With the dramatic changes in the socio-economic realm, educational institutions have been struggling to improve instructional delivery that enhances modernized learning that is paramount in the contemporary world. Nowadays, music technologies have become increasingly prominent on college and school campuses. Coupled with the fact that the benefits of online teaching and learning are based on research that shows that students learn more when they can control the course of their learning, modern technologies have become important in the educational paradigm (Brogan, 1999). Technology can provide multiple ways of presenting instruction, assist in achieving higher levels of student retention, and aids in raising learners’ motivation. Sophisticated teaching software can be integral in understanding that individuals differ in their learning potentiality, aptitude, intellectuality, preferences, and paces. Despite proving significant by transforming almost all forms of educational paradigms, little has remained known on how technology can transform the learning and teaching of music education in higher institutions.
College students have traditionally been active consumers of new technologies; however, their practice in developing important music skills has considerably been low. From my personal experience of approximately seventeen professional years as a music band director, it has been a challenge to find new motivational techniques and implement them in the classroom. School administrations in several schools within my residence are constantly subjugating efforts of restoring students’ morale in music. The major problem is that music education has lost its initial values in several schools within my residence and that schools are cutting budgets and the first thing they get rid of is the music subject. The aim of this is to dissertation if a hybrid instructional model for Small and Large ensembles is useful and effective from the perspective of students and teachers, and how the study could benefit the frequency of practicing music by increasing motivation.
Central to providing a solution to the problem, the study will have some research objectives and questions to provide a guide to the findings. Objective one: To investigate the extent to which music education seems neglected both in curriculum and in technology. Objective two: To examine how schools have integrated technology in delivery concepts and instructional planning in music education. Objective three: To determine some of the common modalities employed in delivering K-12 music learning in schools. Objective four: To identify the accrued benefits of implementing a broad range of music computer applications. Objective five: To encourage school administrators to increase the student’s access to music technology emphasizing the usefulness and effectiveness of the hybrid instructional model. In addition, the study will answer several questions. Question 1: In what ways, if any, do students believe that computer-assisted instruction motivates them to learn? Question 2: From the teacher’s perspective, what aspects of music playing could be improved through computer instruction to boost ensemble performance? Question 3: How do teachers use interactive programs to evaluate student progress?
Drawing on focus group interviews of high school music students and music performance teachers, this study explores how beneficial it is to enhance the daily music performance practicing routine, by embedding computer assistant instruction. A mixed research method, meaning both qualitative and quantitative research methods will be useful in concluding the results of this study. Self-administered interview schedules and surveys will be useful in collecting useful information from the teacher and student focus groups. The survey will employ a random sampling technique to sample 60 teachers, a purposive technique to sample five schools, and a stratified technique to sample 200 students as participants in the study. The study will follow all the desired data collection protocols, including seeking relevant permission from the respondents to participate in the study. After proper collection of data, the study will predetermine an analysis method to use.
Background to the study
This chapter will explore the background to the study about prior studies and personal experiences in the music teaching profession. It will also discuss the problem statement which is the principal driver of the research and the purpose of the study.
The background to the development of integration of music education in public and private schools across the world is long and complex. In its historical development, public school music education dates back to early 1838, when public schools in the United States designed and developed musical programs as part of the learning procedures (Birge, 1937). The first American school to begin developing much attention in music education was in Boston Massachusetts and is aimed to help students to develop skills in reading musical words, singing, listening, and playing music on religious occasions (Birge, 1937). In the subsequent years, numerous music schools developed in the world especially in Europe and other continents of the currently developed nations to developing and nurture music talent that was growing at a faster pace. Birge (1937) asserts that in Europe during this moment, musical events dominated the entire continent and began involving courts of kings and wealthy nobility and since kingship was strong at this moment, it spurred music education.
Subsequently, as the urge to improve this program deepened, several authors published textbooks to guide students in proper singing practices. The beginning of the nineteenth century saw a massive change in public music education when the Boston Academy of Music, which started in the 1800 century, experienced extensive financial support to enhance the development of music throughout the years (Birge, 1937). Apart from helping students in developing music skills to sing in church celebrations, these academies enhanced the study of music techniques and much of its theories (Birge, 1937). Lowell Mason, who was among the founders of the Boston Academy of Music, emerged among the writers and publishers who first produced a book titled Manual of Instruction, which subsequently influenced the learning of music throughout successive decades (Birge, 1937). Several teachers adopted the manual and created much interest in teaching and developing musical skills in schools as Mason consequently became the first teacher to teach music education in Hawes public school. This venture became the most successful and it subsequently pushed the local school committee to integrate musical education into the entire school syllabus.
School communities then agreed that music education must be among the prioritized subject in the school curriculum. On the other hand, the Boston Academy of Music grew dramatically and developed numerous institutions within the United States and other parts of the European continent with several other advances emerging during this epoch (Birge, 1937). In Europe, the same 19th century “saw the work of Monteverde, Caccini, and Scarlatti, Lully, Purcell and the rest, struggling for a new form of expression, new instruments, new combinations, and new forms of writing music” (Birge, 1937, p.72). The impact of such little innovations in the public school music curriculum developed into immense development of different stages of schools from primary schools to universities that are still quaintly providing degrees to students across the globe (Birge, 1937). Teachers from all over the world rushed to universities and colleges for five, four, and three-year music courses to allow them to train and deliver musical skills to students effectively. From this moment, music and other arts grew exponentially in higher education.
However, the twentieth and twenty-first centuries seem to be the most centuries that have witnessed substantial changes in the entire globe with diverse and complicated transformations evident in numerous governments and organizations (Madsen, 2004). A mixture of developments and crumples in numerous sectors has become more eminent in the past three consecutive decades with advancements and technologies for the betterment of life being the central matter (Brogan, 1999). Acquaintances to music began developing interest in the multiplying opportunities of hearing music performed in theatres and nightclubs, with the memory contest of teaching musical skills in schools desperately diminishing (Boardman, 1992). Students themselves are having more exposure to broadcast music that is currently gaining momentum from the digital foundations and technologies that are emerging and becoming competent throughout successive decades (Madsen, 2004). Much of the latest literature has focused on the gradual disdain and contempt that has consumed the professional musicians’ thought of public school music, and schools that produced successful students in music are becoming functionless.
The twenty-first century has been noticeably a new era in which advanced technology is reshaping education in many aspects, particularly with the rapid growth of online courses (Boardman, 1992). Globalization of markets, overseas trades and markets, production techniques, advanced technology, the Internet and networking, and global communication are expressions that are becoming familiar in the context of everyday living (McMurrer, 2007). During this same moment, music has become the major contrivance in instructional technique and delivery of concepts in classes. According to McMurrer (2007), College curricula have undergone continuous reforms to create and deliver all kinds of courses over the web. Teaching and learning music technologically using updated and sophisticated software is one of the most important driving forces for educational change (Meiselwitz, 2002). A significant characteristic of distance education and a major contribution to the field of education has been the awareness of the benefits of independence of learners from instructors, thus changing the students’ perspective on the cognitive structure of the learner’s mind.
Personal experience & prevailing situation
One of the primary goals of music education in my 17 years of experience as a band director has been to keep students motivated and aware of the importance of teamwork. It has been a challenge to find new motivational techniques and implement them in the classroom. I have discovered that music listening and the use of technology are central to fostering a student’s self-direction in music. As postulated by Brogan (1999), these extrinsic elements represent great influence in music performance. Creative teaching aids enhance the student’s concentration, thus increasing the benefits of learning music. Computer interactive instructional strategies are intended to help music teachers and cultivate intrinsic motivation techniques in classrooms. The software has replaced several traditional lecture-style courses and it has proven successful resulting in large ensemble learning experiences (Meiselwitz, 2002). For this proposed dissertation I will attempt to implement a hybrid course model that will cultivate and enhance intrinsic motivation techniques in the classroom as well as influence learning in other subjects.
Many of the events that unfolded from my personal music teaching experience as a music teacher might have prompted me to ascertain the problem herein. I have always been under pressure to motivate students to become technologically modernized. It has been a challenge to find new motivational techniques and implement them in the classroom. School administrations in several schools are constantly subjugating efforts of restoring students’ morale in music. Poor budgeting, underdeveloped school infrastructure, and mismanagement are ominous to the proper achievement of music education (Stevenson, 2010). Recently, based on my interaction with other professionals in music, I noticed that music listening and the use of technology are central to fostering a student’s self-direction in music. Nonetheless, during my teaching experience for all these years, I realized a growing conflict between the utilization of music software in a classroom (The Virtual Teacher) and distance learning. Currently, no online music courses are used to solve the prevailing problem.
For several decades before the emergence of drastic changes of the 20th and 21st centuries, music was part of our life including education and entertainment paradigms (Colwell & Richardson, 2002). Approximately 25% of the modern populace especially youth have secured employment through professional arts including music, with evidence illuminating that much of the skills developed from schools through music education (Madsen, 2004). However, music in the current decades has been more of entertainment than practical education and it has constantly lost its precious value in child education from growth to development (McMurrer, 2007). Globally, schools seem to have diverted much of their curricula interests in other subjects and forgotten the imperativeness of music even in concepts delivery and instruction set in schools (Madsen, 2004). Technologies developed to improve music transformation and delivery have become more imperative in improving professional music and neglected the initial school music significance. Consequently, K-12 Music Learning has been gradually losing its relevance in the current decades.
Within my school, before the loss of value of K-12 music learning, schools are cutting budgets and the first thing they get rid of is the music subject. Music has been very influential in students with extensive evidence linking the use of music in classroom instructional delivery with positive learning and enrichment of general performances (Johnson, 2004). Positive thinking is one of the most important factors for developing self-esteem for the issue of confidence is an overwhelming factor in the students’ success (Colwell & Richardson, 2002). With the use of technology, a completely new world to the approach of music has emerged. Notation programs and digital recording software have become important tools for today’s musicians, as well as the utilization of interactive performance programs that will upgrade confidence transforming tough rhythmic passages into fun adventures (Young et al. 2003). Technologies seem to have consumed other educational paradigms and neglected the importance of school music teaching. This study will explore school music education, identify the benefits of implementing a continuum of computerized music applications in schools and colleges, and encourage administrators to increase student access to music know-how.
Purpose of the study
Since the advent of numerous educational transformations triggered by substantial technological advancement, little seems impressive in the current school musical education (Tabbers et al., 2001). Almost all educational activities have followed the technological advancements and adopted ways of profitably consuming this technology, with music education and its aspects gradually dwindling (Meiselwitz, 2002). Several teachers and educational policymakers must have realized the pace at which music education in schools, colleges, and universities is losing its initial value as other subjects gain competence technologically (Stevenson, 2010). The principal focus of this study is to refurbish music education and increase its usefulness in the contemporary world and restore students’ and teachers’ morale in learning and teaching music respectively. This study will help to identify the accrued benefits of implementing a broad range of music computer applications and software as well as encouraging school managers to enhance students’ awareness of music technology in schools that will subsequently shape the future of music education.
Despite having the principle focus for this study, the proposed dissertation finds it imperative to develop some secondary objectives to reinforce the results of this study. This study will have the following secondary objectives to guide the development of this research. This study will use five secondary objectives to address the problem of this study. Objective one: To investigate the extent to which music education seems neglected both in curriculum and in technology. Objective two: To examine how schools have integrated technology in delivery concepts and instructional planning in music education. Objective three: To determine some of the common modalities employed in delivering K-12 music learning in schools. Objective four: To identify the accrued benefits of implementing a broad range of music computer applications. Objective five: To encourage school administrators to increase the student’s access to music technology emphasizing the usefulness and effectiveness of the hybrid instructional model.
In trying to establish how learning and teaching music technologically can be imperative in the contemporary educational paradigms, several research questions must be answered at the end of this study.
In what ways, if any, do students believe that computer-assisted instruction motivates them to learn?
From the teacher’s perspective, what aspects of music playing could be improved through computer instruction to boost ensemble performance?
How do teachers use interactive programs to evaluate student progress?
Music education began in early 1838, with Boston Massachusetts being the first American public school to spur the development of reading, listening, singing, and playing music that later spread to entire America before other European nations began adopting this form of education. A quandary has begun in recent times where the music profession has remained acquainted with modernism and trendy performances with little values drawn from the expected music standards that come from music education. Despite a considerable growth of technology in many instructive parameters, a continued ignorance of music education is de-motivating learners, risking the music teaching profession and looming the future of professional music. A constant delay in improving music education is across the entire United States with school administrations struggling to manage schools through poor budgeting skills. Most schools within the United States have quit teaching music education with teachers and students with music interests ending up frustrated. This study will aid in improving music education advocating for the enhancement of technology in music education.
Central to discussing teaching and learning music technologically, it is paramount to investigate the issue from the theoretical and empirical evidence perspective from the aforementioned studies. This chapter will discuss theories and prior empirical literature concerning the topic while drawing facts from scholarly books, journals, and websites.
Instructional delivery has been a crucial matter in the teaching profession and inasmuch students might not understand the concepts behind the instructional setting and their significance, it affects the student’s interest and morale in learning. The background to instructional theory dates back to the 1900 century when the early educational psychologists desired to establish a connection involving the science of psychology and the realistic appliance of knowledge theory in educational situations (Tennyson, 2010). However, in recent days, the backdrop to instructional theory has reflected both in the general trend and in behaviorism with theorists connecting learning with contemporary matters. According to Tennyson (2010), “attempts to integrate psychology and instructional technology had emerged during and after World War II as educational psychologists became involved with the U.S. military in efforts to research and develop military training materials and instruction” (p.1). Immediately after World War II, the aim of developing instructional system design (ISD) methodologies emerged and ISD was related to theories of concepts interrelationship of components and automation, control of information, task analysis, as well as careful decision-making and planning.
Behavioral Learning Theory
One of the outstanding theories that may explain the influence of technology in the contemporary educational paradigm is the behavioral learning theory that emerged from the presumptions of Skinner in 1938 (Tennyson, 2010). This theory posits that education is an enduring process in observable behavior and depends entirely on experience. This theory states that the behavior of individuals always follows the influence of the environment or surroundings and in respect to favorable consequences (Tennyson, 2010). Three important aspects have been core in the behavioral theory that reflects the reality on the correlation among the student foundation, progress, and performance in learning. The theory states that behavior that is followed by favorable consequences will be repeated. Following Skinner’s presumptions, three significant operant or response types that can follow behavior emerged, neutral operants, punishers, and reinforcers (Boardman, 1992). The three responses are quite significant in determining human behavior in several contexts including learning and achievement of educational outcomes.
One of the essential operants that can follow behavior is neutral operant, which refers to the responses from the environments that do not increase or decrease the probability of the occurrence and repetition of behavior (Boardman, 1992). Reinforcers can be the best operant that best describes the association linking technology use and education in instructional delivery (Johnson, 2004). Reinforces, as an operant, refer to the responses, either negative or positive, from individuals’ surroundings that are responsible for increasing the likelihood of repetition of behavior. Finally, punishers are the least dependent in reviewing the imperativeness of technology in an instructional setting (Johnson, 2004). Punishers as operant refer to a response from the surrounding that decreases the probability of occurrence or repetition of certain behavior. According to Tennyson (2010), positive reinforcers are capable of increasing behavior while negative reinforces decrease the occurrence of a behavior. From the aspect of reinforcement that comes from the reinforcers, technology in this case as it is among the contemporary anticipations among individuals, is capable of increasing the likelihood of enhancing positive learning among students.
Another significant theory that may link the use of technology in delivering instruction in education is the theory of elaboration or simply elaboration theory. Elaboration theory is simply an instructional theory that emerged from the presumptions that learning is a diverse process and that teachers or instructors should concentrate on how they should be educating people on how to undertake to teach rather than questioning why and how people discover (Tennyson, 2010). It concerns most with the structure and organization of instructional material rather than the appearance of the material itself (Tennyson, 2010). Two important components exist in the theory of elaboration, and according to the theory, “instruction should always proceed from the general to the specific, referred to as sequencing, and (b) that each part should relate to the general context and the other parts, referred to as synthesizing” (Tennyson, 2010, p.8). In the context of technology, instructional delivery using integrated means is becoming challenging as instructors or teachers keep on misusing, underutilizing, or even neglecting the importance of applying technology in instructional delivery.
Substantial literature seems to be linking the study of music especially one that is technologically inclusive with a healthy learning and improved instructional delivery for teachers. However, much of the issues regarding the existing technology in the music itself are minimal (Tabbers et al., 2001). A continuum of prior literature has also focused on the use of music with positive learning where students and teachers find themselves equally enjoying the classroom environment (Stevenson, 2010). In normal circumstances, a supportive and confident teacher can produce an effective learning experience and the outcomes can be positive; therefore, students can be motivated from their learning, thus meeting the curriculum expectations. When the teacher fails to motivate the students or provide the appropriate settings that satisfy their learning needs, little productive learning will occur (McMurrer, 2007). In music performance, Marques et al. (2010) affirm that using hybrid instructional models to enhance the natural settings of the classroom will have a major impact on the way the cognitive experience occurs, by increasing motivation to promote the frequency of music practice.
Over the years, teacher-professional improvement and training have been areas of great concern. For educational outcomes to remain positive and appealing, two stakeholders (teachers and students) are equally important and mutually dependent on each other. Considering the importance of the teacher’s role, Bauer, Reese, and McAllister (2003) focused on research on transforming music teaching via technology using teacher respondents. Using qualitative research, they aimed at “determining if one-week technology workshops could be effective means for the professional development of music teachers in using technology for instruction… The results showed that three indicators of effectiveness-teacher knowledge, teacher comfort, and frequency of teacher use, could significantly improve in this setting” (Bauer, Reese & McAllister, 2003, p.290). For a long period, researchers and music educators have examined deeply the relevance of technology to music learning and teaching to focus on music technology. Young et al. (2003) posit that for teaching to be effective when using technology, a comprehensive understanding of the application of hardware and software must prevail, little of which has remained practical in the contemporary world.
Importance of K-12 music learning
Since the emergence of music education, teachers globally have always acknowledged and anticipated the creative works that emerged from the innovations of music in education and its implementation in school curricula (Tiffin & Rajasingham, 1997). Music education in itself has for years managed to change the perception of learning from teachers to students with much positivity in learning and less stress evident in instructional delivery (Tiffin & Rajasingham, 1997). K-12 music learning has been much influential in assisting students to develop an understanding of music through experiences in singing, listening, moving, and playing instruments. Through the K-12 music teaching, students also possess the ability to read and notate music, develop critical thinking skills through examining, and analyzing all-important facades of music discipline (Tiffin & Rajasingham, 1997). Much of the integration of music technologies typically began with the introduction of K-12, with students and teachers having an easy learning moment, easy connections between music and instructional setting, understanding the relationship of music to history and culture as well as the understanding ethical use of equipment, materials, methods, and technologies.
Despite the accrued significance of K-12 music learning, policymakers, teachers, and other institutions dealing with music education can admit that the road to successful music learning especially with the transition eminent in the twenty-first century has not been easy (Jeffries, 2001). For those in more advanced private-based schools, delivery of music concepts might have differed much from others, as technology has become the main subject in the current century cutting across all forms of life (Jeffries, 2001). Researchers have always focused on the different ways in which teachers seem to have faced many challenges in integrating the continuously growing technology in music teaching. Sangra (2002) identifies several music specialisms, compositions, genres, and styles, a mixture of music instruments, and different technologies as the unique challenges of music education in the current days. To date, despite the technological advances made in several organizations including the education sector, none remains impressive regarding the techniques involved in teaching music.
School facilities and related performance
As this study concentrates on analyzing how schools have been neglecting K-12 music learning, it is important to understand how the availability of learning material or facilities affects school academic performance as noted by Ester (1994), Sangra (2002), and Young et al. (2003). In the contemporary decades, there is growing evidence highlighting the relationship between adequacy or even quality of school facilities and its influence on student behavior and performance. Considerable studies according to Young et al. (2003) have provided a statistically noteworthy association between situations of a given school or classroom and student general attainment. In general, “students attending school in newer, better facilities score five to seventeen points higher on standardized tests than those attending in substandard buildings” (Young et al., 2003, p.1). Traditionally, according to Young et al. (2003), schools’ facility factors including building, temperature, clamor, lighting, color, air quality, and the quality of facility maintenance as major influences on the student’s health, safety, and psychological state, which in turn affect academic achievement.
All the facility factors have equal significance in the achievement of positive outcomes in schools; nonetheless, technology has become the most anticipated facility-related factor that seems to be influencing classroom instructional delivery at greater lengths (Bauer, Reese & McAllister, 2003). The shift from ordinary facilities is now creating international tension with numerous developed and developed nations receiving technological integration in school curricula with mixed reactions (Ester, 1994). The underlying issue in the contemporary technological-enabled school activities is the extent to which technology seems utilized and the ability of schools to maintain the available and new technologies appearing in the school curricula. Stevenson (2010) affirms, “A great disparity as to the amount of technology, the quality of technology, and the preparedness of instructional personnel to use the technology now exists across America’s schools” (p.11). This aspect has subsequently reduced the growing morale in learning with the newly integrated school curricula.
K-12 Music learning and its technology neglected
As postulated before in the problem statement, K-12 music learning is currently undergoing recession as schools are constantly cutting down expenditures of music education in a bid to control school budgets. Despite the gradual decline in the significance of K-12, music learning has remained a concealed matter in several schools in most cases; little literature exists on the prevailing issue (Jeffries, 2001). However, some enlightened studies have recently set a sharp focus on the dwindling issue of K-12 music learning. Access to K-12 music learning in several schools across the continents especially in the developing nations is becoming a problem as either the schools lack the adequate technological infrastructure or the unavailability of skilled technicians who supposedly are teachers or administrative assistants to handle the sophisticated material (Colwell & Richardson, 2002). K-12 learning and instructional delivery using music have been much motivating to learners with evidence linking the use of technologically unable K-12 learning with substantial child growth, development, and even academic excellence.
Several factors can provide significant evidence on the extent to which virtual learning is gradually becoming a challenge to many schools with the conflict between the utilization of music software in a classroom (The Virtual Teacher) and distance learning rising. Generally, virtual learning might have resulted in more integrated learning in the entire educational spectrum, though the commencement of this approach in learning seems a challenge as portrayed in several studies (Tabbers et al., 2001). Technology in support of “instruction is useful for everything from student assessments, to individualized instruction, to grading, and to reporting student progress” (Stevenson, 2010, p.10). Despite the rapidly emerging trends in instructional delivery including distance learning comprising full courses and the enhanced uptake of virtual learning experiences, with a subsequent decline in reliance on paper instructional material, some schools have shown signs of neglecting K-12 music learning. Inclusive of its teaching profession, Tabbers et al. (2001) assert that K-12 is gradually becoming history to several schools, with two important aspects of consideration that indicate a decline in the teaching and practice of K-12 learning.
Despite research indicating considerable uptake of technology that reports approximately ninety-seven percent of schools in the United States reporting to have instructional computers in classrooms, the fate of music is still unknown. Stevenson (2010) questioned, “how does a country provide a quality education to an increasing number of children, more and more of whom will be at-risk learners, while dollars budgeted to education continue to remain stagnant, or even diminish?” (p.12). School budgeting and allocation of funds to school projects have been a contentious matter for several schools coupled with the government’s minimal support in education risking the trustworthiness of policies established by school administrations. A report documented by McMurrer (2007) who investigated music learning in five schools in Pennsylvania revealed substantial evidence on the extent of music negligence. According to McMurrer, since 2001 approximately 60% of district schools within the United States have increased instructional time for language arts, roughly 45%for mathematics. Contrary to the expectations of many, nearly 16-36% of schools have reported decreasing instructional time for arts, social studies, music, and even sciences.
Budgeting as an aspect affecting music learning
Since the year 2000, governments especially those in developed countries, have become reluctant in providing schools with financial support to comprehensively provide curricula coverage (Colwell & Richardson, 2002). As the governments delay in providing financial assistance to aid in providing substantial curricula coverage, pressure has exceeded to administrators in schools to find alternative means of curbing the rising financial crisis (Colwell & Richardson, 2002). Coupled with the constantly reducing the number of teachers who are shifting from the teaching profession with several reasons underlying this issue, school administrators are finding themselves in a quandary while making management decisions (Madsen, 2004). Since the government has been delaying to assist schools in infrastructural and financial aid with the aging populace revolting against taxation, parents, and teachers are finding possible means of fundraising and budgeting school projects. Stevenson (2010) affirmed, “It will be an ordeal for educators and facilities professionals to stretch limited capital budgets to design schools and deliver programs that provide a mainstream learning experience for these children” (p.4).
Budgeting is one of the crucial aspects of schools, with the school administrations in the current decades focusing on prioritized educational activities in establishing policies governing school expenditure (Stevenson, 2010). Evidence drawn from numerous prior studies has highlighted budgeting both in the government budgeting and school budgeting as factors that are inhibiting the growth and development of technologically enabled music learning. Drawing evidence from a report documented by Stevenson (2010), “in the coming era of limited resources and reluctant taxpayers, budgets likely are going to be committed to priority initiatives such as building more public schools to address the influx of 18 million additional students” (p.7). Virtual learning, though much anticipated by several schools worldwide, worries are on how to control the expenditure of schools, with chances of trimming the curricula being accommodated by the meager budgets that are considerably high. The shift in the focus of budgeting to indispensable activities including those highlighted in the curricula has been putting the existence of K-12 music learning at stake.
Technology in concept delivery and instructional planning
As this study focuses on motivating students to enhance their morale in music through computerized instructional delivery, it is important to understand the perceived significance of technology in concept delivery first. Technology has recently assisted teachers in improving student assessment, individualized student instruction through the web, student grading as well as monitoring and reporting of student progress.
Substantial prior studies have proved the importance of relating the effectiveness of multimedia instructions to the influence of presentation format, as multimedia instructions are more effective in terms of learning results by reducing unnecessary memory load.
In discussing teachers and the use of technology, Meiselwitz (2002) argued that considerable research must focus on substitute ways to offer efficient professional improvement for the sake of improving the competency of current and future educators. The benefits of virtual teaching and learning are based on research that shows that “students learn more when they can control the course of their learning” (Brogan, 1999, p.28). Technology can provide multiple ways of presenting instruction and achieving higher levels of retention. The software can be architected with an understanding that individuals differ in their learning preferences and paces.
Perceived significance of the hybrid instructional model
Universities, colleges, and other institutions are starting to consider change, not only for their classical layout and structure but also for their approach to education. The online platform provides courses without aiming to establish a possessive relationship with the institution offering them (Duart, 2003). The relation established between education and virtuality is a relation of creativity, which offers the possibility of creating new spaces of interaction and as such, they must remain treated in different ways to maximize their potentiality. The key for the success of Computer Assisted Instruction depends on the know-how of the learning process, in other words, in how to be there and participate in virtuality learning (Ester, 1994). In a bid to accomplish the best, it is important to study carefully the interactive activities to be carried out in the multimedia approach. Program development is to be about the ability to use technology as a tool, which is the concept of calling the technology a machine for learning. This concept is called (CAI), Computer Assistance Instruction learning technology.
One of the main objectives of this study is to encourage school administrators to increase the students’ access to music technology emphasizing the usefulness and effectiveness of the hybrid instructional model. A hybrid instructional model is among the most contemporary teaching approaches employed by teachers to enhance instructional delivery. A recent study undertaken by Marques et al. (2010) revealed that a hybrid instructional model that involves the application of web-based distance learning courses and programs in delivering instructions, has been much influential in improving education.
Following this study, approximately 46.7 % of students deemed themselves interested in computers even before they started undertaking their courses, and this percent to some studies grew to 73.3%. In the same study, to understand students’ perceptions on the use of e-mail, approximately 66.7 % of students considered the usefulness of e-mail as a tool for school contacts and studies (Marques et al., 2010). Nonetheless, despite approximately 86.7 % using the Internet before, only 20 percent had managed to use bibliographic searches, as an aspect that reveals underutilization of technology in instructional delivery.
Methodology and Procedures
This chapter will summarize the research methodology and procedures that will be useful in collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data regarding the concept of learning and teaching music technology. This chapter will also include the targeted population, sampling techniques as well as Data instruments & collection procedures.
The study aims at establishing how learning and teaching music technologically affects students’ motivation and general performance. In demanding to establish the facts behind this research, the study will follow three main research questions. Question 1: In what ways, if any, do students believe that computer-assisted instruction motivates them to learn? Question 2: What aspects of music playing could be improved through computer instruction to boost ensemble performance? Question 3: How do teachers use interactive programs to evaluate student progress?
As research in its simplest meaning can refer to the quest of searching for knowledge and review of literature and theories, it is not adequate to reinforce the argument of this study just through triangulation of researches. Therefore, in determining the impact of technology in instructional delivery and the extent to which music learning seems neglected in general, this study purports to undertake primary research to collect and analyze data about this topic. In a bid to comprehend the facts and assumptions bestowed in this study, this research will employ both qualitative and quantitative approaches in undertaking this study (Brannen, 2007). This study will use qualitative methods to investigate the information on how a hybrid instructional model could increase motivation and upgrade performance between learner and teacher. In quantitative, this study will analyze and interpret data expressed in the form of numerical or arithmetical form or other complicated forms to enhance the reliability and validity of data collection instruments.
Target population, sampling, and sample size
Target population may probably refer to the group of respondents in which the researcher or a group of researchers intend to collect valuable information about the objectives and aims of the study (Brannen, 2007). Respondents can be an organization or group of individuals with the same interest or profession. The targeted respondents as the population for this study are the teachers and students. In the case of this study, the researcher will select the schools based on an established record of excellence in technological innovation, with approximately twelve high school band and string music students chosen to participate in this study. The survey will employ a random sampling technique to sample 60 teachers, a purposive technique to sample five schools, and a stratified technique to sample 200 students as participants in the Focus group interviews. Through the purposive sampling technique, it is clear that the study will target at most five principals from the five schools from which each of them will respond to the surveys individually.
Data instruments & collection procedure and analysis
This study acknowledges the importance and principles governing the collection and analysis of raw data and therefore certain measures will assist in achieving this goal in the right way. The main data collection instruments in this study will be interview schedules and surveys. The data collection protocol introduced by this study will be designed mainly concerning the theoretical and methodological issues that will support the research topic and insure coherent data collection. Interviews and surveys have been very crucial in research and have been in use for several decades, with results produced from such material proving to be relevant, reliable, and with minimal bias (Brannen, 2007). Since they will contain simple structured questions based on perceptions and objectives created, respondents may find it easy to deal with these instruments. All the data collection material will remain part of the research from the beginning to the end, with teachers and students expected to fill the instruments appropriately.
This study will have two phases in collecting data about this study. In addition, the study will be of great relevance in the field of learning music especially in the area of distance learning. In this study, both research objectives and research questions will produce research variables to be employed in the interviews. In the first phase, the researcher will collect data regarding objectives 1-3 the first phase, where the study will manage to acquire data on the negligence of K-12 learning, while data collection on the three main questions will take place in the second phase. This move seeks to ensure that the study receives an overview of the prevailing situation before investing its efforts in encouraging school administrators to increase the student’s access to music technology emphasizing the usefulness and effectiveness of the hybrid instructional model. In a bid to examine the usefulness and effectiveness of the hybrid instructional model in teaching music, this study will use a computer-assisted instruction tool that recreates the essential musical elements present in a typical ensemble and the traditional student-teacher interaction and later compare the disparities.
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