Fujairah has two ports – Fujairah port and Diba Al Fujairah port.. Apart from increased security in the ports, the UAE has leased an Eritrean port in 2015 to increase military base to combat Houthi rebels in Yemen (Fitzgerald 2015). Such increased military operation over the sea shows that the UAE has increased its security measures to counter rebel activity beyond its borders.

Air Traffic Control

Major airports in the United Arab Emirates are presented in the following image.

Air Traffic Control
(UAE Airports Map).

The system of border controls in the United Arab Emirates aims at providing the maximum safety and security for conducting all types of border-crossing services. The tourists who are going to visit the United Arab Emirates must have the entry visa that should be arranged at the place of leaving before arrival. However, some nationalities do not have to follow the described procedure. Those who belong to the list of exceptions can obtain the visa after the arrival. It is necessary to make a visa and have a sponsor for the visit for representatives of nationalities that do not fall into the group of exceptions (UAEinteract 2016). Such system lets the United Arab Emirates to improve border control and evaluate the efficiency of protection systems. In addition, the country can analyze the rate of violations among nationalities that do not have to follow requirements of the advanced procedures (mostly Middle East nations) and those who have to follow all procedures.

The government of the United Arab Emirates continuously seeks new ways of improvement of security measures. Iris recognition can serve as an example of advanced verification systems (Al-Raisi and Al-Khouri 2008). These practices are predetermined by the need to identify intruders who may use new technologies.

The UAE has eight airports namely – Abu Dhabi International Airport, Al Ain International Airport, Al Bateen Airport, Dubai International Airport, Sharjah International Airport, Ajman International Airport, RAK International Airport, and Fujairah International Airport (General Authority of Ports Borders and Free Zone Security 2013). The UAE has adopted biometric technologies to revamp its airport security system (Lee 2016). The UAE launched “e-Border,” which is a multi-biometrics border management system that uses Iris recognition to identify its citizens. This is practical way of identifying citizens as many women in the region have their faces covered. The airport authorities in the UAE also use facial recognition and automated fingerprint identification system, allowing accurate identification of its citizens (Lee 2016).

Special Case of Border Control at Madha

Special Case of Border Control at Madha
(Henzell, John).
Special Case of Border Control at Madha
Source: (World travel guide).

According to Hanzell, Madha is a landlocked island that is surrounded by Sharjah, Fujairah and Ras Al Khaimah (Henzell 2012). It has an area of 75 hectares and has a population of approximately 2,000 people (Henzell 2012). Inside the Madha settlement, there is a small village called Nahwa that has around 40 houses. This village, though a part of Sharjah, is enclosed by Oman (Henzell 2012). The situation is controversial for border control (Henzell 2012). The controversy about enclaves concerns the border control procedures. Thus, there are checkpoints of both Oman and the United Arab Emirates. Numerous checkpoints make it frustrating for tourists to travel (Henzell 2012). If all of the checkpoints are saved, the number of tourists may decrease. At the same time, checkpoints are necessary for the proper protection of country’s borders. This situation creates a kind of paradox within the United Arab Emirates’ border control system. This case may serve as a vivid example of the possible controversy of the system of border protection in the country. In addition, it demonstrates that challenges may occur even in the smallest regions.

Madha is a special case within the UAE as this provides a unique situation wherein the region is blessed with both oil-resources and fertile land, a combination rarely found in the region. Therefore, this area becomes a hot spot for both the business elites of the world as well as the tourists because of tis natural beauty. The land is wealthy in terms of its resources and natural endowments. Consequently, it has been an area of dispute over the ages. The UAE had contested for this peninsula until the 1980s but left all its claims thereafter. Therefore, this region must be considered as a special case of border security, which presently is under Omani control.

People Who Work at Cross Points

People who work at cross points should have particular skills and knowledge to conduct their duties to deliver the best service at the borders. They should realize the significance of their responsibilities. One individual who works at border cross points has been interviewed. He is a Sergeant Amer Al Jaberi of the Interior Ministry’s General Directorate of Residency and Foreigners Affairs (WAM 2015). He introduced the information that all people who work at border cross points undergo particular training programs. They should also have a relevant university education to work in these areas. According to information provided by Al Jaberi, they are required to have a high level of awareness about all potential threats and ways of their overcoming (WAM 2015). Al Jaberi’s sharing of knowledge is useful for the understanding of what is required to become a good protector of borders (WAM 2015). We have learned that people who work at cross points should have good physical conditioning and critical thinking skills.

The Role of Yemeni Conflict in Border Control

Current instability and military conflict in Yemen prove the necessity to improve border control in the United Arab Emirates. In 2015, the country sent troops to Yemen along with Saudi Arabia to control the Zaidi Shiite Houthi rebels (Katzman 2015). According to intelligence reports, the Houthi rebels are supported by Iran in their effort to increase regional imbalance (Katzman 2015). It is estimated that the regional instability cannot be eliminated quickly. Consequently, there is a need to protect borders and the state. Started in 2015, the situation in Yemen was about fighting for the governmental power in the country. Four major forces are involved: the separatists, activists devoted to the government, forces of the former president, and ISIL people (Katzman 2015). Though the conflict is far from the UAE, the country supports Gulf States in resolving the conflict (Katzman 2015). It has particular concerns because of the possible aggravation of the situation. The situation in Yemen is important for the United Arab Emirates because the neighboring country, Saudi Arabia, is involved in the conflict. In the case of intensification, the United Arab Emirates may be under the threat.

Development of Border

The United Arab Emirates spares no means to improve homeland security. The United Arab Emirates plans to double the expenses on border control (“UAE Sets $10 Billion for Homeland Security” 2014). Consequently, the state is going to contribute 10$ billion within the following decades for homeland security systems improvement (“UAE Sets $10 Billion for Homeland Security” 2014). The investments in the aviation infrastructure are more likely to reach almost 60$ million in one year (“UAE to invest $10 billion in 10 years for homeland security” 2014).

The United Arab Emirates plans to launch the system that employs eye scan, fingerprinting, and facial recognition. The need for change is largely predetermined by the foreseen increase of travelers (Malek, “UAE needs better protection of critical infrastructure” 2014). Sheikh Ahmed, Dubai civil aviation president, discussed the importance of borders at the Future of Borders conference in March 2015. He said, “Borders are strategic partners for airports. They should prepare themselves for more important and challenging role in the future” (“Sheikh Ahmed raises the Importance of borders debate” 2015). Sheikh Ahmed introduced the information about state’s intention to constantly develop border control systems. E-technology, do-it-yourself methods, and smart gates are examples of recent innovations.

The increasing attention to the development of borders is predetermined by the government’s aim to prevent the entry of extremist groups in the country (Katzman 2015). In addition, the United Arab Emirates becomes a popular destination for tourists (Malek, “UAE needs better protection of critical infrastructure” 2014). The government should make sure that the country is safe for the further development of this business sector.

The most recent innovation to the border control systems was introduced in October 2015. A new microscope can scan any documents, ID cards, and even tickets. The creator of this machine is a Sergeant Amer Al Jaberi of the Interior Ministry’s General Directorate of Residency and Foreigners Affairs. The quality of this microscope in twenty times betters than that is of other devices (see Appendix B for more details). In addition, a low-cost, eco-friendly invention enhances security at airports significantly (WAM 2015). Thus, Lt. General Sheikh Saif bin Zayed Al Nahyan actively supports the innovation (WAM 2015). The support is predetermined by the need to improve border control due to potential threats constantly.

It should be added, that such counterfeit passport detector belongs to advance technologies (WAM 2015). This factor proves the United Arab Emirates’ intention to make the country safe and protected. In addition, the creator of the detection, Sergeant Amer Al Jaberi, is young, and this fact shows the youth’s devotion to the improving of country’s future. The efficiency of Al Jaberi’s device has been already proved. In October 2015, border control service of Sharjah managed to detain individuals who had fake one hundred billion dollars (“Ministry sergeant invents ‘green’ passport scanner” 2015).

Homeland Security

Historical perspective and the current development of the United Arab Emirates are two primary reasons that define the need for the advanced border control. Thus, Iran’s claims about three islands prove the abruptness of its activities. Nowadays, the increasing influx of travelers and growing economy predetermine the necessity to improve border control systems as well. The international collaboration makes the United Arab Emirates an exemplary country in terms of nuclear activities and fighting terrorism. The government recognizes the necessity to enhance the efficiency of border control measures. The recent innovations include smart gates and new microscopes for the detection of fake passport holders.

Challenges in Border Security

Cyberspace

Cyberspace gives immense opportunities for development (Neaimi, Ranginya and Lutaaya 2015). These opportunities attract the attention of different hackers or organized groups at the same time. Cyberspace of the United Arab Emirates has become a target for numerous cyber-attacks due to the economic growth. Cyber-attacks can affect the state on the national level (“Cyber Terrorism: The Arab World’s Invisible Threat” 2012). Passwords manipulation, corrupted programs, malware, fishing belong to the active practices of cyber-attacks (Neaimi, Ranginya and Lutaaya 2015). In 2012, the government of the United Arab Emirates improved cyberspace criminal laws. Besides, two new laws were introduced: “Law No. 3 of 2012 on Establishing the National Electronic Security Authority (E-Security Authority Law)” and “Law No. 5 of 2012 Concerning Combating Information Technology Crimes (Cyber Crimes Law)” (Beretta and Berached 2013). The recent investigation has demonstrated that the United Arab Emirates is the second country with the most numerous cyber-attacks in the Middle East (Katzman 2015). In 2016, the United Arab Emirates has started to collaborate with the UK to improve cyber security on the national level (Malek, “UAE needs better protection of critical infrastructure” 2014). The United Kingdom is known to have advanced cyber security systems. The United Arab Emirates is ready to cooperate with the UK and find some new ways to reduce cyber-attacks to the minimum.

The example of cyber terrorism can be malware known as Gauss. It is a virus designed to track banking data on the level of nations (Katzman 2015). It is not dangerous to the average user, but can do a lot of harm to country’s systems. The virus attacked nuclear information of Iran and was found in other countries including the United Arab Emirates (“Cyber Terrorism: The Arab World’s Invisible Threat” 2012). It is an example of the real danger that modern countries face. The significance of cyber security should not be neglected as far as it is crucial for homeland security (Neaimi, Ranginya and Lutaaya 2015).

Terrorism

Terrorism is another threat to the border security of the United Arab Emirates. The situation between Middle East countries is tense. That is why the United Arab Emirates face the problem of possible terrorist attacks. According to Al Khoori, members of a terrorist group known as Shabab Al Manara have been sent to the Federal Court for trial (Katzman 2015). Their aim was to overthrow government via attacks (Katzman 2015). Terrorists’ objective was to establish an Islamic state in the United Arab Emirates. In addition, they aimed to bomb public places and chaos (Katzman 2015). This situation serves as the example that terrorism is always a relevant threat.

This piece of news is not the only example of the challenges of the United Arab Emirates. The country is actively engaged in the process of eliminating any terrorism activity not only within the country, but also within the other Arab states in the region. For instance, the United Arab Emirates provided financial assistance for moderate Islamic forces fighting in Syria. The United Arab Emirates spares no means for prevention of the activity of extremist Islamic groups (Katzman 2015). Also, Katzman writes, “The UAE and Saudi Arabia also have worked to undermine other Muslim Brotherhood-related organizations in the region, including Hamas” (Katzman 2015, 13). This information justifies the government’s investing in the improvement of border control and homeland security. One may conclude that terrorism comprises a continuous and developing threat to the country, and it is necessary to be ready to react to it. Described cases are examples of the successful confrontation with terrorism. However, the numerous and large investments of the country directed towards protection and identification devices demonstrate that the threat of terrorism cannot be eliminated easily. The United Arab Emirates realizes that the terrorist groups use advanced technology too, and it makes the process of fighting terrorism long lasting and constant.

Drug Trafficking

The smuggling of illegal substances is the other threat to the border security. Trafficking of drugs and people undermines the idea of the rule of law in the country. UN names the UAE in the list that shows countries prone to illegal drug trafficking (“War on drugs: UAE raises the stakes for traffickers and dealers” 2014). The inner integrity is essential for the border security as well. If there is the rule of law in all aspects, the country will be protected adequately. The United Arab Emirates utilizes strict measures such as death sentence for drug trafficking. For instance, in 2012, Abu Dhabi Criminal Court conducted a trial on three Asian men who tried to smuggle more than fifty kilograms of hashish to Saudi Arabia. The accused were sentenced to death (“3 sentenced to death for drug trafficking” 2012). Those three criminals were caught on the borders of the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi Criminal Court demonstrated that the severest measures should be applied to those who do not follow the rules. The case is one more example of the fact that threats never disappear, and the country should always be prepared to violations that are more serious. Legal regulations of the smuggling of illegal substances are directly connected to the social and religious background of the United Arab Emirates. This fact demonstrates that the country’s protection of border control is a means of protecting the purity of cultural values as well. The country has taken adequate steps to counter illicit drug trafficking in the UAE (“War on drugs: UAE raises the stakes for traffickers and dealers” 2014).

Illegal Weapon and Equipment Smuggling

Illegal weapons and equipment may be used for manufacturing of different types of weaponry for wars. The United Arab Emirates has to control this aspect too, especially in relation to Iraq that is the primary threat to border security. The United Arab Emirates has faced the problem of illegal trafficking for many times. For instance, in 2009, “authorities captured a cargo shipment illegally carrying North Korean weapons, which included nuclear missile-related materials and were headed to Iran” (Issa 2011). The same article describes the seizure of sixteen thousand pistols that were heading to Yemen. Smuggling of illegal weapons of this kind can unsettle the situation in the area (Issa 2011). In the article provided, both instances of smuggling to provide information about weapons that are to be used in large-scale military conflicts. This information also proves the topicality of the current research and the need to improve border control. The United Arab Emirates has to eliminate such practices to prove its intention to promote peace in the Middle East.

Homeland security

The government of the United Arab Emirates has to improve its system of law and security measures constantly. Although various modifications and advancements have been made, examples demonstrate that violations of border control law are still relevant. Thus, cyberspace of the countries is always under the threat of such malware as Gauss. News reports of terrorism show the presence of fanatics who want to unsettle the stability. Drug trafficking is an illegal activity that should be eliminated. Smuggling of weapons comprises the concern for the country as far as it can be used for the aggravation of the situation in the whole Gulf region. All these examples are challenges to border control and they prove the fact that the malefactors employ technologies that are more advanced in their activity too. Thereafter, the country has to address every challenge with maximum efficiency.

Research Findings

Qualitative method

Numerous researchers have tried to investigate the homeland security and border control in the United Arab Emirates. Some of them state that the political stability of the United Arab Emirates is impressive if taking into consideration continuous conflicts in the Middle East region. Thus, Anne Aartun points out that the government of the United Arab Emirates, in order to maintain its political stability, used the oil-based economy and political behavior as a rentier state (Aartun 2002). Despite this fact, some other sources emphasize the potential threat of instability in the region. Thus, the World Economic Forum mentions that the rapid economic development of the United Arab Emirates may be undermined by the geopolitical instability in the area (World Economic Forum 2007). Yet, there is lack of research concerning the investigation of residents’ awareness of the border control measures and homeland security issues. The aim of the research below was to investigate knowledge of border control and homeland security issues of citizens of the United Arab Emirates. This information interests us for several reasons:

Recent news demonstrates that the government of the country finances the border control actively. It is worth to know whether people are aware of these intentions.

It is useful to know whether the residents of such economically developed country comprehend the importance of border control for the overall prosperity.

Data Collection

A questionnaire of ten questions was prepared for the research. The questionnaire was sent to fifty individuals for them to choose the most appropriate answer. Thus, all respondents were instructed to write down one of the following answers under each question: Agree, Strong Agree, Disagree, and Strong Disagree. One can find the full version of the questionnaire in Appendix C.

Thus, the current research was based on indirect interviews of fifty respondents. Respondents were chosen randomly. Before sending the questionnaire, everyone was asked about the willingness to answer several questions about border control and homeland security. In addition, every potential respondent was notified that questionnaire would be anonymous. After receiving the agreement, questionnaires were sent to respondents. The latter was given one week to answer the questions and send the file back.

Data Analysis

An inductive approach is used for the evaluation of results as far as conclusions should be based on data. One can find answers of five respondents in Appendix C. These five answers are provided as the example of what has been done. Answers of all fifty respondents may be summarized in the following table:

Number of question Agree Strong Agree Disagree Strong disagree
1 30 20
2 28 22
3 43 7
4 5 45
5 50
6 12 13 18 7
7 17 33
8 19 12 19
9 14 8 28
10 33 17

One week after sending the questionnaire, respondents’ answers were gathered and evaluated. All respondents were given the same questions about border control and homeland security in the United Arab Emirates. To make the process of questioning comfortable and not time-consuming, the questions were designed in such a way that they can be answered by choosing one of the suggested variants (Agree, Strong Agree, Disagree, and Strong Disagree). It should be added, that all respondents provided answers to questions quickly and without delays. Together with filled questionnaire, some respondents left remarks concerning the type of research. Some of them were glad to participate while others shared their opinion that they could not express what they wanted with the help of the suggested answers. Such information provides the opportunity for further improvements in following types of research. In addition, the accuracy of information depends on the respondents’ willingness to share their points of view.

The research was completed in one month. One week was devoted to the development of questions and finding respondents. One week was given respondents to submit their answers. The evaluation and analysis of results lasted for the rest of time.

The reason for the questionnaire was the fact that little attention is paid to the awareness of masses of border control and homeland security issues. On the one hand, there is no need to dwell on possible threats constantly to avoid panic or exaggerations. On the other side, it is useful to analyze the people’s awareness of the problem and study their attitude towards government’s activities in this sector.

Analysis of questionnaire

The general outcome of the survey demonstrates that respondents are aware of the most significant notions referring to border control and homeland security issues. It is necessary to evaluate every answer separately. Thus, the predominant part of respondents considers that homeland security is primarily about preventing terrorism and illegal activity. Thus, they know the most important function of homeland security. Based on the results of the research, one can state that residents realize the significance of economic development and agree that there is the connection between the economy and homeland security. Most people believe that border control influences the life of the common people, though seven respondents express the opposite opinion. This statement is proved by answers deriving from the fifth question. Thus, forty-five responders do not believe that border control influences only those who work there. All respondents unanimously agree that the primary function of border control is to protect the country. The sixth question presents that there is a lack of knowledge about types of border control procedures because respondents are not sure whether fingerprinting is the most efficient way of checking. Despite the majority’s understanding of the primary function of border control, respondents do not support government’s initiatives to finance border control intensely. Perhaps, this attitude is caused by the unawareness for reasons for such actions as it is proved in the next question. Twenty-eight respondents consider that there are other significant threats to homeland security. Finally, all interviewees agree that the current situations in Yemen and Syria serve as a sign for government’s concern about homeland security.

Outcomes

The aim of the questioning was to evaluate the level of residents’ awareness about homeland security and border control in the United Arab Emirates. The research is motivated by the fact that there is a lack of investigations of people’s opinions about homeland security. Results have shown that most respondents realize the importance of homeland security. However, they are not sure about the reasons for the recent initiative to finance border control actively.

The results of the questionnaire have demonstrated that residents are aware of the most widespread challenges to the border control. They realize that the government invests in border control to protect the country from terrorism, smuggling, and drug trafficking. In addition, residents of the United Arab Emirates comprehend that the protection of border control is crucial for the further development and prosperity of the country and its citizens.

The research findings demonstrate that general awareness of the public is present in the UAE regarding the threats to the border and homeland security. This is important for the policy makers, as a public awareness of the issue will help garner support from the masses towards security measures undertaken by the government. Further, public opinion also allows the government to take strong measures to control the terrorist threats that the country faces and take a strong stand amidst regional unrest. As the citizens are aware of the regional volatility and political instability, they are more likely to have a strong opinion regarding the country’s stand in the situation. This helps the government to gauge the public opinion and take action accordingly.

Conclusions

Summary of Findings

The United Arab Emirates is a modern country with a developed infrastructure and economy. The instability of the region, as well as country’s prosperity, predetermines the need to improve border control measures. The United Arab Emirates is an active participant of the international agreements concerning the regulation of nuclear activities in the countries. Even more, the state is a model of excellent collaboration. Besides, the government continues investing in new methods of border control such as smart gates.

The level of residents’ awareness in terms of homeland security and border control is rather good. Thus, they comprehend that there is a connection between border control and economic condition in the country. In addition, all respondents agree that the existing disturbing situations in Yemen and Syria prove the geopolitical instability in the Middle East.

The United Arab Emirates realizes that the instability in the region cannot be eliminated in the soon future. The government should always finance and improve border control to prevent potential threats. The state is moving in the right direction and conducts everything required to provide travelers with a safe service and residents with protected lands. The United Arab Emirates’ initiative to establish a zone free of nuclear weapons demonstrates its intention to enhance the development of the whole region of the Middle East. Still, peaceful environment in the area is not possible until numerous conflicts are solved.

Analysis

The analysis of the secondary research shows that the borders of the UAE are porous, which makes it susceptible to the terrorist attacks, illegal trafficking of drugs, or trafficking. Regional unrest due to the building tension with Iran increases the propensity of military attack on the country. Given this situation, the awareness of the people of the strategic security condition is necessary. The primary survey shows that the people are aware of the security condition in the country and the factors that ails the country.

Implications for Future Research

Homeland security and border control issues should be further investigated and compared to the primary data. First is that the level of border control and homeland security will be improving. Because of particular changes, residents’ opinions concerning border control issues can be altered. This change can be measured with the help of further investigations. In addition, other pieces of research will be appropriate for the comparison of the citizens’ attitude towards governmental activities and finding the level of satisfaction. It can be useful to evaluate the country’s approach to homeland security and border control and define the theoretical background for it. Constant development of both security measures and threats makes this topic relevant. Future research may investigate the influence of security advances on the prevention of threats and overcoming challenges.

Lessons Learned

The United Arab Emirates is a young country that has demonstrated impressive economic growth and the overall development (World Economic Forum). The United Arab Emirates is rich in oil. This resource is central to the country, and it has brought it prosperity as well. The United Arab Emirates has been developing as a rentier country. Two oil booms in the 1970s and 2000s resulted in the United Arab Emirates becoming one of the most successful countries in the world (MERI 2015).

The United Arab Emirates may be classified as a rentier state because natural resource comprises the largest part of its revenues (Aartun 2002). However, the country develops private and public sectors as well. This statement can be proved by the flexible system of taxation and the fact that seventy percent of Emirate is engaged in non-oil sectors (Aartun 2002). As a well-developed country, the United Arab Emirates should protect borders and face numerous challenges. Apart from this, the location of the country is one more challenge.

The United Arab Emirates is located in the Middle East – region that is characterized by constant instability. There is a threat of possible aggravation of the situation. Other threats to homeland security include cyber-attacks, terrorism, drug trafficking, and weapon smuggling. The country realizes the significance to eliminate these perils. The government spares no means to improve border control (“UAE to invest $10 billion in 10 years for homeland security” 2014). The United Arab Emirates implements various ways of identity verification — an important procedure that allows identifying intruders. Iris recognition is considered to be one of the most recent innovations that make it possible to check the individual with maximum efficiency and accuracy (Al-Raisi and Al-Khouri 2008). The country does not underestimate the role of robotic devices for the monitoring of the activities at the borders. In 2014, remote flying drones were used for the control of the Abu Dhabi’s port (The National 2014). The use of the recently invented machine that identifies fake documents is another proof of the United Arab Emirates’ intention to have a superior border control and homeland security (WAM 2015). We have learned that the country has significant reasons to improve border control such as the increasing development and the constant changes in the Middle East region. In addition, it was found that the United Arab Emirates employs advanced and new methods to protect the country.

Recommendation

The research shows that the threats that the country faces most are from the regional unrest that makes the borders volatile. The condition in the region is unstable due to the political situation with the UAE’s neighbor Iran, the rising insecurity from terrorist groups that have attacked the gas lines, and cyber attack. The main issues that the policy makers should concentrate on are – border control for illegal immigration and smuggling, cyber attacks, and rising militarization in the Middle East.

The aim of the paper is to understand the security issues faced by the UAE and how it can improve it in future. The analysis of the various sides of the socio-economic and political background of the country helps to assess the threats that the country face. The United Arab Emirates is located in the Middle East. This region is characterized by constant instability. The situation may aggravate any moment due to the rise in the difference with the neighboring countries over oil trade and other issues. The rise of terrorism and social unrest also contributes to the rising threat. Other threats to homeland security include cyber-attacks, terrorism, drug trafficking, and weapon smuggling.

The country realizes the significance to eliminate these perils. The paper proposes to provide a holistic view of the overall security issues, the past steps that have been taken to counter the increasing threat from terrorism and regional military escalations as well as the internal economic threats that may cripple the economy and pose a serious threat to the security of the country. The physical threat posed to the country is by terrorism, rising regional unrest, social movements, and military escalation along the borders of the country. Apart from these, cyber threat looms large over the UAE, as the country has already been targeted to such occurrences in the recent past. The paper proposes understanding these threats in depth and provides recommendations regarding policy issues to counter such threats. The paper proposes studying all social, economic, and political issues that the country presently face and then analyze how they contribute to increasing or dissipating security threats to the country. The paper uses both primary and secondary data to understand who the security threats are perceived by the citizens of the country and how the media and other bystanders view the issues. Further, the paper looks into the rise of security issues that the country face and how it has affected it.

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