Brown, S. (2008). The impact of high fidelity simulation and role modeling in the acquisition of critical thinking skills and self-efficacy: An experimental study. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, United States — Colorado. (Publication No. AAT 3348784). Retrieved May 12, 2011, from ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source.
The dissertation under discussion is devoted to the problem of the nursing shortage and low level of nursing professionalism and knowledge. The impact of high fidelity simulation and role modeling influence on students’ level of knowledge and desire to improve critical thinking and self-confidence is the main idea of the research. Quantitative dissertation analysis presupposes the consideration of the following issues and dissertation parts, analysis of the study design, its impact on the credibility and/or usability of results; description of the sample and reference to the particular supportive research, evaluation of the research results, and the ways for data collection procedures, assessment of the data analysis procedures and the description of the most important features of the research conducted while writing a dissertation.
Quantitative dissertation analysis
An experimental study
The dissertation implemented both experimental and nonexperimental studies as it used the control group design and experimental group design for research conducting. Polit and Beck (2004) consider an experimental study the one where the independent variables in different conditions are randomly assigned to subjects and the researcher controls it. Applying the description of the experimental research (Polit & Beck, 2004) to the research design under discussion, it is obvious that the senior baccalaureate nursing students during the second semester took part in the experiment with the purpose to participate in high fidelity simulation with role modeling. At the same time, the control group participated in a similar high fidelity simulation without role modeling.
The Impact on the Credibility and/or Usability of Results
The introduction of two groups, one control group and one experimental group, allowed the researcher to involve in the experiment only with those students who wanted to take part there. The opportunity to choose whether to take part in the experiment or not due to inner considerations added to the credibility of the results. Voluntary study reduced the tension and anxiety unwilling students could experience Furthermore, students were notified about confidentiality that also played positive role. The applying of the second senior baccalaureate students adds to the usefulness of the results as they have already got the level of knowledge they are going to use while the research. Having the desire to measure the usefulness of high fidelity simulation and role modeling in receiving skills in critical thinking and self-efficacy, the subjects ideally meet the research design initiatives.
Describing the sample, it should be mentioned that the research was conducted in College of Nursing with Caucasian and female student bodies. The research was conducted among students (18 years old and above) who focused on complex situations in their course study. 72 students were expected to be enrolled in the study. The experiment design was slowly introduced in the college curriculum. It should be mentioned that the subjects did not have much experience in applying high-fidelity simulation. To minimize the selection bias, the researcher chose random assigning study to the subjects both in control and experimental groups. A random number generator was implemented. At this stage, those who refused to participate in the experiment were moved to the control group.
Before getting down to the research, the adequate power had to be measured in order to understand whether there were enough subjects in the research for identifying particular differences. Exploring three variables (critical thinking, self-efficacy and simulation design scale), adequate power analysis stressed on robust sample size used in the research.
Two hypotheses were tested, moreover a number of tests were conducted with the purpose to make the research strengths and make it possible to generalize them. However, paying attention that the average age of the subjects (27 years old), absence of academic degrees (62.5%) and only 56.92% of those who were employed in the healthcare system, it is impossible to generalize the results. Furthermore, the students of one purpose college were used and only 33 and 34 subjects in control and experimental groups respectively took part.
The researcher used the following instrumentation. Self-Confidence in Learning instrument and Simulation Design Scale instrumentation (Jeffries & Rizzolo, 2006) were used in the study. This instrumentation was necessary to meet the study requirements. In addition, a 7-item demographic instrument was utilized to identify the sample gender, age, level of knowledge, the experience in using simulation procedures and in healthcare. The Professional Judgment Rating Form (Facione & Facione, 1998) was necessary for assessing critical skills.
Data collection was divided into 2 phases. The procedure of the first phase was considered as follows:
- Students were invited to the research and asked to fill out a demographic questionnaire form.
- Students were divided into two groups (experimental and control) with the help of a random number generator on the computer. The time and place for simulation were identified. All students were provided with the id numbers and alias to follow the confidentiality principle. Each alias and id number was provided with a master key with the purpose to assess the study data during the second day of the research. These documents were predicted to be destroyed after the experiment. Alias and id numbers were to be removed after a subject had completed two experiments.
- Subjects were introduced with the simulator and had an opportunity to ask questions if something was incomprehensible. When everything was clear, students participated in the scenarios, one of which presupposed the simulation with role modeling and debriefing and another one was the same but without role modeling.
- Each group was assigned with two students, one of them was a primary nurse and another one was an assistant. Four volunteers expressed a desire to lead PJRF form filling out and utilize those. Thus, the data was collected in accordance with the predicted sampling.
- Control group spent 40 minutes on the research, 20 on scenario conduction and 20 minutes on debriefing. Experimental group spent 50 minutes and along with the procedures provided by the control group, students spent 10 minutes on role modeling.
- Role modeling presupposed a video that was predicted to ensure consistency on the contrary to the live demonstration.
The second phase of the scenario presupposed the utilization of the instrumentation.
- Those who participated in the study completed Simulation Design Scale and the demographic surveys mentioned in the instrumentation section.
- Students returned for the second experiment within 24 hours. The same students were chosen for primary nurse and assistant. This time PJRF form was used to assess the work of those two students. Then, Self-Confidence in Learning instrument was completed.
- Finally, the results were analyzed with t-test and Chi-Square analysis. Pearson’s test of correlations was used to consider the correlations between demographic variables and a number of scores (PJRF, SDS, and self-efficacy) (Brown, 2008).
Data Analysis Procedures
Testing the hypotheses, SPSS 15.0 T-tests and multivariate analysis of variance were used as the methods for data analysis. A t-test was used for the determination of the differences in the group means. Chi-Square analysis was implemented with the purpose to consider whether various data were differently distributed among samples. These procedures helped consider the research results and implement those in the discussion.
Therefore, it should be concluded that quality research had been conducted by Brown (2008) in the relation to the impact of high fidelity simulation and role modeling in the acquisition of critical thinking skills and self-efficacy during studying in one purpose college. Still, due to the limited variety of subjects and several other limitations of the study it cannot be generalized. However, the research had proven that under the described conditions and of the stated circumstances students’ critical thinking abilities and self-efficacy did not differ greatly when used in combination (high fidelity simulation with role modeling) or high fidelity simulation separately. These results are obtained using deep consideration of the research and quantitative analysis of the dissertation which describes in detail the procedures.
Brown, S. (2008). The impact of high fidelity simulation and role modeling in the acquisition of critical thinking skills and self-efficacy: An experimental study. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, United States — Colorado. (Publication No. AAT 3348784).
Facione, N., & Facione, P. (1998). Professional judgment rating form. California: Insight Assessment.
Jeffries, P. R. & Rizzolo, M. A. (2006). Designing and implementing models for the innovative use of simulation in teaching nursing care of ill adults and children: A national, multi-site, multi-method study. Web.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2004). Nursing research: Principles and methods. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.