Human Anatomy and Physiology

Human body Organs

The human body functions through a network of connections of the organ systems. Each organ system is structured to serve a specific purpose that enables the body to maintain homeostasis (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 19). The body system functions like a computer connection, whereby if there is any fault, the entire system fails to function. Therefore, this paper explores types of body systems, their functions, and interrelationship. Also, the production of insulin and its role in maintaining the body’s sugar levels is examined.

Human Body Systems, Functions, and Interrelationship

The human body systems include digestive, urinary, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, lymphatic, nervous, skeletal, muscular, and endocrine systems (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 19). The functions of each system are elaborated in Table 1 below.

Table 1: Functions of the human body systems.

System Functions
Digestive system Responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients in the body (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 456). It determines how vitamins, minerals, and other essential nutrients are absorbed, utilized, stored, or excreted from the body.
Urinary system Eliminates waste products of metabolism, maintains body fluid balance, electrolyte concentration, and normal blood PH (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 504)
Cardiovascular Facilitates the transportation of blood throughout the body organs (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 370).
Respiratory system Facilitates gaseous exchange through breathing (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 430).
Reproductive system Triggers the production of sperms and ovaries (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 536).
Lymphatic system Protects the body against infections by maintaining the body fluid levels through tissue drainage and excretion of the cellular wastes from the system. It also absorbs fats from the digestive tract through the lacteals (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 406).
Nervous system Controls the body reflexes, including the voluntary and involuntary responses and reception of sensory data (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 223).
Muscular system Controls voluntary motion, heartbeat, vasoconstriction, and vasodilation (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 174).
Skeletal system Controls the body movement by protecting the internal organs to maintain the body shape (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 112).
Endocrine system The system has glands that secrete hormones which regulate and promotes life process such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and control of blood glucose (Tortora and Derrickson, 2017, p. 307).

Interrelationship of the System

The nervous system controls the circulatory system through the brain. The reason is that the heat cannot beat without the brain reception (Murphy et al.2018, para. 8). Similarly, the skeletal system is dependent on the digestive system because it supplies the system with the energy it requires to perform its tasks (Murphy et al. 2018, para. 8). Also, the brain controls all the body systems to intercept the specific response and perform their specific task. For instance, the brain controls the contraction of muscles in the muscular system to enable the movement of body parts such as the arms and limbs.

Relationship between

Nervous and Muscular Skeletal System

The nervous system, through the brain, sends signals to the muscular-skeletal system to perform specific functions that protect the body (Aspelund et al. 2018, para. 5). For instance, if one wants to move their limbs, the brain sends signals to the limb muscles, and movement begins. Similarly, the nervous system signals the muscular system to cause shivering when temperatures drop (Aspelund et al. 2018, para. 5). The skeletal muscle begins shivering before the body replicates that.

Circulatory and the Lymphatic System

The circulatory and Lymphatic system helps regulate the water levels and pressure. Both systems transport the excess fluids from the interstitial spaces in the body to the bloodstream (Aspelund et al. 2018, para. 5). This system ensures that the body tissues receive the nutrients they need and excrete the wastes accordingly.

Role of Circulatory and Lymphatic system in the Immune system

The circulatory system houses the endocrine hormones which support the production of white cells responsible for fighting infections (Aspelund et al. 2018, para. 5). Similarly, the lymphatic system produces white blood cells, a defense cell that monitors and destroys invaders. The cells block invasive substances such as fungi, parasites, bacteria, and viruses that spread infections in the body (Aspelund et al. 2018, para. 5). Therefore, both act as a defensive mechanism against infection.

Role of Hormones in the Metabolic process

Hormones act as messengers that regulate the metabolic process by suppressing or increasing the rate of a specific action (Bevilacqua and Bizzarri, 2018, para. 7). For instance, an obese person produces high leptin hormone to help inhibit the urge to eat and suppress fat storage. The leptin hormone is responsible for triggering and hindering hunger. Therefore, they regulate an increase and decrease in metabolic processes in the body.


Insulin is a hormone released to help absorb glucose into the body cells for energy and future use (Bevilacqua and Bizzarri, 2018, para. 5). When the blood sugar is high, insulin signals the liver, muscle, and fat cells to absorb the glucose from the bloodstream for energy at that time. Similarly, when the sugar levels drop, insulin signals the liver to release the stored sugars for use.

Self Reflection

Each part of the human anatomy functions for a collective goal. The different structures such as the cardiovascular, digestive, and lymphatic help the body maintain its normal functions. It is exceptional how each system communicates with the other systems to sustain normal functions. Even when one system fails, the interconnection is something to ponder, considering that one failure corresponds to a complete system failure.

In conclusion, the human body system is a crucial element in maintaining functionality. Both systems have different roles but still interconnects through a single receptor which is the brain. The brain is a fundamental organ that supports hormone production and releases to sustain crucial processes such as blood sugar control and fight against infections that may jeopardize the functionality of the systems and body organs.

Reference List

Aspelund, A., Robciuc, M.R., Karaman, S., Makinen, T. and Alitalo, K., 2016. Lymphatic system in cardiovascular medicine. Circulation research, 118(3), pp.515-530.

Bevilacqua, A. and Bizzarri, M., 2018. Inositols in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. International journal of endocrinology, 2018.

Murphy, A.C., Muldoon, S.F., Baker, D., Lastowka, A., Bennett, B., Yang, M., and Bassett, D.S., 2018. Structure, function, and control of the human musculoskeletal network. PLoS biology, 16(1), p.e2002811.

Tortora, G.J. and Derrickson, B.H., 2017. Introduction to the human body. John Wiley & Sons.