National Security Policy Issues

How did the wars with Native Americans influence the early need for national security?

The Native Americans refer to indigenous people who live in North America within the boundaries of the continental United States. Cultural differences between the Native Americans, and immigrant Europeans caused political tension and ethnic violence. These people took arms to defend their nation. Before the war, the number of Native Americans dwelling in the United States was estimated to be more than one million.

By 1800, the population dropped to 250,000 because the Native Americans were involved in several wars. The wars ranged from the 17th century to the beginning of the 18th century. These wars include the Pequot war of 1637, Anglo Powhatan wars, King Philip’s War, King William’s war among others. During the American revolutionary war, most Native Americans collaborated with the British to reduce settlement and expansion on their land. They also sided with the British during the Chickamauga wars in 1776 and 1777. In 1787, the Native Americans defeated the American army, which was led by Arthur St. Clair.

They fought white settlers in the Second Seminole war. These wars were a result of conflicts between Native Americans, the United States Army, and American settlers. The Indian wars influenced the early need for national security. It also established several treaties with the Native Americans as a security measure. The United States government established effective armed forces to curb these wars. The concept of national security was developed in the United State of America after the Second World War. During World War II, more than 44,000 of the Native Americans were recruited in military service1.

They were recognized by being given things such as Air Medals, Bronze Stars among other things. The Native Americans loved a military job as it elevated one’s status and provided a steady income among other privileges. This intensified security in the United States, as there were enough workforces to curb any outside aggression from any state2. Native Americans also influenced the need for security. The whites saw that the Native Americans were bold thus needed unity to avoid any uprising within the United States. Their loyalty was considered paramount for the prosperity of the United States.

Identify and recall examples of National Security through Expansion. National security through expansions

There are several examples of the National Security through Expansion. One example of national security through expansion is through promoting democracy. This form of national security enhances security through protecting, consolidating, and enlarging the community of free-market democracies. When President Bush invaded Iraq, he hoped to establish a democratic government that would act as a role model to other Middle East countries.

This, he believed, would stabilize the region thus minimize the threats imposed on America and her allies. Overseas presence is another example of national security. This involves deploying the United States military forces abroad in peacetime. For instance, United State military forces were deployed in Iraq during the time of war. The other example is through the Continental Expansion, and in this case, The United States would conquer and control, purchase or make treaties with other countries.

This would make the United States develop robust diplomatic ties with these countries thereby being able to monitor their security power. The purchase of Guam, after World War II, led to the capture of Aguinaldo in 1901. A significant expansion occurred after the Mexican- American War in 1948. Mexican was made to sell its northern territories to America. The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo made California and the Southwest states unite making the USA continent expand considerably.

After the revolution, the U.S. had only 13 former British colonies in the Southeast and Northeast. Colonies to the south and west of the original colonies were also possessed through concessions and buying3. An outstanding example is the purchase of Louisiana in 1803 by which the country territory doubled. At the battle, of Wounded Knee, many Sioux were killed and the survivors displaced to Pine Ridge Reservation.

Explain and analyze National Security policies before, during, and immediately after (up to 1946) World War II. National Security Policy

Congress passed this act making a unified defense body with autonomous service in the Central Intelligence Agency with separate service in the air fighting soldiers and the National Security Council (NSC). The council members of NSC were the president, the vice president, the secretary of state, and some members of other security bodies. The CIA emerged out of the Office of Strategic Services and small post-war intelligence organizations4. This marked a decisive regrouping of the U.S. National Security framework to address the inconsistencies in the world. The implementation of this act was faced with different challenges such as errors, false starts, and it was a slow process. This policy mandated substantial reorganization of the U.S. military and foreign policies.

The policy of containment (1946)

It was considered as the mother of the United States Strategy for fighting the cold war with its rival the Soviet Union. This policy was put forward by a career foreign service officer George f. Kennan. He argued that the major concern of any United States policy with the Soviet Union should be of a long-term, patient, strong and continuous containment of Russian expansive tendencies5. He pointed out that the continuous use of counterforce at a series of constantly different political and geographical areas, corresponding to the invasion of the Soviet policy would encourage tenderness that will make the Soviet Union weak and eventually break. This policy was criticized for being too defensive.

The policy of unilateralism

State policies were considered unilateral if they had an enormous impact on citizens of other countries. Through this, a country could make decisions without listening to the views and suggestions of other countries. America believes that its interest lies by not underestimating how far the threats are or how small these threats are. However, America believes that where they can make a change, they have to do so. Other nations do not stop them to ensure their interest is not compromised. The U.S. interest in ensuring geopolitical stability is seen as being the superpower with global economic interest.

Identify and analyze examples of the changes to National Security during the Cold War?

Changes in national security

In 1949, the National Security Council was redesigned. Truman ordered that the Secretary of the Treasury attend all meetings. Congress scrapped the three service secretaries from council membership. The Vice President was added to the council, and he assumed the second rank from the Secretary of State. Joint Chiefs of Staff were made permanent advisers to the Council. In late 1950 and 1951, Truman made additional structural changes in the National Security Council. He allowed the head of the newly created Office of Defense Mobilization to attend the National Security meetings. In 1951, the Psychological Strategy Board was created to evaluate the response to Soviet cold war tactics.

Explain and analyze the key strategic events in Iraq between 1990 and 2010.

Four Presidents handled the U.S. policy in the Middle East differently during those years. Which decisions were most influential and how might one apply lessons learned to influence any of those decisions?

Strategic events in Iraq

In July 1990 president, Sadaam invaded Kuwait. He accused Kuwait of supplying flooding oil in the market. This he said led to a flood of oil in the market a thing that made Iraq unable to boost her weak economy. On August 2, 1990, Kuwait reported Iraq to the UN. These led to the imposition 1990-1991 America considered Iraq as a threat to her interests. This led President Bush to send troops to Iraq.

When it was, viewed that Saddam was adamant US soldiers crushed Iraq soldiers. The Iraq soldiers were made to surrender after 100 days. UN Security Council on April 2, 1991, passed resolution 687. This required Iraq to dismantle all chemical as well as biological weapons in her possession. The UN in April 1995 passed resolution 986 creating an oil for food program to cater to the citizen’s food needs. In1996, the CIA hired Saddam officers to assist in the coup. These officers were told they would be recognized as genuine leaders of Iraq. Unfortunately, Saddam loyal officers recognized and exposed them.

They were tortured and executed. In December 1998, Saddam claimed that the UNSCOM would not continue with its inspection in Iraq. This led to President Clinton ordering his soldiers in Iraq to bomb Iraq military areas for four consecutive days. In February 2001, the US and Britain bombed Iraq to weaken Iraq Air Force. The US then on November 26, 2001, threatened Iraq by telling her that she has to allow UN inspectors back to her country. On March 28, 2002, the Arab League convened and deliberated that Iraq should allow UN inspectors to continue their inspection.

The power vacuum left in the Middle East will soon extend to South Asia and Iran is the link between the two. Using the DIME principles, what should America do in each category to deal with the threat to American interests posed by Iran?

The U.S. then invaded Iraq in March 2003. Generally, Tommy Franks led the military operation. The main reasons for the invasion were to end the Sadaam era, eliminate any Islamic militants in Iraq, and to get more information about militant networks, destroy any mass destruction weapons, which could be there. The invasion also aimed to create a representative and compliant government to act as an example to all failed states6. On April 9, 2003, Baghdad came down and this led to the capture of Iraq’s President Saddam. He was arrested on December 13, 2003, in operation Red Down. There emerged uprisings against coalition forces and among different secretarial.

Elections

On January 31, 2005, the citizens of Iraq elected Iraq Transitional Government to draft a long-lasting constitution. There was some violence and some communities. Sunni refused to participate in the elections. Kurd and Shia took part in the elections. On April 21, 2003, the Coalition Provisional Authority was formed as a transitional government of Iraq. It was to be effective up to when a democratic government would be established.

It had a mandate of exercising executive, judicial and legislative roles. In 2008, the Iraq government and the U.S. approved the status of the Forces Agreement effective through 2012. On January 1, 2009, the Green Zone and Presidential palace were handed over to the Iraq government. This was seen to symbolize that Iraq’s sovereignty had been fully restored.

The president who handled the U.S. policy well in the Middle East was President Bush. This is because, by invading Iraq, there was a delivery of the Iraq citizens from the dictatorship. This acted as a warning to emerging dictators to know that there is no room for dictators in the world. The invasion also acted as a warning to any country or group that may wish to attack the U.S. The invasion also demonstrated that the U.S. was ready to use its unilateral policy to deter any potential threat to its citizen or its allies.

Iran influence on Iraq

Iran would not try to increase its efforts to establish an influence on Iraq. That was because there was a strong diplomatic relationship between Iraq and the U.S. Iran would fear that by having an intimate relationship with Iraq, it might lead to exposure of its nuclear plans to the U.S. This may bring its downfall. Iran would then fear that Iraq might act as a spy since their relationship is sour. The U.S. was helping Iraq to reconstruct itself and having their soldiers trained; Iraq soldiers would pose a threat to Iran in case it tried to influence Iraq in any way.

The power vacuum left in the Middle East will soon extend to South Asia and Iran is the link between the two. Using the DIME principles, what should America do in each category to deal with the threat to American interests posed by Iran?

The threat that Iran imposes to America can be dealt with by ensuring that Iran is not military superior. This can be achieved by liaising with the UN to keep a watch on weapons produced by Iran. The US can also establish formal diplomatic ties with other Middle East countries. The U.S. can convince the International Atomic Energy Agency to be more vigorous in its mandates. To force Iran to comply fully with the UN demands, the U.S. can impose segregating diplomacy, military options, and economics. Since the US is aware that Iran is a threat to it then it should employ some spies to give information on every military move that Iran carries. The US can hinder Iran’s wealth creation by coursing with its allies not to do business with Iran.

The U.S. is leaving Iraq so quickly because its “democratic” government did not want to sign a status of forces agreement protecting the U.S. troops deployed there. This was the response from the “democratic” government.

What do you believe is the political future of Iraq and do you expect Iran to increase its efforts to establish influence in Iraq? Is Iraq more or less prone to control (I did not say support) terrorism now than before the invasion?

Political future of Iraq

Iraq has now achieved political gains from the invasion. There is a democratic government, which is elected by people without intimidation. The leaders are now cautious not to be dictators as they have seen what happened to Saddam. The government is willing to propagate the rights and freedoms of its citizen7. There is also an international intimate relationship to provide necessary advice on the need. The military training offered by the U.S. soldiers to Iraq soldiers will help the government to be able to curb down any terror uprising. Iraq now having established a formal diplomatic relationship with the U.S. and can obtain military support fast in case of any terror. Iran’s influence on Iraq will not be observed with suspicions. Military expertise would make Iraq be in a better political position.

Iran influence on Iraq

Iran would not try to increase its efforts to establish an influence on Iraq. This is because there exists a strong diplomatic relationship between Iraq and the U.S. Iran would fear that by having an intimate relationship with Iraq, it might lead to exposure of its nuclear plans to the U.S8.

Reference List

Armstrong, Jennifer. The American Story. Texas: Texas Press, 2006.

Barton, David. American History. Canada: Viking Adult, 2004.

Dempsey, Hugh. Native American History. California: Bisson Books, 1979.

Gaddis, John Lewis. Surprise, Security, and the American experience. London: London, 2005.

Jones, Steve. “Post War Policies.” United States New Policies, 2009: 19-23.

Maqstadt, Thomas. An Empire if you can Keep It. Hong Kong: CQ Press, 2004.

Shanker, Thom. Counter Strike. London: Oxford Press, 2007.

Zinn, Howard. A People’s History of the United State. Chicago: Hill Press, 2005.

Footnotes

  1. Hugh, Dempsey. Native American History. California: Bisson Books, 1979.
  2. Jennifer, Armstrong, The American Story. Texas: Texas Press, 2006.
  3. Maqstadt, Thomas. An Empire if you can Keep It. Hong Kong: CQ Press, 2004.
  4. Steve, Jones. “Post War Policies.” The United States New Policies, 2009: 19-23.
  5. Howard, Zinn. A People’s History of the United State. Chicago: Hill Press, 2005.
  6. John, Lewis Gaddis. Surprise, Security, and the American experience. London: London, 2005.
  7. Thom, Shanker. Counter-Strike. London: Oxford Press, 2007.
  8. Howard, Zinn. A People’s History of the United State. Chicago: Hill Press, 2005.