Low Self-Esteem Women and Their Relationships with Men

Introduction

Relationships in this age and time are going through a series of problems. One of the major issues that most couples face is the issue of cheating spouses. This reason has several causes, and one of its major causes is women having low self-esteem issues (Stevenson-Hinde, 2007). These women would usually feel like they need to be on the look out for their partners because, they feel that their partners might leave them any time for another woman because they seem to lack something. That something that they seem to lack is referred to as low self-esteem.

Theory

There are several causes of low self-esteem, but the main issue that affects most women is the body image. A higher percentage of women in the country are either overweight or they do not like their bodies. For this reason, they think that their spouses might cheat on them with someone else, whom they deem to have the perfect body (Ackerman & Griskevicius, 2011). According to the American Psychiatric Association, the overall population that suffers from an eating disorder varied from 0.5% to 3.0% (APA, 1994).

Studies that have been done in the past show that there are two main eating disorders and they are Bulimia Nervosa and Anorexia. (Cohen 2006) It is mostly common with women (Hsu 1989). Another study done by Thompson and Heunberg extended on the impact of media on body image. (Cohen 2006) They found that women with the need for perfections are obsessed with body images, which then leads to body dissatisfaction. Most importantly in history of relationships between men and women, personalities have been playing great part in the way relationships are organized or structured.

A healthy relationship is full of trust, commitment, emotional closeness and encouragement for psychological soundness. On the other hand, self-esteem is a value that affects most or all parts of our lives. The level of self-esteem determines how one views the world and deduces every situation that comes by (Ackerman & Griskevicius, 2011). Most people do not understand that self-esteem plays a major role in developing a healthy relationship. In situations where relationships do not work, it is normally easy to blame the other spouse. Therefore, with a low self-esteem, romantic relationships could become a nightmare, and a source of depression, instead of providing support, security and happiness (Morton et al 2010).

Having a healthy relationship depends on having positive attitude and moods. Optimism is a major boost for forming healthy and long-term relationships. Nevertheless, people with low self-esteem usually have negative emotions and are not motivated to adjust their moods and emotions. Therefore, they end up feeling abandoned, distrust, have extreme and manic, and their intense feelings are normally not reciprocated (Brandell, 2010). The good news is that a healthy, romantic relationship can boost esteem. Not having a sense of worth in a relationship, the partner suffering from esteem issues, in this case the woman, may affect the relationships severely. Low self-esteem could make a woman stay in a relationship even after infidelity, they usually expect to be rejected, abandoned or even betrayed. They easily dissolve relationships after a short time and most of them suffer from increased levels of anxiety and stress. The most impact that is usually noticed is that most women suspect their spouses of cheating or infidelity, even if it is not so (Brandell, 2010). Basically, they are insecure and do not trust easily.

Low self-esteem could be traced from childhood, because during this age, children go through issues that may cause them to have low self-esteem. Some of these issues include constant teasing, therefore, the child develops low self-esteem and carries it to adulthood (Morton et al 2012). Since the behavior is shaped in the early childhood, it is necessary to understand the childhood history of both partners and to understand whether the future relationships are going to be a success or a failure. It can be noted that women with low self-esteem, have the tendencies of having higher expectations, lacking emotional stability and communication, and experiencing instability in relationships leading to the necessity of breaking-up based on the assumption that their partner is cheating.

Even though study is focused on the effects of separation on the women in previous relationships, it will still be necessary to consider certain issues concerning childhood; it is the childhood of the women with low self-esteem that is going to be dissected. Mary Ainsworth and her interpretation of attachment theory provide another important role for the given study. It is necessary to note that she added to the theory and expanding on the infant-mother relationships as a factor in forming attachment (Bretherton, 1994). In addition, since the mother-infant relationships are the first ones that a child forms, it can be considered that Ainsworth provided the basis for the attachment theory to develop, which is necessary for future research. Therefore, this research is going to be based on the studies done by Ainsworth and Bowlby.

According to Bowlby’s theory, the tendency to give strong attachment to the person whom a woman with low self-esteem indicates as her love interest is shaped at the earliest stages of development, i.e., in early childhood. Expanding on the idea that Bowlby offered to show how an attachment is formed at the early stage of a child’s development with the help of Darwin’s theory to explain how the relationships between a grown-up man and woman work.

Guidice and Belsky provide a theoretical background for the research: “Although only adult couple relationships involve sexual attraction, the main question is whether they also involve an attachment component” (Guidice & Belsky, 2010). However, the theory offered by Bowlby could use some improvements in psychoanalytic developmental theories that have been expanded later on (Brandell, 2010). While one has to give credit to Bowlby’s empiricism (Stevenson-Hinde, 2007), it must be admitted, the idea of attachment should be expanded.

Apart from other studies that the given research is going to focus on, projects on the Uganda study and the Baltimore study are going to be mainly used. The Uganda study will help classify the reaction of women with low self-esteem towards parting according to the classification of the relationships between a mother and a child provided by Ainsworth, i.e., avoidant, secure and resistant (Ijzendoorn & Sagi-Schwarz, 2008).

Finally, the famous Baltimore study is going to be a major help in conducting the research on the effects that divorces have on women with low self-esteem. Conducted in a German middle-class setting (Grossman, Grossman & Kindler, 2005), the given paper allows to consider a specific case and therefore, see how the attachment theory works in practice. With the help of the given two theories, it will be possible to differentiate between the behavioral patterns adopted from the earliest childhood, and the effects that the given patterns have on the women with low self-esteem and their interpretation of the female role in the relationships. It will be possible to consider the ways to change the patterns to a more comfortable attitude towards the relationships development.

On the one hand, it could be argued that other important factors should be considered when analyzing the development of relationships between couples, including their age gap, family/cultural background, among others (Stevenson-Hinde, 2007). However, it should also be taken into account that in women with low self-esteem, one can expect the feeling of guilt and even the tendency to take the blame for conflicts instead of working on a compromise, as well as questioning the faithfulness of her partner and believing that she is not attractive enough for him not to have affairs with other women (Guidice & Belsky, 2010). Though it will be a mistake to backup women with low self-esteem than the ones with a normal or high self-esteem, it can be still expected that such women are at fault because they ruin their own chances to build strong relationships. Therefore, it is crucial to figure out what exactly is the reason for a downgrade in the relationships between women with low self-esteem and men are. Moreover, to offer solutions to the problems that the specified type of problems women have. With the help of the analysis of behavioral patterns learned in the early childhood, one can possibly define the cause of the problem and come up with the ways to prevent it (Cohen, 2006).

In fact, there have been a number of past studies concerning the ways in which women with low self-esteem build their relationships with men. In addition, there is a lot of information concerning women’s reaction towards the separation process and the following possible depression (Cohen, 2006). Drawing conclusions between the given two types of studies will make it possible to come to conclusions about the women with low self-esteem and the way they handled previous separation depression. For example, there is a study that gives description of problems that women with low self-esteem typically face as well as show the specifics of their temper (Morton et al 2012). Another study evaluates the effects of female with low self-esteem in the relationships between men and women in general (Lormore, Spencer & Holmes, 2007). Finally, the link between low self-esteem in women and the urge to build unstable relationships that will ultimately resolve in a breakup must be made (Nunez, 1999). Even though the researcher does not provide a research on the women with low self-esteem, she still makes a connection between self-esteem and the effects of breakup, which is rather impressive and very helpful for the given study.

Niche

With the niche, it is necessary to note that the recent studies on the given issue concerned the effect of unstable relationships between a couple on children and the way this effect will shape the children’s behavior and future social and personal life (Ackerman, Griskevicius & Li, 2011). While the issue is important, researchers have not look at different angles with age and behavior, no one has studied the effects of breakup on women with low self-esteem. It is important to study the reactions of children towards their parents’ divorce, it is also necessary to keep in mind that women with low self-esteem are just as vulnerable. It is important to realize what makes women with low self-esteem the cause of destroying their own relationships.

Therefore, it is evident that levels of self-esteem have an impact on personal feedback that people look for in a relationship. For instance, women with low self-esteem prefer to interrelate with men who view themselves as them, or have low self-esteem as well. This is the reason why such women end up in relationships where their partners view them negatively (Grossman, Grossman & Kindler, 2005). Additionally, women with low self-esteem usually seek for approval or positive feedback, even if it is not verifiable. This can be explained by the fact that people with low self esteem are usually hurt by negative comments, even they are true therefore, they try to avoid it as much as possible (Brandell, 2010). To sum it all up, low self-esteem plays a major role in relationships, in that, it ends up affecting the relationship in a negative way.

It is necessary to note that the future research opens a new page in the study of the effects that low self-esteem has on relationships. Over the past few decades, the researches in breakups, divorces and other forms of interruption of relationships have had a tendency of focusing on children dramatically (Averdjik, Eisner & Ribeaud, 2012). The reason for the researchers to focus mostly on children and their reaction towards their parents’ separation probably came from the idea that adults already have their own behavioral patterns and life experience and they are more flexible towards stress, unlike children, who only learn to cope with their emotional state.

After long relationships and with a low self-esteem, it is very hard to work on building a new attitude and behavioral patterns, convincing one that a breakup or a conflict comes because of a wrong step. It is necessary to admit that the given study breaks new grounds in the research of the relation between female low self-esteem and the relationships development.

Therefore, the research question that is going to be answered in my paper is what effects low self-esteem has on women and their relationships with the opposite sex. The hypothesis for my paper is that women with low self-esteem tend to accuse their partners of cheating, so that women could convince themselves they are unattractive.

  • Methods
  • Participants
  • Characteristics.

There were a total of sixty female participants in the research study. Among the participants were thirty young adults and thirty old adults. The participants were ethnically diverse and their ages varied between the age of eighteen and thirty- three years old. The participants acknowledged themselves as East Indians, Latinos, Caucasians and African Americans. The participants in the research informed the researcher that their occupations varied, in that some were cashiers, Veterinarians, baby sitters, among others. However, a majority of them were stay at home moms and college students. There were also two women who tried to participate in the study but did not meet the requirement for the age bracket (18-33 years old); therefore, their data was not collected.

Recruitments

There was no screening for the participants that was involved in the research. The process was a basic stratified random sample. The method of stratified random sample uses the technique of probability. In this method, the researcher partitions the target population into various groups, and chooses the participants from the various groups. The participants were not hand picked; rather, only those who volunteered to participate in the research did so.

The process of recruitment mainly focused on gender, age and level of self-esteem of the participants. The age range that the researcher was looking for was between eighteen and thirty-three years old and all participants had to be women. The participants for the research saw the flyers posted on Rank’s Driving Schools Window, located on 92-16 Liberty Ave, Ozone Park 11417. The flyer mentioned that it was a research study that was looking for women between the ages of 18-33 years old. Women that were eligible were able to walk in and participate. (APPENDIX 1).

The flyer also stated that it was a study that helped compared women in different age groups and their level of self-esteem in their romantic relationship. The incentive was also included on the flyer that stated that participants will receive free driver’s manuals or motorcycle manuals(Appendix B) that were both available in English and Spanish upon completion of survey. The researchers name, Felicia A Jettoo was also on the flyer along with her phone number(718-641-9700) that she can be reached at incase there was any questions about the study.

Materials

The computer that was involved in the research study was a HP Omni 120-1020t all in one computer. (Appendix C)It is only sold in the United States. The release date was October 18, 2011. The size of the computer was 20-inch LCD panel, which is converted to 50.80 in centimeters. The windows edition is Windows 7 Pro. The informed consent was read to the participants. The informed consent stated that the study was voluntary and ensures the participants about risk (if any) involved in study. There were also one hundred and thirty copies of debriefing forms (Appendix E) that explained the purpose of the study, if deception was used and it also encourages questions participants had. The debriefing forms were printed one hundred and thirty times because all the participants received two, one to sign and one to keep. The debriefing forms also mentioned if there were any questions after the study was conducted, they were free to call the researcher at 718-641-9700 for further information.

There were one hundred and thirty prints out of surveys. There were also twenty questions per page. Participants were asked to answer the survey questions (Appendix F) in regards to their age, relationship status, how they felt about themselves and how they felt in their relationship. Some questions were filling in the blanks short answers. Questions were asked so the researcher could understand the feelings of women who were randomly selected. The answers to the questions asked to the different age groups would assist me in pin pointing their concerns in themselves and in their relationship as well.

The questions in the questionnaire are mainly focused on the age of the participants. This would assist in determining the age group that is mostly affected by the issue of low self-esteem, as a woman advances in age esteem issue either would advance to a critical stage or self esteem level will be reduced, depending on the environment that they come from. Ethnicity or cultural background is also important, and was included in the survey. This would assist in determining which ethnic group is mostly affected by low self-esteem. It would also help to determine how low self-esteem has affected their relationship with their partners. The questions regarding how the women felt about themselves would assist the researcher in determining which women suffer from low self-esteem, and if so, how it has affected their lives, especially in their relationships. This would also determine whether low self esteem has an impact on romantic relationships or it is just an assumption. The women would also talk about how they feel about themselves and what they think their partner thinks about them in return. This is one of the main determining factors of impacts of low self-esteem on relationships.

Procedure

The research took place at Rank’s Driving School without distractions. The participants entered one by one and the researcher greeted them. The researcher also greeted the participants with a warm smile and began telling them about the study. The researcher explained to the participants that it was a study covering women’s self-esteem in the relationship. She expanded that the study involved answering questions, and also assured the participants that the study might involve personal risks such as embarrassment or anxiety. Upon agreement to take part, the participants sat in a waiting room.

The researcher told the participants that it was a voluntary study and before they began, a consent form needed to be signed. The participants were given two consent forms, one to sign and one to keep as proof of study. The researcher then read the consent form to the participants. Participants that agreed to the study had 8 minutes to complete the survey. After fifteen minutes the response was collected, it was separated into two folders, one for the young adults and the other for the old adults. The participants were also given a debriefing form for further inquires on study. The participants were given two debriefing forms to sign, only because one is for the researcher to keep and the other is for the participant. After study was conducted, the participants had the opportunity to ask any questions they had.

Plan of Analysis

Analysis

Topics

After the participants finish the survey by filling in the forms, they will be collected and the results would be gathered and analyzed. The analysis will be in terms of topics, because the questions in the questionnaire have been arranged in that order. The topics include relationship issues, self-esteem, factors of the body, attachment, level of confidence, issues of trusting a partner and the level of confidence that one has about themselves. Various questions covered these topics. Some questions covered more than one topic.

On the topic of relationships, twelve questions covered this and they were question # 3,6,7,9,10,11,12,12,16,17,18 and 19. Self-esteem was divided into categories where, there was low and high self esteem. On the topic of high self-esteem, questions # 7, 14 and 15 covered this topic. On the other hand, questions 1, 2, 3,4,5,10,11 and 16 talked about the issue of low self-esteem. Question 8 and 10 talked about attachment towards a partner, whereas, question 20 highlighted the issue of body image. On the issue of the confidence level, questions 14 and 17 covered this. Question 9 talked about trust issues with the partner and finally, issues of isolated thoughts were covered by question 1,2,3,4 and 5.

From the analysis presented above, it is evident that some questions covered more than one topic, and each answer, had an impact on the topic that they were related to. For instance, almost all questions were related to the topic of relationship. Issues of both high and low self-esteem, level of confidence, trust issues and isolated thoughts are all related to the topic of relationships.

Cluster Analysis

From the analysis observed above, the results can be further classified using cluster analysis. This is whereby observations made from a research are classified into either two or more groups, which are mutually exclusive. The classification is normally based on permutation of interval variables. This means that the analysis can be put in groups that share the same properties. Therefore, in this case, the analysis can be further divided into either positive or negative, based on the similarities of the questions.

Stats used:

  1. Quantitative
    1. Descriptive Statistics
    2. Bivariate analysis
    3. Numerical
  2. Liker’s Scale (1- strongly disagree to 5- strongly agree)

Statistics Used

The whole process was analyzed using the quantitative method. This process was important because, some of the irrelevant data that did not align with the hypothesis was removed. Additionally, the data was normalized before coming to a conclusion.

Furthermore; other methods like descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were used, so as to come up with a complete conclusion of the research. In the case where descriptive statistics was used, it was not possible to report the final result of the research, because the participants had several variations in terms of age, ethnicity and relationship status. Therefore, the best solution was to have a variation that was either below or above the expected results. To make the results more understandable, bivariate analysis was used such that a relationship could be established between the two variables. In this case, the two variables were low self-esteem and relationships.

Numerical analysis was also of help because the results were derived from the liker scale that was used in the questionnaire, which was between the scale of 1 to 5. Where 1 was strongly disagree and 5 was strongly agree.

Presentation of statistics

  1. Scatter plot
    1. X-axis: Age (18-33 years old)
    2. Y-axis: Level of self-esteem (Low, Medium, High)

The results gathered from the research were further plotted on a graph, using the scatter plot. This was to show the relationship between two variables that are continuous. In this case, the variables were age and level of self-esteem. This would determine what age group had either low, medium or high esteem

Journal/Other/Audiences

Psychology Journal – Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

  1. Submit Journal: Online
    1. Manuscript Submission Portal
    2. Name of author
    3. Affiliation
    4. Manuscript title
    5. Submission type (new/reviewed)
    6. Pages (State number)
    7. Document (upload document)
    8. Abstract
    9. Submission Cover Letter
    10. Was it funded? (State whether it is)
    11. Primary investigator (First name, middle initial, last name, email, notes)
    12. Check box to verify that you intend to submit this manuscript to JPSP: ASC
    13. Submit
  2. How often is it published?
    1. Monthly
    2. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
    3. Weekly
    4. PsycARTICLES
  3. Who is the editor? Affiliations? Research?
    1. Eliot R. Smith- Indiana University
    2. Attitudes and Social Cognition Section

Eliot R. Smith is a professor at Indiana University, whose research interests’ centers around conceptualization of cognition, role of intergroup emotions, social cognition and models of neural networks in social psychology.

Jeffry A. Simpson- University of Minnesota

Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes

Jeffrey A Simpson is affiliated with the department of psychology and communication studies. His works revolve around processes of interpersonal and close relationships. These include decision-making, mating of humans, relationship idealization, empathy accuracy, social influence on relationships and outcomes of health, social development and relationships (Ijzendoorn & Sagi-Schwarz, 2008).

Laura A. King- University of Missouri

Personality Processes and Individual Differences

Laura A. King is a lecturer at the University of Missouri. Some of her famous research are based on the experience of human beings, their well being and meaning in life. However, the main areas of research include meaning in life, happiness, adult personal development and identity.

  1. Topics notice in their journal.
    1. Stereotype. On the topic of stereotypes, the journals mostly pin point women, especially those with low self-esteem.
    2. Memory
    3. Social Influence
    4. Communication
    5. Behavior
    6. Social Development
  2. Why is your work a good fit in this journal?
    1. focuses on social relationship b/w couple
    2. Women feel about themselves impact romantic lifestyle
  3. What two journals you other considered and why you decided against them?
    1. Journal of Comparative Psychology

B/c focuses on ways interactions reflects behaviors as a whole

This journal was not appropriate for the topic because its content did not talk about low self-esteem and its impact on relationships as a specific topic. Instead, it generalized the whole issue.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance

B/c focuses on cognition and brain activities mostly

This journal was not appropriate for the topic, because its main topic was on the activities of the brain and how humans perceived the issue of relationships. There was nothing on low self-esteem and relationships.

Audience
  1. Social psychologists
    • interested in men/women relationship
    • Outside behaviors that affects relationship
  2. Counseling psychologists
    • Marriage counselor
Other Outlet
  1. National Association for Self Esteem Organization: Port Ludlow i. announcement of article through web posts
  2. Audience
    • women with low self esteem
    • Women who wants change in their lives
    • Women who are in need of a self-esteem plan
Other Outlet
  1. New York Times: New York City
    • Media & Advertising
    • low self-esteem in women
  2. Audience
    • celebrities who are women
    • stayed at home moms(all ages)

Future Directions/Limitations

Limitations
  1. Sample size was limited
  2. The length of the study (15 minutes)
  3. Unwillingness of participants to disclose the correct information
Future
  1. Study on men self-esteem in a romantic relationship
  2. There should be a special population (i.e. pregnant women) study
  3. No sample population
  4. Only focused on eighteen to thirty-three years old women
  5. No real data/Stats measured
  6. Assumptions were not tested
  1. Do women with low self-esteem have low sex drives in a romantic relationship?
  2. What impact does low self-esteem have on elderly couples that are in romantic relationships?

References

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental Disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Ackerman, J. M., Griskevicius, V., & Li, N. P. (2011). Let us get serious: Communicating commitment in romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(6), 1079–1094.

Averdjik, M. M…, Eisner, T., & Ribeaud, D. (2012). Parental separation and child aggressive and internalizing behavior: An event history calendar analysis. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 43(2), 184–200.

Brandell J. R. (2010). Contemporary psychoanalytic perspectives on attachment. Psychoanalytic Social Work, 17(2), 132–157.

Bretherton, I. (1994). The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. A Century of Developmental Psychology, Parke et al. (Ed.) Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Cohen, S. B. (2006). Media Exposure and the Subsequent Effects on Body Dissatisfaction, Disordered Eating, and Drive for Thinness: A Review of the Current Research, 1, 57-71. Retrieved from Mind Matters: The Wesleyan Journal of Psychology

Grossman, K., Grossman, K. E., & Kindler, H. (2005). Early care and the roots of attachment and partnership representations: The Bielefeld and Resenburg longitudinal studies. Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies. Grossman, K. E. (Ed.).New York, NY: Guilford Publications. 98–136.

Guidice, M. D. & Belsky, J. (2010). Evolving attachment theory: Beyond Bowlby and back to Darwin. Society for Research in Child Development, 4(2), 112–113.

Hsu, L.K.G., 1989. The gender gap in eating disorders: why are the eating disorders more common among women? Clinical psychology review, 9, 393–407.

Ijzendoorn, M. H. & Sagi-Schwarz, A. (2008). Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: Universal and contextual dimensions. Handbook of Attachment, Cassidy, Jude (ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press. 880–905.

Lormore, C. D., Spencer, S. J., & Holmes, J. G. (2007). The role of shared-values affirmation in enhancing the feelings of low self-esteem women about their relationships. Self and Identity, 6(4), 340–360.

Morton, L., Roach, L., Ried, H. & Stewart, S. H. (2012). An evaluation of CBT group for women with low self-esteem. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 40(2), 221–225.

Nunez, M. (1999). Adjustment to divorce in women: Self-esteem and locus of control. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Science and Engineering, 60(5-B), 2357.

Stevenson-Hinde, J. (2007). Attachment theory and John Bowlby: Some reflections. Attachment and Human development, 9(4), 337–342.

Appendix A

Flyer

Flyer

Appendix B

Driver’s/Motorcycle Manuals

Driver’s/Motorcycle Manuals

Appendix C

Computer Specifications

Display 50.80 cm (20 inch) LCD panel display
Resolution: 1600 x 900 (16:9 aspect ratio
Colors: 16.7 million
Color gamut: 72%
Response time: 5 ms (on/off)
Contrast ratio: 1000:1
Image brightness: up to 250 nits
Motherboard Name: Manufacturer: Quanta WJ5
HP: Leon
Primary Optical Drive Slim-tray 8x SuperMulti DVD burner
Front Productivity Ports 6-in-1 multimedia card reader with SDXC+ 2 USB 2.0 + Line-in audio
Graphics
  • Integrated Intel Media Accelerator HD graphics memory
  • Up to up to 256MB integrated graphics shared memory
Sound Integrated Realtek ALC269 audio (with 2W per channel built-in speaker amplifier)
Webcam Integrated webcam

Appendix D

Informed Consent

You are invited to participate in research study entitled “Women with low Self-esteem and their relationship with men.” The purpose of this research is to see how relationships affect women self-esteem between the ages of 18-33 years old. We plan to enroll approximately 60 participants into this study. If you decide to participate, you will be asked to complete a survey with twenty questions. Participation should take about 15 minutes for duration of 1 day.

The foreseeable risks of participation in this study are embarrassment and anxiety. In order to minimize these risks we will provide you with counseling information. The possible benefits to you are knowledge on how to conduct a research experiment and upon completion of survey, you will receive free driver’s manuals or motorcycle manual.

Participation in this study is completely your decision. You have a right to refuse to participate without consequences. If you decide not to participate, your decision will not affect your relationship with John Jay or Ranks Driving School.

If you decide to participate, you may discontinue participation at any time. You may refuse to answer any specific questions or refuse to engage in any task at any time during the study. Withdrawal or refusing to answer any specific questions or engage in specific tasks will not result in any consequences to you and will not affect your relationship with John Jay College or Ranks Driving School.

Information gathered from you will be used only for a research paper and will be discarded by shredding after the spring 2013 semester at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. All information obtained will be confidential. No names will appear on any of the surveys. Only student researcher Felicia A Jettoo will have access to the surveys. There will be no recordings of study.

The study is experimental, meaning that it has not been studied in women between the ages of 18-33 years old. You should be aware that there are counseling that may benefit you. These include appointments meetings with licensed psychologists at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. If, during the course of the study you experience embarrassment or anxiety or any serious side effects, you participation will be discontinued and you will be provided referral to a licensed psychologist. Counseling will be done to assess any side effects or adverse reactions.

Your signature below means that you have read this consent form, that you fully understand the nature and consequences of the participation and that you have had all questions regarding participation in this study answered satisfactorily. If you have any further questions about this research feel free to contact the Principal Investigator Felicia A Jettoo at Ranks Driving School at 718-641-9700.

If you have any questions regarding your rights as a research participant, please feel free to contact the John Jay Institutional Review Board Office at [email protected], or (212) 237-8961.

Participant Name Participant Signature

Felicia A Jettoo ___________________

Principal Investigator/Research Staff Date

Witness Signature

Appendix E

Debriefing Form

Thank you for agreeing to participate in this study! The general purpose of this research is to see how romantic relationships affect women level of self-esteem, whether it is in a positive or negative way.

We invited women who are between the ages of 18-33 years old to participate in this study. The experimenter does not know whether you have low or high self-esteem. In this study, you were asked to complete a survey of twenty questions. The overall purpose of the research is to possibly gain information of natural experiences women face in everyday relationships, and how it affects them psychologically.

If you feel especially concerned about feelings of embarrassment or anxiety, please feel free to phone Felicia A Jettoo at 718-641-9700 about options for counseling.

Please accept our appreciation for your participation in this study.

__________________ _________________ _____________

Participant Name Print Participant Signature Date

Appendix F

Survey

Fill in the blanks:

How old are you? ______

Are you dating or married? __________

For the following questions, choose the number 1-5 that best describes how you feel about yourself and how you feel in your relationship:

1 2 3 4 5
Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
  1. ______ I am a boring person to talk to.
  2. ______ Everyone around me hates me.
  3. ______ When I find a partner, I must do everything in my might to keep him/her.
  4. ______ When I am not complimented, I feel ugly inside and outside.
  5. ______ If I die, no one will attend my funeral.
  6. ______ I support my significant other plans and goal.
  7. ______ I can open and talk to my significant other about anything.
  8. ______ I can talk to my significant other for hours.
  9. ______ I trust him/her.
  10. ______ When my significant other and I are apart, I miss her/him terribly.
  11. ______ I am emotionally committed.
  12. ______ I rather go out with my friends than with my significant other.
  13. ______ All I do is work, cook and clean.
  14. ______ Women is like god.
  15. ______ It is usually my way or the high way.
  16. ______ If my significant other up and leave, I will be miserable.
  17. ______ Strong believer of “onto the next one”.
  18. ______ I will do all I can to provide my man with anything he needs.
  19. ______ I flatter my significant other with gifts.
  20. ______ I like going to the gym.

Appendix G

Welcome Script

Hi, thanks for your interest in taking part of the study. Do you mind if I asked how old are you?” ____(person says age). If eligible, “great you’re illegible to take part in the study.” If not, “I’m sorry to disappoint you, but you don’t reach the research requirement to participate. The participants have to be between the ages of 18 years old and 33 years old. I’m sorry and have a great day.”

For eligible participants

Let me assure you that the survey will not take longer than 8 minutes. It is about women relationship and how it impacts their self-esteem. I know it seems a bit personal, but if you do not feel comfortable answering any of the questions you can feel free to skip it. Also, if you feel embarrass to answer the questions, you can stop at anytime. After completion of the survey, you are free to go and will receive a free manual of your choice. If you decide during the study you are not interested, you will still receive a manual. Are there any questions ? No. Great just have a seat. If there are any questions, it will be answered.