Management and Organization Behavior

Subject: Psychology
Pages: 19
Words: 5144
Reading time:
18 min
Study level: Master


Numerous attempts contain been made by more than a few companies in arrange to gain a spirited edge over their competitors from side to side organization concepts and practice. Likewise, voluminous subjects contain already been on the document on how companies or organizations shall do well. Yet despite all these attempts more frequently than not companies be unsuccessful to address the final root of their breakdown.

In only 3 hours we’ll deliver a custom Management and Organization Behavior essay written 100% from scratch Get help

Therefore, most likely, the official feature of the association is sometimes linked to their breakdown. This includes the managerial design, technical facilities, monetary resources, system and regulations, customers, and finally, the official goals of the association. In short, these are recognized to be the outside competencies and skills of the association (Mullins 2005). Amazingly, the majority of organizations be inclined to see this as the real reason behind their termination but it is not.

The factors that organizations don’t see are the ones at the back of the culprit. These are the behavioral aspect of the association that they obtain for granted. Furthermore, the performance of every person takes an input position in the travel towards the achievement of the organization since the power of every association emanates beginning its workforce.

This research focused on this truth that happening the other hand, one writer has asserted that organization is predisposed to be unsuccessful. This idea is justified by Klein (2000, p xiii) with two insights; it is also due to the huge communal changes, and secondly since of the completion of their assignment or goal(Selmer, J.; Kang, I.-L.; and Wright, R.P, 2003, pp. 320-328).

Moreover, this means that not all organizations be able to end up being everlasting where they can maintain their constancy for such a long era of time somehow, organizations contain still contain the ability to pull themselves up. This has driven more than a few researchers in their mission on improving their organizational and decision-making practices. From the occasion of the pre-classicists up to the conservative theorists, they are motionless on investigating and on the procedure of developing theories that are competent and applicable to management thoughts.

According to the expert analysis happening single hand, the move toward the management practices has more often than not been overlooked(Lau, S.-K., and Kuan, H.-C, 2005, 657-665). The chore of the organization is to exemplify the person and the associations in an ordinary work surrounding anywhere their satisfaction, wants and goals are meet (Mullins 2005).

Furthermore, the association is the centerfold of each person where their abilities, skills, and facts are being practical to add to the success of the corporation and to obtain considerable recompense reposed on to them by the organization. Therefore, it is the job of managers to take a look at their labor force and on the entire association itself for chinks that strength lead to the termination of the association and the decline of the height of performance of every individual employee.

Academic experts
We will write a custom Psychology essay specifically for you for only $16.00 $11/page Learn more

In this way, this document aims to seek and query whether managerial and organization theory provides improved move toward organization association and on facilitating the workforce at the back of the association(House, R.J., and Mitchell, T.R, 2001). It also aspires to discuss its insinuation to the entire aspect of the association and its significance to the ride to the top of competitive benefit.


Perception and Attitude of Employees

‘Individual perception is essential to understand person behavior in organizations because the theories of motivation, character, attitude are based on concepts introduce beneath the caption of perception’.(Buchanan, 1991, P.37) Individuals’ creation judgments on come again? They have perceived is mainly dependent on his hope and previous skill and motivation. So, it is fairly important to understand that individual’s typecast conceals another fraction of the truth further than the information known(Turner, H.A.; Fosh, P.; and Ng, S.H, 2001).

Searching for as a great deal concerning the situation as probable before a choice is made is a good way to assess the situation object and avoid ordinary stereotypes. Moreover, because for a boss, he needs to be conscious of his prejudice towards kinds of stuff or a figure of organization troubles such as bigotry and favoritism are originated from perceptual selectivity. Widening his sympathetic of how others see the earth and look at the state of affairs from other’s eyes determination benefit the director dealing with possible complex situations.

‘In the work put people contain attitudes towards the superior, the pay, colleagues, clientele and the bodily environment.'(Arnold, 1995, P.249) Such attitude reveals how content they are using their job and how dedicated they are to their organizations (Muchinsky, 2000, P.271). Individual attitudes and beliefs towards work can radically and prominently affect their behaviors in the place of work. If the attitudes workers hold are positive and positive to their present job, they are more probable to work efficiently and pressure others with eagerness. In adding, ‘Employee attitudes can be a determining factor informative the culture of an organization.’ (Mullins, 1999, P.326)

As far as a director is worried, one of his major responsibilities is to uphold the organizational culture and help workers build up an optimistic attitude. ‘To some degree, managers play a key position in personifying the culture and in a row influencing the attitude of employeess’ (Mullins, 1999, P.326). Recognition of this accountability will direct the manager’s work.

Hostility of Employees

According to the expert analysis connected with the change, procedures are inevitable approaches that are knowledgeable by workers(Redding, S.G., and Wong, G.Y.Y, 2001). These may indicate sadness, a sense of life form lost, anger, despair, mirror image, isolation, sorrow, fear, worthlessness, breakdown, anxiety, doubt, hostility, worry, bewilderment, indifference, and bitterness. Not only can there be all these unenthusiastic feelings, other than there are also moments of joy, eagerness, and satisfaction. This approach all crash on whether workers will get better or decline contribution in the work power as a consequence of change.

Attitude also theater a certain role in formative a person’s answer to change. The main reasons that the populace resists change are loss of refuge or status, distrust or doubt, inconvenience, fears of the unidentified, and promise to the ‘old ways.

15% OFF Get your very first custom-written academic paper with 15% off Get discount

If we analyzed then we come to know that nearly all changes undertaken by commerce will guide to changes in the attitudes and arrangement of the organization either in an unenthusiastic or optimistic way and managers will require to ensure the completion of change is as effectual as likely.

HR managers can make sure information concerning the change management procedure is communal throughout the organization via meetings of the entire organization or meeting managers and leaders downward the pecking order to go by on to their workers or teams as so forth. Employees have to be aggravated to believe the changes, which still they may be consequently the HR director must make use of influence techniques.

Public displays such as posters can be located upon the ramparts of the organization displaying optimistic aspects of the new change.

This research focused on the truth that it should be renowned that workers will be annoyed if they are not knowledgeable of the change previous to it happens, so enough time must be given for workers to become accustomed(Kerr, C.A., et al, 2001, 62-82).

Managers can make sure two-way communications all through the organization by consulting with workers through meetings, high-quality employee family members, and having extremely aggravated employees. Managers call for to talk about some new changes with workers, which they could grasp on information and clarification sessions for their employees. Communicating can also be done from side to side with the same kind of group employment, however; this depends on the level of the organization.

If we analyzed then we come to know that these assessment methods are tools that managers can employ to decide if the change has been an achievement. Management will need to plan records that will give statistical to enable effective assessment. It is not sufficient to rely on impressions and approaches regarding the achievement of any change. Factual information will be wanted if any assessment is to be performed on a noise basis.

For instance, if a change is implemented in an organization, then the amount of receipt by people in the organization can be old as a guide as to whether the change was effectual. If there are pockets of the populace resisting the change or mass amounts of workers opposite to the change, then it may require to be reviewed. For instance, at this school, a consistent rule was implemented. Most populace supported or conventional it yet you motionless have persons who are exhausting pallid sneakers, etc.

Get your customised and 100% plagiarism-free paper on any subject done for only $16.00 $11/page Let us help you


All in all, where managers work, perception, character, attitude, and motivation are four necessary factors for business achievement. Managers have to not merely realize the significance of the four tools stated on top of, but also correctly apply them to exacting work state of affairs. These are possible qualities that each boss is predicted to contain.

What is the most powerful way to prize workers? This is a dangerous query that has been pondered by a lot of companies and employers, in which there has not up till now been an ultimate answer. Managers evoke various processes in arrange to induce the most excellent consequences for their company’s welfare(Hofstede, G., and Bond, M.H, 2001).

Many of these managers contain never received official executive training with regards to inspiring their employees; though, they tend to revert to income in which they contain been uncovered through their previous superiors. Depending upon the company’s needs, a person’s motivational move toward may be more helpful than a group move toward, or associate versa. Companies have too popularized the thought of adding these two civilizations, as a way to make the most of effectiveness.

Some employers focus on collection or team rewards and contain establish that this is the most well-organized option. However, other employers have strong-minded that collection rewards make hostility flanked by higher and inferior producers within the group since all members of the collection receive similar rewards, regardless of presentation levels. For instance, in some situations, the in general excellence of a team might be carried by only a small figure of its colleagues; this system tends to aggravate those within higher presentation categories and may even-strength them to discover an employer who determination prize person effort(Sheldon, Oliver & Thompson, Kenneth, 2003).

The best practice seems to be a mixture between collection and person rewards, and that the supreme solution determination comes from having a high-quality idea of how the collection will respond. There are situations in which person and group recognition can have an important consequence when connected; though, it is argued that reward programs base on an individual’s presentation has a higher likelihood for overall job approval and productivity.

Organizational Behavior

There are a lot of texts that define Organizational Behavior as a life form a field of learning that investigates the crash that individuals, groups, and arrangements have on performance inside organizations, for the reason of applying such information toward civilizing association effectiveness(Roriguez, Rafaela A. & Echanis, Erlinda, 2001). An association is comprised of individuals who create up managerial behavior. From top organization down to the worker, managerial behavior takes shape. The efficiency of the association mainly depends on the arrangement of the association, and how healthy the individuals or groups act within the arrangement.

Productivity and Efficiency

When management and workers are in agreement with one more, productivity increases and work competence is better. To make an atmosphere such as this, there are a lot of issues that approach into play; I will discuss two. First, the majority of organizations that are effectual, converse with their workers. Management will hold meetings, or they determination work out side by side using their workers and give confidence feedback. Communicating, I believe is an instrument an association should grade first on their list. I also believe manufacture and competence will increase as extended as there is an unlock line of message from the organization to the worker.

Second, contribution incentives for a work well done, I believe will not merely increase output and competence, but may stay the employee aggravated. Incentives can variety as of, a pay adds to, a bonus, daylight hours off using pay, and so onward. In some associations, profitable incentives are what stay some workers bound to the association, thus creating a connection(Mullins, Laurie J, 2005). I for myself like incentives if they are second-hand in the correct way, but they can also be old as a crutch to increase what the association might seem essential in accomplishing their goals.

Management-Driven Protocols

This research focused on the truth that with the foreword of management-driven protocols, employees contain been empowered to separately evaluate problems and create choice decisions. That height of practice requires the employee to procedure a great deal of in order about the difficulty, to create decisions about suitable actions to initiate, to tax the effectiveness of the events, and to implement essential changes to the key diagram. To efficiently total that process, workers must possess the expertise to think seriously and to make suitable decisions. Good conclusion-making involves the addition of personal and communal values using facts(Klein, Jonathan I, 2000).

Decision-making skills can productively be integrated into commercial operations as a fraction of managements’ attempts to reorganize and refresh America’s business. Therefore, this text summarizes the Critical Thinking and Decision-Making Simulation, to comprise which gear was old to make decisions, and how the request of the components of the critical thought has an effect on choice creation. Also discussed are the four key points as of the reading coursework emphasized in the imitation, and how the concepts of dangerous thinking and choice creation can be practical to the place of work.

The Team’s Previous Industry Knowledge

Knowledge of manufacturing is necessary for the attainment of the undertaking. People with knowledge in manufacturing fetch them in order of how the manufacturing functions. In a group of cases, information in the meticulous manufacturing has been the necessary state of affairs for the beginning of novel projects (House, R.J, 2003, 321-328). However, the manufacturing knowledge turns absent to be extremely imperative, when the corporation arrives at the measurement the manufacturing broad competition cannot be banned. We foresee a hopeful straight friendship among the team’s preceding industry information and demonstrate.

Timmons (1994, 43-52) states, “Entrepreneurs have characteristically urbanized a hard base and a broad breadth of management skills and know-how over a figure of years of operational in dissimilar areas (e.g., sales, marketing, developed, and money). What is significant is having a management team whose skills are balancing, not the possession by a person of a solitary, absolute put of skills or an outline.”

However, Stuart and Abetti (1986) careful, “the experience height high if the founders were recognizable with knowledge and markets, if they have beforehand run their possess companies, or if they had previous universal management knowledge.” Furthermore, “Cooper and Bruno (1977) establish that team members’ previous knowledge in marketing and skill is particularly significant.” Moreover, Roure and Keeley (1989) establish that “team wholeness was a major predictor of the interior rate of going back in the middle of new ventures.”

Vesper (1980) stated “not only skill but also a diversity of knowledge in dissimilar useful areas was a pointer of better performance on novel ventures(Gabriel, Yiannis, 2002). Deriving from above we forecast an optimistic relationship flanked by the team’s work tenure and presentation. In adding we suggest a team with both knowledge and marketing knowledge is connected to presentation.” (Maccoby,2004)

Team Tenure

Katz (1982, 80-104) establish a nonlinear friendship amid collection tenure and demonstrate in the learn and expansion teams he deliberate. He clarified that groups leave from side to side unlike phases: socialization, novelty, and constancy. He predictable young teams to carry out poorly for the cause that of meager socialization, but he, in addition, quarreled that teams that have old up a long time equally turn out to be devoted to the status quo, information discriminating consciousness, and more and additional reliance on the group’s knowledge. (Doyle, 1999)He finished that long-tenured groups would in the end twist out to be a smaller quantity adaptive and ground-breaking(Prasad, S.B, 2002, 78-85). On equilibrium, however, we anticipate a hopeful unswerving friendship in the middle of team tenure and demonstrate. (Stoghill,1999)

Defining the Scope of Change

This research focused on the truth that the range of a future change should comprise a total technical meaning and the reason for the change (Cheng, T. C. Edwin, 2002). In addition, the being or section requesting the change be supposed to comprise information telling who will be exaggerated, both throughout the changing epoch and after the operation. (Beer, 2003, p2)

Risk Assessment

Every change has a connected risk. The being requesting the change should tax the risk level of the change. There are dissimilar risk levels that might be assigned to dissimilar change requests:

High-risk: These system changes have the highest crash on surroundings and may even affect entire commerce. Backing out of the change is time overwhelming or hard. High-risk changes should be methodically researched using dissimilar change management tools. It is also significant to notify everybody concerning the change and its implications. (Calvert,2003, 38-43)

Moderate-risk: These system changes can also seriously impact the commerce environments or have an effect on a whole organization, but support out of the change is sensibly attainable. Moderate-risk changes should also be researched methodically by different change management tools(Banerjee, Subhabrata Bobby, 2002). It is also sensible to notify all workers concerning the change and its penalty.

Low-risk: These network changes have a minor crash on the organizational environments and support out of the change is simple. Low-risk changes rarely require more than minimal documentation. Notification to workers is often needless (Newell & Simon, 1972).

Additional risk levels can also be recognized to help recognize the right level of difficulty and corroboration undertaken previous to a change (Roberts, D., ed, 2004). The subsequent table shows five dissimilar risk levels that help recognize testing and validation supplies.

Cognitive Dissonance

According to the expert analysis, cognitive dissonance is the most extensively know of the constancy theories that believe that the populace prefers to keep away from demanding or tense situations by maintaining the agreement. Individuals tend to keep away from paying notice to or retaining in order which conflicts with their conviction scheme(Winston, Bruce E, 2005). The organizational implications are that the populace will tend to adapt their attitude to create it reliable with the awareness and ruling of what they have to speak and do.

According to near the beginning investigate, the association flanked by attitudes and behavior was the consideration of them to be rather related thoughts that the attitudes populace hold decide what they do. I feel that the association flanked by attitude and behavior depends on how a great deal of the attitude is shaped from things that happened in history and/or what is communally satisfactory.

Attitudes are a person’s beliefs or cerebral positions toward amazing or an important person that we take for decided or learn. The word attitude is from time to time used insecurely as a buzzword for the entire collection of a people’s beliefs, opinions, prejudices, and sentiments. A person’s attitude towards this attitude, opinions, prejudices, and feelings, in the end, affects their behavior in the direction them.

This research focused on the truth that two people can seem at the same obsession and interpret it differently because of mental perception and training. Perception refers to the understanding of what we take in from side to side our sanity(Leung, B.K.P., ed, 2001). The way we distinguish our surroundings is what makes us dissimilar from other animals and dissimilar from every other. Our emotions and moods can affect the method we understand things.

The ascription theory assumes that the populace tries to decide why the public does what they do. The attribution hypothesis is worried about how persons interpret proceedings and how this relates to their thoughts and behavior. A being seeking to appreciate why another being did amazing may quality one or more causes to that behavior. Those causes life from external or interior.

Operations Strategy and Management

According to the expert analysis operations management deals with all the operations inside an organization. The management includes an extensive range of exploit and involves; excellence control, logistic, assessment, managing purchases, record control, and product intend and manufacture management (Skills and Practice). Operations management is distinct as the management organization or processes that generate good and /or provide repair. Furthermore, it implements the policies and everyday jobs needed to get together an organization’s customers, workers, and management (Dictionary).

According to the expert analysis for an organization to be winning it must focus on the result, depending on the repair provided and the manufactured goods, it can mainly vary. Let’s take the example of healthcare, for instance, the product is enduring, making this service obtainable in the advertisement should be affordable and using high excellence and high principles, this will win over patients(Carthy, Stuart, 2001).

Primarily the organization is supposed to employ towards scheming the services they will supply based on the persist in the community. Producing amazing that is by now there or provided by a nearby hospital is usually not going to create a winning hospital. The objective would be to plan for a suitable location where the need is there and high excellence care and principles determination be achieved.

Operations Management plays a key position in achieving the major presentation objectives of Tesco (Rad, P.F. & Levin, G, 2005). Whether the present operation objective is to get better client service or to increase productivity, how Tesco utilizes its capital will have an important crash(Bond, M.H., and King, A.Y.C, 2003, 351-364). As a result, there have been several groundbreaking developments in Operations Management that have required to make use of Tesco capital in a significantly new way to create a big step modify in performance. Tesco is a winning instance of operations management; though, through our investigation they too have some demerit in their operations management require being better.

No doubt, in this document we focus on the association between commerce strategy and person resource management strategy and the crash that this association has on presentation in U.S.-based Japanese subsidiaries (Amin, A. and Thomas, D, 2002). We first describe a hypothetical framework that incorporates fresh thoughts in strategy and international person resource management and openly attempt to give details on the relationships flanked by business-level strategies and person reserve management strategies and outcomes. We then test this replica in a study of commerce strategy-HRM linkages in sixty-four U.S.-based Japanese subsidiaries.

Leadership in Team Dynamics

One of the classifications that can be practical to a team is that it is a collection of the populace. The Concise Oxford Dictionary (2001) describes group dynamics as “the procedures concerned when populace in a group interrelate with each other. These connections are a dangerous part of the achievement of any team. Fortunately, it is a fraction that team leaders can power (Melymuka, 2002, p. 42)

There are three primary mechanisms which can pressure the way team member interrelate with each other: assortment, communications, and goals. Sympathetic how these mechanisms have a result on a team allows a leader to reasonable their power.

Team Dynamics

The dynamics of a team more often than not affect its interior goals, but can power how the team is apparent by others. (Isgar, Ranney, & Grinnel, 1994, p. 45). These mechanisms are the primary conversation of this document.

There are a lot of definitions of variety, in general variety refers to the ways the populace differs. Diversity in teams is additional challenging than the easy meaning since people in teams comprise different civilizations, experiences, values, and thoughts styles(Birnbaum, P.H., and Wong, G.Y.Y, 2000, 262-277). These differences are a benefit to a team since they bring miscellaneous perspectives that augment the quantity of skill and information to the team. The variety of this dissimilarity, in addition, may aid in the declaration of disagreement.

Disadvantages of Diversity

Disadvantages of assortment in the workplace exist for more than a few causes. One reason is the educational dissimilarity that is concerned when you have a miscellaneous team. Another cause is the lack of message and contribution that exists when teams are varied.

Cultural Difference

Cultural dissimilarity can cause great work environments. One racial backdrop can have a fence on the way a person works and, the way they labor with others. Some cultures consider that separation is the merely way to work. One’s culture can in several instances are of the same viewpoint and offer an improved opinion than a varied group of persons in the same state of affairs. Some cultures find that their work principles are far from that of additional cultures. The principles that have been instilled in various cultures can be dissimilar from miscellaneous civilizations.

Lack of Knowledge

The lack of information to converse with other cultures hold back the aptitude of a miscellaneous group. Poor group meetings that do not recognize others’ efforts, commentary, and inputs often consequence in a lack of promise to a team project. Communication guides to be short of incentive on a team scheme and bad results of output (Arnold, M., and Lee, E, 2001, pp. 190-196). People that are not capable to converse with others frequently lack the aptitude to enhance a team’s scheme. Citizens are less dedicated to a team task when they have a lack of incentive and output. Often populace feels that time and contribution to a scheme is worthless when it bears no quality in manufacture.

Leadership Dynamics

How assortment affects the dynamics of teams can be a multifaceted query. To date, investigation suggests that miscellaneous groups be inclined to be more original and carry out better on difficulty solving tasks than all the same groups, but they also come into sight to have lower heights of social addition and higher income than all the similar groups. (Elasass & Graves) 1994; Sessa, Jackson & Rapini, in press)


Communication is an extremely significant part of a team. Effective message maximizes the presentation of the team. Team members have to communicate their thoughts and grievance for the team to employment correctly. All team members must contribute to obtaining the majority output likely. Team members that are clever to communicate their thoughts and disagreement rapidly help the team to create decisions and correct evils more professionally.

Leadership Goals

What is a goal? An objective is an end in the direction of which attempt is heading for; an aspire or meaning. When working in a team you have to set goals that need to be achieved. Position goals help the team members to turn out to be more effective more rapidly. One of the ways to create them more effective is by setting an occasion boundary on the goals that require to be attained. This will aid the team in dispensation what they require to attain their goals. life form able to attain the team goals is in a straight line connected to effective time organization.

Leader Selection

By selecting a team leader this being willed determine the major objective of the team, but the team will decide on how to go about achieving that objective. This determination brings enthusiasm to the team since they will achieve a common goal from side to surface their technique. This kind of team helps construct trust and give intelligence of complacency among the member. The main position of the team leader will be to guide the team in the right way, not wheels them. With this income, the leader will think about making certain the team goes the correct way so they can arrive at the goals they encompass set.


When team members are operational on an objective they are all equally answerable for achieving an ordinary objective. Team dynamics play a significant role in attains goals. The team will contain to rely on every other for in order, know-how, capital, and so on so that they can understand their objective. The team also wants to think about and achieve jointly the team objective. Developing faith, a common dream, and the ability to labor well jointly will assist the team to achieve their objectives.


Arnold, M., and Lee, E. “Perceptions and Attitudes of Hong Kong Chinese Male Executives about Women in Management.” Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Comparative Management. Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2001, pp. 190-196.

Birnbaum, P.H., and Wong, G.Y.Y. “Organizational Structure of Multinational Banks in Hong Kong from a Culture-Free Perspective.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 30 (2000): 262-277.

Bond, M.H., and King, A.Y.C. “Coping with the Threat of Westernization in Hong Kong.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 9 (2003): 351-364.

Banerjee, Subhabrata Bobby (2002). Organizational Strategies for Sustainable Development: Developing a Research Agenda for the New Millennium. Australian Journal of Management. Volume: 27. Issue: 2.

Carthy, Stuart (2001). From strategy to execution. (financial management techniques and theory). The Banker.

Cheng, T. C. Edwin. (2002). A critical review of end-user information system satisfaction research and a new research framework. (US). Omega.

Gabriel, Yiannis (2002). Essai: On Paragrammatic Uses of Organizational theory — a provocation *. Organization Studies.

Klein, Jonathan I. (2000). Corporate Failure by Design: Why Organizations Are Built to Fail. Quorum Books: Westport, CT. Publication.

Mullins, Laurie J. (2005). Management And Organisational Behaviour. Seventh Edition. Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England.

Roriguez, Rafaela A. & Echanis, Erlinda (2001). Fundamentals of Management: Txt and Philippine Cases 4th Edition. Diwata Publishing Inc.: Mandaluyong, M.M., Philippines.

Sheldon, Oliver & Thompson, Kenneth (2003). The Philosophy of Management. Routledge. Place of Publication: New York.

Sims, Ronald R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Quorum Books.: Westport, CT.

Weymes, Ed (2004). Management theory: Balancing Individual Freedom With Organizational Needs. The Journal of Corporate Citizenship.

Winston, Bruce E. (2005). Towards a deeper understanding of hope and leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies.

Hofstede, G., and Bond, M.H. “The Confucius Connection: From Cultural Roots to Economic Growth.” Organizational Dynamics, 16 (2001): 4-21.

House, R.J. “A Path-Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness.” Administrative Science Quarterly (2003): 321-328.

House, R.J., and Mitchell, T.R. “Path-Goal Theory of Leadership.” Journal of Contemporary Business (2001): 81-97.

Kerr, C.A., et al. “Toward a Contingency Theory of Leadership Based on the Consideration and Initiating Structure Literature.” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance (August 2001): 62-82.

Lau, S.-K., and Kuan, H.-C. The Ethos of the Hong Kong Chinese. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2004.

Lee, Y., and Larwood, L. “The Socialization of Expatriate Managers in Multinational Firms.” Academy of Management Journal, 26, 4 (2005): 657-665.

Leung, B.K.P., ed. Social Issues in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Prasad, S.B. “Managers’ Attitudes in Brazil: Nationals vs. Expatriates.” Management International Review, 21, 2 (2002): 78-85.

Redding, S.G. The Spirit of Chinese Capitalism. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1990.

Redding, S.G., and Wong, G.Y.Y. “The Psychology of Chinese Organizational Behaviour.” In M.H. Bond (ed.), The Psychology of the Chinese People. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Roberts, D., ed. Hong Kong 1992: A Review of 1991. Hong Kong: Government Information Services, 2004.

Selmer, J.; Kang, I.-L.; and Wright, R.P. “Supportive Behaviour of Expatriate vs. Local Top Business Managers in Hong Kong.” In J. Selmer (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Expatriate Management. Hong Kong, 2003, pp. 320-328.

Turner, H.A.; Fosh, P.; and Ng, S.H. Between Two Societies: Hong Kong Labour in Transition. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 2001.

Zeira, Y., and Harari, E. “Host-Country Organizations and Expatriate Managers in Europe.” California Management Review, 11, 3 (1979): 40-50.

Zeira, Y.; Harari, E.; and Nundi, D.I. “Some Structural and Cultural Factors in Ethnocentric Multinational Corporations and Employee Morale.” Journal of Management Studies (2001): 66-82.