The industrial revolution of the 21st century has worsened the problems related to industrial waste. The innovation of new products like computers, food substances, and drugs, chemicals for commercial or domestic purposes has led to more waste generation. Industrial operations take various forms and these include production, processing, or manufacturing. Depending on the form of operations and industry type, industrial wastes are referred to as either hazardous or non-hazardous. Hazardous wastes are mainly associated with non agricultural industries; most of these industries emit toxic wastes in the manufacturing process. Agricultural related industries mainly produce non-hazardous wastes. On several occasions, the wastes are biodegradable thus posing no danger to the environment. However, these industries may generate hazardous wastes on rare occasions depending on the form of operation and the kind of industry. Industrial wastes take several forms- liquid, solid, fumes and gas- and control measures for these forms of waste are also different. Industries are supposed to take the responsibility of either minimizing the amount of waste produced or proper handling of wastes produced (the United States Environmental Protection Agency 117). Improper disposal of waste can pose a danger to humans, other living organisms and the environment. Disposal of industrial wastes should be done in a way that does not cause any adverse effects on human health and environmental safety. Disposal of hazardous wastes should be done in a careful and professional manner as they can have very serious effects on human beings, other living organisms and the environment. Their disposal may be through incineration, throwing of the waste into the deep sea or detoxification of the waste before release. Non- hazardous wastes especially biodegradable ones can be disposed of through land filling, compositing or by throwing them directly to the farm fields to serve as manure (Scientific Applications International Corporation 29).
Currently, many countries have set down rules and regulations to govern the disposal of hazardous wastes. These rules and regulations are contained in various Acts such as the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Integrated Pollution Prevention Control, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Violations of these rules and regulations call for stiff penalties on the violators. Industries are also supposed to apply immediate measures in order to control the extent of harm they pose to human health and environmental safety. Industrial wastes can be a source of income for the industry when recycled waste products are sold. The management of industrial wastes takes the form of cycle from generation, collection, transportation and finally, disposal. Precautions should be taken at all levels to avoid any leakage into the environment. This research paper addresses how operations of industries produce wastes, management of the wastes generated and state regulations that govern the management of industrial wastes (Environmental Protection Agency 110).
How functioning industries produce wastes
Raw materials used by the industries to produce the end products are not fully consumed in the process. The remnants of the raw materials after the manufacture of the desired products are termed as waste. Along the manufacturing process emissions of gases or fumes are also considered as waste. Other manufacturing processes may produce wastes in the form of solid or liquid. The wastes produced are either hazardous or non-hazardous depending on the form of operation or the kind of industry. Wastes that may be a considerable threat to human health or environmental safety are referred to as hazardous wastes. These wastes have the following characteristics: highly reactive, corrosives, highly flammable and high levels of toxicity. This calls for the careful handling and disposal of these wastes. During the industrial processes workers are advised to put on protective gear in order to prevent any chances of sustaining occupational illness and injuries that may be caused by the hazardous wastes (Guinée 67). Chemical manufacturing industries produce acidic and basic wastes in form of spent solvent. These solvents are corrosive and may cause serious burns on the skin. This solvent may also cause micro organisms in the soils thus interfering with the ecosystem, spills cause the death of marine organisms. Reactive waste is also generated from chemical industries especially those dealing with nuclear related materials. These wastes are explosive and may cause fire when they are not carefully handled (Meiners 47). Waste water generated by the chemical industries contains organic constituents that may have adverse effects on the environment particularly the non biodegradable constituents. Printing industries produce heavy metal solutions; some are known to cause cancer when they find their way to the human body. Waste inks and other poisonous wastes are also produced they are potential pollutants to water bodies, and they should not be disposed of in any water body. However, if successful pre-treatment is done they can be channeled in a water body with the approval of the relevant authority. Ink sludge having heavy metals is also produced in printing industries (Environ Holdings 25).
Petroleum refining industries produce wastewater containing benzene and other hydrocarbons. The refining process may lead to the production of sludge having the same hydrocarbons as the wastewater. Leather manufacturing industries generate benzene and toluene wastes. Paper industries generate paint waste which may contain heavy metal and highly inflammable solvents. This poses a high risk of fire outbreaks and cancer due to the heavy metals. Construction industry wastes include ignitable paper paint and spent solvents. The solvent may be highly basic or acidic depending on the raw materials used. Metal manufacturing industries generate sludge containing heavy metals cyanide wastes and paint wastes are also generated. Some domestic waste is also classified as hazardous wastes, however most of them overlap that is being hazardous and non hazardous. Domestic wastes considered to be hazardous include automotive wastes which are used in antifreeze and motor oils, cleaning agents, pesticides, propane cylinders and refrigerant appliances. Due to the high cost of disposing of hazardous wastes, most hazardous domestic wastes are disposed of together with other municipal wastes. The processing step that generates waste should be handled by qualified professionals or automated to lower the risk of human health pollution. Workers should put on protective gear such as masks, gloves, overall, helmets and face shields (The European Union Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law 34).
Various ways of disposing of hazardous wastes
Recycling: Some hazardous waste can be salvaged to make new products, for instance circuit boards or lead-acid batteries. The heavy metal contained in these appliances can be covered and then reused as new products. Dense fly ash from coal-ignited fire plants can be treated and used to bind other wastes. This helps in converting the wastes into easily disposable solids, these solids can also be used to fill pavements.
Portland cement: Cement-based stabilization and solidification is another commonly used mode of waste treatment. Cement treats many forms of hazardous wastes by recuperating physical characteristics and lowering the toxicity of the wastes. The final cement produced is classified depending on its components and strength. The process may involve the use of PH adjustment reagents, phosphates to hasten the curing process and increase the strength of the cement formed.
Neutralization: Hazardous wastes are subjected to a process of removing or neutralizing the toxic components. For instance corrosive acids can be used to neutralize basic hazardous wastes in order to lender the non corrosive. Adjustment of PH is another form of neutralizing hazardous wastes as the leaching ability of the waste is significantly reduced.
Incineration: This is the reduction of hazardous wastes to energy, by burning the wastes under very high temperatures. Highly flammable wastes can be burnt out to generate energy for other uses. Incineration is used to destroy hospital hazardous wastes such as the placenta, other human organs and used needles as it kills all the disease causing microorganisms. During the process of combustion harmful gas may be emitted causing air pollution. However, current technology has developed incinerators that control these harmful emissions, hence the form of treatment is considered to be the most appropriate option. A new form of incinerator referred to as starved air incinerator is modified in order to control the amount of oxygen let in. This helps in the control of emissions to the atmosphere as it is able to control the rate of combustion. It is an expensive method and all industries may not afford so they adopt other methods. Installation of the incinerator requires a large amount of money, its maintenance is also expensive as it needs professional operation and a high quantity of fuel.
Landfilling: This involves burying hazardous wastes arranged in layers with soil in a dome shaped excavation. The landfill serves as a permanent disposal facility; every layer is covered with soil until when it is full. On the final soil cover grass is planted and the surface can be used as a playing field but it should never be used for construction purposes. The process is affordable if as it only requires the acquisition of idle land or a mining excavation for putting the layers of hazardous wastes. Landfill should be located in places that do not cause pollution of underground water pollution due to seepage.
Pyrolysis: The wastes are subjected to ultra high temperatures in an inert environment to avoid any combustion. This method is preferred to incineration at high temperatures to destroy wastes such as pesticides, concentrated organic wastes like PCBs and persistent organic contaminants. The process does not produce emissions since combustion does not take place. It is a safe and effective method of industrial waste management (the United States Environmental Protection Agency 29).
Non hazardous wastes do not have serious effects on human health and environmental safety as is the case with hazardous waste. In an industrial setting the waste is classified depending on the level of the wastes. Class 1 consists of substances having specific toxic chemicals whose levels are lower than for hazardous wastes. Empty containers that initially contained hazardous wastes and solid and semi-solid substances which show corrosive characteristics when mixed are also in class 1 of nonhazardous wastes. Class 2 containers that have had hazardous wastes but the residues have been washed away and the container is being used. Aerosol cans have already been depleted and non-radioactive wastes from the medical facilities. Other class 2 wastes include papers, cardboard and paper packaging which are not considered as hazardous in the class 1 category. Food wastes, plastics and aluminium foils resulting from either production/ processing in laboratory operations. Class three include all wastes that do not meet any condition of class 1 and class 2. It includes chemicals and insoluble substances that do not contain any hydrocarbon elements. These wastes do not pose any danger to human health and environmental safety. Apart from the above named nonhazardous wastes other wastes are also from domestic activities and from municipal activities. However, industries still generate a good percentage of non hazardous wastes which requires proper management. The wastes are also referred to as garbage or trash, they are mostly biodegradable. When not properly managed the waste becomes an eye sore to the people living nearby and encourages the breeding of flies and mosquitoes. Decomposing wastes produce a bad odor which is a nuisance to the public. Flies transfer disease causing organisms to food stuff, this may lead to outbreaks of diseases such as typhoid. Class 1, 2 and 3 of hazardous wastes can be managed in the same way as hazardous wastes. Their disposal can be through recycling, Landfilling, incineration and Portland cement method. However, their impacts to human health and environmental safety are mild and the industries do not have to incur so much expense in managing them.
Disposal of non-hazardous wastes
Landfilling: In the same way as hazardous wastes nonhazardous wastes are piled in a landfill/excavation and each layer is covered with soil until it is full. Gases such methane produced form landfills can be used as source of energy.
Composting: The wastes are put in a compost pit and allowed to decompose; the compost pit is covered to keep away flies. The composted waste can be used as manure. Management of non- hazardous wastes is easier and cheap for industries as compared to hazardous wastes management.
Almost every activity in industry produces waste, this calls for proper ways of reducing waste production in order to make its management easier and affordable. This applies to both hazardous and non hazardous wastes; in the waste management hierarchy reduction waste is the top priority. The least preferred choice is the use of land waste disposal because of the risk if poses to human health and environmental safety. Waste reduction practices such as reuse and recycling normally turn back the waste flow into a production procedure. This is a very effective and economical way of managing wastes. The waste minimization approach is usually termed as a pollution prevention approach. Of late the approach has gained a lot of popularity, though other waste management activities like landfills and incineration are not 100 % effective. Landfills may cause underground water pollution by leachate; incineration emits poisonous gases which cause air pollution, the cost of incineration is high and some industries may not afford to install and maintain it as a waste management strategy (the United States Environmental Protection Agency 34).
Waste reduction takes various forms; source reduction entails reduction of any wastes getting into the flow or any release of the waste to the environment before recycling or treatment. Waste minimization involves activities that reduce any environmental/health contaminants that are related to hazardous waste. To achieve this measure such as neutralization of hazardous wastes, reuse, recycle and detoxification may be applied. Source separation ensures that hazardous wastes are not mixed with non hazardous wastes. Though it does not reduce the quantity of waste, it ensures that the amount being managed as hazardous wastes is reduced. Reuse or recycling entails removing reusable wastes and returning them back to the flow. Recycling can be done within the production stream itself or the offsite. Another form of recycling is whereby the reusable wastes are channelled to another industry. Substituting hazardous raw materials with less hazardous in order to minimize the amount of hazardous wastes released at the end. The manufacturing procedures can be adjusted in order to eliminate the processes that produce hazardous wastes and replace them with steps that produce less hazardous waste. The hazardous steps may also be substituted with steps that do no produce waste at all. Stopping the use of hazardous products for instance replacing creosote preserved wooden posts with posts made of cement ensures that there are no wastes that would leach from either post (Norwegian Pollution Control Authority 21).
Monetization of wastes
Recycling industrial wastes bring monetary benefit to the industry and to the public as well. Recycled wastes are used to manufacture new products, when sold the products earn money to the company. Some wastes can be used directly this saves the company from incurring expenses of purchasing new materials. When wastes are recycled there are reduced adverse effects on human health and environmental safety. This amount to environmental benefits, pollution control authorities incur lesser cost in controlling pollution. Energy generated from the incineration of wastes can be sold out or used by the energy in its manufacturing processes (University of Toronto 38). Landfills normally generate methane, this is a cooking gas and the industries can sell it out or use the gas in its manufacturing process if it is possible. Pollution causes environmental degradation and adverse effects on human health. Effects of pollution may cost the state a lot of cash, for instance global warming which has led to change of climate. Most farmers have had poor harvests which led to huge losses in terms of money. Heavy metals such as lead cause cancer, treatment and other pollution related illness are expensive to individuals and the state as well. Non-hazardous wastes which are biodegradable can be composted; the compost can be used in farms. The use of compost reduces the need for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides which cause environmental degradation and adverse effects on human health. The maintenance cast of a composit pit is lower than the cost of maintaining a landfill so the industry spends less money (the United States Environmental Protection Agency 16).
In managing waste an industry incurs expenses, for instance the cost of installing and maintaining an incinerator is very high. Its installation requires qualified professionals, the company has to hire them. Daily running of the incinerator requires a lot of fuel in order to ensure that the temperatures are high as needed. Industry has also to employ a qualified professional to monitor the daily operation of the incinerator. Waste requires careful handling in order to avoid any human or environmental danger due to contaminants resulting from the wastes. Persons handling the wastes have to put on protective gears some of which are very expensive to buy. Treating waste before releasing it to the environment so as to prevent any environmental pollution is also expensive to the industries. Wastes need to be transported from where they are generated to the point of treatment. Some waste especially hazardous wastes requires special mode of transportation in order to avoid any leakage along the way (Hadeed 21). The company has to buy or hire these transportation facilities. Loading and offloading of wastes add more expenses. Land filling and composting of wastes require adequate space for excavation. If an industry does not have land of its own, it is forced to buy; in congested areas the cost of waste land may be expensive. Chemical used to neutralize waste in order to reduce their adverse effects on human health and environmental safety has to be bought (Riley 18).
Management of waste involves careful handling of waste at all levels. These levels are generation, storage, transportation and treatment. After the generation of wastes, proper storage is paramount, precautions taken at this level depend on the type of wastes. Storage facilities should be non corrosive, covered, labelled to enhance safe storage of the wastes. Hazardous wastes need to be stored in covered containers; the containers should be marked to alert people that they should keep off. Highly flammable and reactive wastes should be stored away in areas where they not likely to catch fire easily. Scavengers should be kept away from the storage sites, generally the area should be fenced and only authorized people should be allowed in. Transportation of wastes should be done using recommended vehicles; transport of hazardous waste should be done by vehicles that are covered to ensure there are no leakages along the way. On some occasions transportation of these wastes may require security escort to make sure that the waste is safely transported to the expected site. Once at the disposal site the wastes assume various methods of treatment depending on the form. These methods may include recycling, incineration, Landfilling, compositing, neutralization and Portland cement (the United States Environmental Protection Agency 26).
Practical solutions of waste recycling
Many industrial wastes can be salvaged ah reused as new products. Before embarking on the recycling process waste separation should be done, reusable wastes are separated from no reusable wastes. Recycling of industrial wastes takes three forms, onsite recycling when the process of recycling takes place within the facility, offsite recycling wastes can be transported to commercial facilities which collect wastes from a variety of industries for recycling. Finally the wastes can be channeled to other industries, whereby industrial wastes of one industry act as raw materials of another company. Many industries which recycle industrial wastes mostly involve three forms of procedures. Theses processes are solvent and metal recovery, and recovery of organic components such as waste oils and non-solvent untreated wastes. Offsite recovery of hazardous wastes is risky because of the dangerous characteristics of hazardous wastes. The wastes are highly flammable, reactive and corrosive; they may catch fire during transportation or corrode the transporting facilities. The fear of these accidents and spills during the process of transportation discourages industries from off site recovery. The cost of transporting hazardous wastes is another hindrance and companies prefer to recycle the wastes on the site rather than offsite or channelling the wastes to another industry. Industries that burn their wastes for the purpose of energy recovery in industrial boilers and furnaces also consider this as a mode of waste recycling. However, has been criticized by environmental groups because it emits some poisonous gases to the environment. They claim that the process does meet the goal of waste reduction by recycling. The cost of recycled products is lower as compared to new products; many developing countries have adopted this method. However, recycling is not mostly used in developed countries as they consider it to be uneconomical. This brings controversy as because most of the developed countries are known to produce a lot of hazardous wastes from the industrial sector (Norwegian Pollution Control Authority 21).
If not controlled hazardous wastes would cause adverse effects to human health and environmental safety. Pollutants emitted from industries cause pollution of ozone layer, which can later lead to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Oil spills cause skin rashes and irritation, heavy metals cause neurological defects. There have been reported cases of industrial workers suffering from birth defects and cancer as a result of radioactive material from waste products. In addition, the combination of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide acts to reduce the PH value of the soil. The soil becomes infertile hence low crop production is likely to be observed. The accumulation of haze and smog traps sunlight meant to reach plants, effectively compromising photosynthesis. Consequently, a tropospheric zone is formed. Green house gases cause global warming that has adverse effects on the ecosystems. In order to protect the environment and human beings fro the negative effects of pollution caused by industrial wastes nations have enacted rules and regulations (the United States Environmental Protection Agency 7).
Best Available Technique (BAT) was set to encourage industries to choose the process that would not cause pollution to the environment. The industries are also required to reduce pollutants to acceptable levels if they can not eliminate them completely. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was enacted in 1976, it requires that hazardous wastes to be tracked. The tracking should begin from generation to final disposition, other level such as collection, storage and transportation should be closely monitored to avoid any contamination. The Act helps in monitoring hazardous wastes and reduces the quantity of waste that is illegitimately disposed. Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) were enacted in the year 1980 with the aim of cleaning and remediation filled and neglected hazardous wastes grounds. The industries responsible were required to do the cleaning, on accessions when the industries could not be identified the acting agency would incur the expenses of cleaning. Before the enactment of this act industries use to dispose hazardous waste even in ordinary landfills meant for nonhazardous wastes. This caused pollution of underground water through seepage of the poisonous substances. Currently the Act requires the sites to be used for landfills to measure for any possibilities of ground water pollution. Clean Water Act (CWA) advocates for protection of surface water, by controlling direct discharge of waste into the water bodies. The Act also provides funds to municipal wastewater management facilities and treats polluted runoff. Industries are instructed not to directly discharge waste water or other waste directly to the water bodies. They are required to carry out pre-treatment of wastewater and another solvent before discharging them tom water bodies. Industries require approval of the discharges by a public health professional before their release into water bodies. The Act also provides for regular monitoring of water bodies in order to detect any elements of pollution. Penalties are imposed on industries that dispose of untreated wastes to the water bodies (the United States Environmental Protection Agency 15).
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Act (IPPCA) spells out the obligations of industries that have high pollution abilities. The act also establishes the process of licensing these industries upon meeting the minimum set standards. This is geared towards the prevention and reduction of atmosphere, land and water pollution. In order to receive the permit these industries are required to use all necessary pollution control measures, which allow production of the least amount of wastes, use raw materials that are less hazardous and put up ways of recovering wastes. Measures that prevent mass pollution should be in place, methods of disposing wastes should cause very little or no pollution at all. The occurrence of accidents resulting in wastes should be minimal. The permit contains specific requirements, limit values of poisonous emissions excluding greenhouse gases, measures of protecting soil, air and water and control of transboundary pollution. The verdict to give a permit of not to an industry should be publicized and made available to other states concerned. These states must be member states, the carry out a thorough investigation in order to verify the feasibility of the permit verdict given. IIPC ensures that industries with high pollution capacity are set in way that avoids cross contamination of the environment by regulation pollution control measures of these industries. Clean Air Act protects and promotes the quality of air resources through control of pollutants getting into the atmosphere. The Act initiates and continues research on projects that would help in preventing and controlling air pollution. It also provides monetary support to the country and local organizations dealing with the prevention of air pollution programs. Industries producing emissions that are likely to pollute the air are encouraged to set control measures such as pre-treatment of emissions before being released to the atmosphere. They are also required to use less polluted raw materials as they emit less poisonous gases. Comprehensive waste management requires the cooperation of the government, industry and consumers. Industries should reduce wastes produced by applying the Best Available Techniques. Government should regulate the activities of the industries in order to ensure that they adhere to the set guidelines. Encourage leasing of raw products to make sure that industries are using materials that cause mild adverse effects to human health and environmental safety. Customers should go for products that promote a clean environment by producing less or no waste at all upon their use. States and other non governmental organizations should embrace the obligations of controlling pollution emanating from industrial wastes. They should give financial support to industries to help them in implementing safe waste management practices (Environmental Protection Agency 13).
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggested pre-treatment of industrial wastes released to municipal sewerage systems. Due to the nature of many industrial wastes, when directly released to the municipal sewerage system they may be incompatible with the treatment procedures applied. Highly concentrated industrial discharges could interfere with the usual treatment processes of municipal water treatment systems. They contain substances that may corrode the pipes in the system; some may not be eliminated by the treatment process thus posing danger to human beings. Pre-treatment options should remove all substances that have the potential of interfering with the usual treatment processes. Industries should be guided on how to go about the pre treatment process by the state and international organizations dealing with pollution protection (Environmental Protection Agency 12).
Life cycle analysis
Life cycle analysis is the monitoring and evaluation of environmental effects resulting from the use of a particular product or service. In the life cycle assessment the products and services are evaluated to find out the constituents. Analysis of these constituents is done to find out whether they have any adverse effects on human health and environment safety. The impacts could be global warming, carcinogenic characteristics or acidification. The impact potential is then determined depending on the life cycle assessment results. Life cycle of wastes helps industry administration to find out how various waste products would cause adverse impacts on human health and environmental safety. With this knowledge they are able to come up with adequate precautions for controlling production of these wastes. Decision makers are able to choose raw materials and services that result in the least adverse effect on human health and environmental safety. The information can also be used to determine the cost and performance of products and services. It also aids in identification of any change in environmental effects from one form to another for instance elimination of air emissions through the creation of a wastewater discharge instead. Life cycle analysis also helps avoid the transfer of environmental adverse effects from one region to another (Braungart 34).
Waste hierarchy is a strategy that is used in the management of wastes. It aims at making maximum real benefits from the resources and to produce minimum quantity of wastes. This strategy is characterized by three Rs, listed in the order of importance. The 3Rs are reducing, reuse and recycling. Reducing advocates for buying less products and also consuming less. This eventually reduces the end products which mostly consist of waste materials. Reuse is collecting used products that have been discarded and using them once more. This reduces the quantity of wastes requiring management it is a cost effective method for the industry. However, this method is mostly practised in developing countries as its application in developed countries is considered to be uneconomical. Raw products and energy are saved as reusable products reduce the amount of products to be processed. The cost of disposing wastes is also reduced as less waste requires disposal. Recycling involves the separation of discarded products; materials that can be changed into new goods are recycled. The difference of recycling and reuse is that in recycling energy is required to modify the physical properties of products whereas in reuse no energy is needed (Braungart 45).
Statutory constraints in the management of industrial wastes
Waste management is an expensive task both to the state and the industries. Installation of waste management facilities such as incinerators requires a lot of money. Some countries especially the developing countries may not have the standard incinerator in the market. This calls for the importation of the facility, and this is a costly undertaking to a country. A state requires specialized professionals to assess the waste management facilities of various industries. Hiring of these professionals is expensive to the country. Some industries are reluctant to adopt waste management practices that reduce risk to human health and environmental safety, the stare has to follow the particular countries at times in vain. Countries may be required to supply raw materials which cause less pollution, most of which are a bit expensive. In the absence of economic stability, industries end up using low quality raw materials that produce harmful pollutants. Environmental degradation may lead to global warming which adversely affects the ecosystem. Climatic changes negatively affect the agricultural industry; there is reduced harvest in countries whereby agriculture is the backbone of the economy suffers from economic crisis. With a constrained economy the countries are not in a position to provide leasing services to the industries. Some industries especially the chemical manufacturing industries must produce hazardous even when the state has put precautionary measures. Regulation of waste production requires various control Acts to be formulated by the state. This is a rigorous process that may take a long duration of time and cost a lot of money to the country. Before formulation and enactment of various control Acts industries continues to produce waste and probably apply poor waste management procedures (United state department of labour 102).
The Industrial Revolution has led to a significant increase in both hazardous and non hazardous wastes. Industrial processes lead to the production of different wastes in gas, liquid or solid state. The hazardous or non hazardous state of the wastes depends on the kind of industry. Chemical manufacturing industries mostly generate hazardous wastes. Various industrial wastes cause varied degrees of harm to human health and environmental safety. Industries are supposed to take the responsibility of either minimizing the amount of waste produced or of proper handling of wastes produced. Improper disposal of waste can pose dangers to humans, other living organisms and the environment that they live in. Disposal of industrial wastes should be in a way that does not cause any adverse effects on human health and environmental safety. Disposal of hazardous wastes should be done in a careful and professional manner as they can cause very serious effects on human beings, other living organisms and the environment. Their disposal may be through incineration, throwing of the waste into the deep sea and detoxification of the waste before release. Non- hazardous wastes especially biodegradable ones can be disposed through ordinary land filling, compositing or thrown directly to the farm fields to serve as manure. The state, industries and the consumers all have a role to play advocating for proper management of wastes. All levels of waste management, collection, storage and transportation should be handled carefully in order to prevent any chances of contamination. The Acts that prevent negative effects on human health and environment safety due waste products should be promoted.
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