IT Outsourcing and Offshoring: Research Method and Design

Mixed Methods

Mixed research method is theoretically more multifaceted because it offers a foundation for triangulation. However, more frequently, the method turns out to be the base for diverse ways of modeling of a research problem. The method facilitates examining identical things from a diverse perspective, although it frequently emerges that the perspective means that varied ways of considering appearance of vision do not converge. Mixed method exploration entails a survey transcribed by exhaustive personality interviews, or observations utilized as the source of building a questionnaire. The ultimate type of mixed model research calls for a little elucidation. In a prior volume, Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) lengthen the concern of incorporating techniques to a set of extensive thought as opposed to the application of dissimilar techniques. They dispute that the problems are not intently on technique, but engrossing the blending of methodology. This may seem conceptual although it has major insinuations.

In this research, quantitative and qualitative methods that make up mixed research methods will be employed for there to be high-ranking results. The method is suitable for this study because it will enable the researcher to obtain fast hand data that will increase the reliability and validity of the study. At the earliest instance, questionnaires will be disseminated to senior IT outsourcing managers, asking them to give merits of outsourcing among other issues explored by the study. Later on, at an advanced stage, the researcher in this study will undertake a case study whereby top executives in IT outsourcing and off-shoring departments from different organizations will be interviewed to give their opinions and views. IT outsourcing and off-shoring officials, who might not have filled the questionnaires appropriately will have an opportunity of giving their views through narration. Combination of the two methods results in effective and resourceful information.

Research Designs

A number of author’s craft typologies of mixed methods research designs, depicting typically from advances utilized in evaluation (Greene et al., 1989), civic health (Steckler, McLeroy, Goodman, Bird & McCormick, 1992), and edification exploration (Creswell, 2002). For instance, Creswell et al. (2003) created a prudent structure for categorizing mixed methods research designs. There are various forms of designs. This survey utilizes the concurrent design type to conduct a survey on IT outsourcing and its benefits. Concurrent design comprises of triangulation, nested and transformative designs that make this design the most suitable for this study. Every design fluctuates with reverence to its employment of over hypothetical (advocacy) viewpoint advancement to execution.

Concurrent designs

This design is further divided into three subsections. All of the three subsections of the design will be utilized in conducting this study hence making the method suitable compared to other designs. The design provides the researcher with a variety of options that maximizes the suitability of the research. For the case of concurrent triangulation, information collected from the IT outsourcing and off-shoring top management will be analyzed and interpreted at the same time. The researcher has the potential of recording important information concurrently. Precedence is typically equivalent and specified to all varieties of statistics. Data scrutiny is frequently disconnected, and incorporation generally takes place at the data construal phase. Elucidation naturally entails talking about the level at which the information triangulate or congregate. This design is useful when trying to substantiate, cross-authenticate and confirm study results.

Another design is concurrent nested. Just like concurrent triangulation design, quantitative and qualitative data is gathered and investigated at the same time. Conversely, precedence is frequently lopsided and handed over to one of the two varieties of facts either quantitative or qualitative facts. The nested or entrenched variety of facts is in this plan (Mixed method research), typically awarded less precedence because it may end up responding to a different question. Data scrutiny generally entails renovating the data and incorporation that frequently takes place during the data investigation phase. This section of the design is valued mainly for advancing a wider standpoint on the theme and for studying diverse clusters, or echelons, within a particular exploration.

In comparison to the above design sections, concurrent transformation utilizes a clear advocacy perspective such as factor endowment theory feminist perspectives, critical theory among others that generally replicate it in the purpose statement, research questions and insinuations for behavior and alteration. Data obtained through questionnaires and interviewing is investigated at the same time. This means that the investigator will assemble information via the questionnaire from the IT outsourcing correspondents and off-shoring executive then wait for some time until interviews are conducted. Precedence may perhaps be lopsided and handed over to one type of design or the other or, in other instances, equal and presented to all forms of records. Data investigation is typically disconnected, and incorporation regularly takes place at the information elucidation juncture or, if altered, during information scrutiny (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). Similar to sequential transformative designs, this design is important for presenting influence to varied or substituted viewpoint, promoting explorative contestants, and enhancing perception of an event that might be varying because of investigation.

Research Questions in Mixed Method Research

A predominantly imperative design aspect of mixed method research is the level to which the method incorporates an overt purpose statement, research questions (RQs), and justification for employing both quantitative and qualitative methods and facts in an investigation (Creswell et al., 2003). As confirmed before, purpose statements and research questions exist as indicators and signs of classifying, indulging and appraising the diverse varieties of mixed methods research method. They furthermore figure out the investigations and incorporations of the outcomes. Having a well-envisioned validation is also imperative since it points out to the reader that quantitative and qualitative methods and information integrate deliberately and for justifiable reasons. Both qualitative and quantitative research questions and hypotheses sophisticated in a mixed methods research to facilitate constricted and centered purpose statements. These problems or premises augment at the commencement of a research or when in the advanced chapter of the study. For instance, if the research starts with a quantitative chapter, the canvasser may set up premises. Afterwards in the research, research queries may be posed. In this article, research questions may include:

  • What has led to the materialization and clinching of IT outsourcing and off shoring in a contemporary trading setting, compared to previous issues that may have been existing prior to its surfacing?
  • What are the major erratic and rewards that companies think about when developing the resolutions pertaining to outsourcing and off shoring their data methods?
  • What are the threats or shortcomings related to the application of IT outsourcing and off shoring? How do they bind the incorporation of IT outsourcing and off shoring in a trading setting?
  • What are the several distresses that the civil society may have as regards to outsourcing and off shoring, IT services? Are there any effects to the public because of outsourcing and off shoring?

Sampling Techniques

In qualitative research, the researcher decisively chooses individuals and sites that can offer the required data. This research will employ purposeful-sampling meaning that canvassers will deliberately pick contestants who have knowledge pertaining to IT outsourcing and off-shoring process that forms the key concept of the investigation. Several purposeful sampling policies are utilized in each step with a diverse function. This research in particular employs maximal variation sampling in which respondents selected have diverse points of views on the vital fact. The criterion for augmenting disparities relies on the investigation, although it may be race, gender, level of schooling, or any figure of aspects that would distinguish contestants. The overriding proposal is that if accomplices are in their earliest instance, their analysis replicates this distinction and offers high-quality qualitative research. A different model is to utilize an extreme case sampling of respondents who present strange IT outsourcing and off-shoring knowledge, upsetting, or progressive cases. On the contrary, a canvasser may apply homogeneous sampling of IT outsourcing and off-shoring respondents who have relationships with a subgroup with typical distinctiveness.

In quantitative research, the target of sampling respondents is to select those IT outsourcing and off-shoring respondents that are representative of a populace with the intention that the outcomes can be indiscriminate to a populace. In this fashion, canvassers first choose IT outsourcing and off-shoring respondents and classify them vigilantly. Then the sample is selected from this populace.

Even though not constantly practicable, random selection of respondents for the sample is in order for every IT out-sourcing and off-shoring correspondent to have an equivalent probability of choice. Probabilistic sampling entails indiscriminately selecting respondents founded on a methodical modus operandi such as the application of a random numbers table. Besides, the examiner will perhaps fancy certain distinctiveness embodied in the sample that could be far away from the percentage in the bigger populace. For instance, more females than males can be in the populace and a random sampling method sensibly will oversample females. Faced with this difficulty, the canvasser first stratifies the populace, for example, females and males and then indiscriminately samples inside every stratum. In this fashion, a comparative figure of participants on the stratification attribute embody in the ultimate sample selected for facts compilation. The researcher will follow the same procedure in this study whereby women IT outsourcing and off-shoring respondents will be set aside and a sizeable sample obtained from them.

Data Collection Methods

It is significant for the canvasser to select pertinent data collection methods for the inquiry because they will help him or her in completing the investigation successfully. The method chosen by the examiner verifies how data is generated in the course of investigation. The different methods of gathering data will diverge depending on the model that the study is utilizing. This study will employ interviews and questionnaires to collect data (Miles & Hurberman, 1994).

There are primary and secondary techniques of assembling data. Primary are the techniques that assemble data for the first time while secondary techniques are those that the researcher utilizes facts gathered by other researchers. According to Quinn (2002, p. 10), secondary data gathering techniques refer to the capacity of the investigator to perform a scrutiny of the data that already exists. This investigation will utilize both primary and secondary techniques to assemble data for the inquiry. The primary bases of information will emerge from the questionnaires and interviews administered by the canvasser. The secondary sources will comprise evaluation of both available and unpublished writing related to the appropriateness of IT out-sourcing and off shoring for employee performance in organizations. Primary sources will consist of the analysis of the results from the interviews and reactions from interviewees who are from the departments of IT out-sourcing and off-shoring (Jain, 2006, p. 376).

Data Analysis

Reactions to the interviews and questionnaires scrutinize through thematic examination. This instrument is well thought-out to be extremely inductive, as premises do not force data to the examiner but rather come from the data itself. In this technique, data from diverse citizens is contrasted and distinguished, relationships and dissimilarities acknowledged in a progression that persist until the investigator is contented that no more new concerns or topics are cropping up (Flick, et al. 2004). Thematic investigation selection based on the permits, rich in-depth and comprehensive connotation to derived from the assembled data. It entails coding of data pertaining to the upcoming themes (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Thematic scrutiny analyses the images systematically, permitting rich in-depth information to derive from the interviewees (Russell & Gery, 2009). This apparatus sorts the conclusions and results from a range of sources according to the rising premises, making it feasible to recognize similarities in the denotations and elucidations from the various respondents. The investigator is as well able to emphasize the main themes emerging from the interviewees (Salkind, 2008).

Operational Definition of Variables

Operational descriptions institute the policies and measures a canvasser plans to utilize to calculate and give connotation to variables and terms. The operational classification classifies markers that are observable events. The researcher in this study must be competent to pose a question, listen to reactions, observe manners, verify an action, and calculate a quality. The explanation institutes groupings of variables. The types must be equally exclusive and very comprehensive. Operational characterizations also ascertain the standard of evaluation the canvasser will employ to either acknowledge or rebuff the premises (King, 2004). If it is essential to inspect the reaction allotment of a variable prior to the measures for launching classes, then in the equipped description segment of the study suggestion the grouping of names can be specific, but the researcher should include a note signifying that every group will consist of about equivalent numbers of respondents.

Measurement

The effectiveness of any study device calculates in terms of consistency, validity and sensitivity as well as specificity. These impressions will as well be useful in this study since it is imperative for the researcher to establish the consistency of the study. As far as Clarke is concerned, reliability is the capacity by which an investigation is capable of generating outcomes that are unswerving and constant over a specified episode and given analogous state of affairs (Clarke, 1998). Ranges of validities that subsist include interior validity and exterior soundness. Internal legality relates to the relationship between items when measured on a scale. Every time a study presents the same outcomes after the submission of two different measures, the result alleges to be corresponding.

Validity is the degree at which a particular device premeditates to measure. The legitimacy of a study can fluctuate in diverse samples used. In a single circumstance, a study can be legitimate while in other situations, it may not. The strength of a study calculates the study it alleges to perform and the accessibility of rational errors in the conclusions haggard from the study. Crotty (2003) argues that interior legitimacy is the scope to which it is feasible to make autonomous allusion from the results of a study particularly if the independent variable manipulates the dependent variable. Alternatively, exterior validity is the universal relevance of the results of a study to other surroundings.

The measurement of the conjectural make up of a study is calculated using construct validity while convergent legitimacy makes evaluation between the scores acquired from diverse apparatus used in the study. Contrast to convergent validity, divergent validity balances the apparatus used in the study that measures contradictory perceptions. Given the above legality and consistency, the study is legal ad consistent for use by any person or tactical subdivision (Clarke, 1998)

References

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Jain, S. (2006). Emerging economies and the transformation of international business: Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRICs). New York, NY: Edward Elgar Publishing.

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Salkind, N. (2006). Exploring research. 7 Edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.

Steckler, A., McLeroy, K. R., Goodman, R. M., Bird, S. T., & McCormick, L. (1992). Toward integrating qualitative and quantitative methods: An introduction. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 1-8.

Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioural research. California, CA: Sage Publications.