The Implementation of the US International Policy in Afghanistan

Subject: Politics & Government
Pages: 48
Words: 3573
Reading time:
26 min
Study level: PhD

Introduction

The upcoming research will deal with the complex problems related to the implementation of the US international policy in Afghanistan. The social welfare policy of the US Department of Defense aims to ensure law-enforcement system in underdeveloped countries through Embedded Police Mentors’ (EPMs) training and assistance. The topic of the dissertation will be “The Impact of Embedded Police Mentors’ Training on the Reformation of Afghan National Police”. The present concept paper aims to reveal the research topic, objectives, methodology, and other aspects essential for the dissertation.

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The main ideas and context of the research on the chosen topic are associated with the principal aspects that reflect the dissertation’s essence. Four main aspects will be covered in the present paper: the current activity and policy of the EPMs, environment of the underdeveloped country (Afghanistan), domestic police in Afghanistan, and impact of the EPMs’ training on Afghan national police. The brief information concerning the mentioned aspects needs to be provided.

The EPMs are law enforcement officers employed by the US Department of Defense; its current efforts address the main problems of the Third World countries, namely, the misuse of domestic police force, poor maintenance of law and order, violation of civil rights, etc. (Smith, 2003). The EPMs aim to make Afghanistan more democratic, and to speed up the process of its multi-faceted development; in this context, the EPMs’ role is to enable Afghanistan to reform domestic police force in an effective way, and to improve its law enforcement system. The political environment of Afghanistan is characterized as post-conflict, since this underdeveloped country has experienced continuous conflicts that have determined its complex condition; as a result, Afghanistan is considered a poor country with political, economic, social, environmental, and other problems (Marks, 2007).

Since the country is affected by economic crises, political instability, insufficient civil order development, and low level of security, the domestic situation of Afghanistan needs to be improved through the external help (namely, of the EPMs). Afghan national police lacks a stable policy system, professional expertise, compliance with the world standards, etc. (Murrin, Johnson, McPherson, & Gerstle, 2007). This evidence leads to the following situation: local population suffers from poor civil order, unpunished violence, and other crimes; this evidence proves that Afghanistan needs favorable domestic environment that would enhance normal civil and state development (Robinson, 2010). Naturally, the EPMs’ training of Afghan national police promises positive changes aimed to meet real-life problems caused by the post-conflict environment. The implementation of the social welfare policy in Afghanistan is meant to reform the country’s domestic police through the improvement of professional expertise; the impact of the EPMs’ activity is expected to be significant (FOP, 2012).

As one may see, the topic lies in the complex research area, since few studies have been dedicated to this topic, and numerous factors need to be taken into account. However, regardless this evidence, the upcoming investigation will give an additional insight into the true impact of EPMs on the Afghan national police. In addition, the potential theoretical and practical value of the upcoming dissertation cannot be underestimated because it will contain a great amount of essential theoretical information, and invaluable recommendations that can be followed in real-life settings.

Statement of the Problem

The study dedicated to revealing the impact of EPMs’ training on Afghanistan is obviously needed, since certain sources related to the same area of the research interest presented the following data. According to Palmiotto and Unnithan (2010), the EPMs are strategically essential police and law enforcement officers aimed to implement the social welfare policy of the US Department of Defense, is dedicated to the law enforcement service in Afghanistan. Although the organization’s purposes are strictly social, recreational, and cultural, it is focused on the enhancement of “the image of the police in its member countries”, and on facilitation of “international cooperation through friendly contacts between police officers of all continents” (Palmiotto & Unnithan, 2010, p. 285). The current efforts of the US Department of Policy are directed to training the national police force through the EPMs’ activity in such underdeveloped country as Afghanistan that presents enormous potential to growth; hence, the impact of the EPMs’ training is potentially positive and significant for state development.

In 2010, the police officers of the US Department of Defense were deployed in the post-conflict environments to fulfill their responsibilities related to advising and training in institutional reforms in security sector, but certain challenges (lack of civil security, weak governance, etc.) prevented them from completing their mission effectively (Mays, 2010). In this context, the impact of EPMs’ training was insignificant and unperceivable owing to evident reasons. There is no evidence of a really positive impact of EPMs’ training and assistance in reformation of the national police force in underdeveloped countries (Kratcoski & Das, 2007). These and other sources prove that the problem suggests further research. This way, the gap in the knowledge related to the true impact of the EPMs on Afghan national police reformation identified above suggests a feasible, worthy, interesting, and relevant study.

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Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this qualitative research is to study the perceived role of the EPMs in reforming Afghan national police. To be specific, the overarching aim of the dissertation is the identification of the true role and impact of EPMs’ training on domestic police of Afghanistan. The upcoming dissertation intends to present the research response to the problem related to the doubtful impact of the EPMs on the reformation of Afghan national police described in the existing relevant literature. In other words, the research will address the gap in the existing literature related to the topic, and make a notable contribution to the theory of knowledge on the impact of the EPMs on Afghan national development through reformation and domestic police training.

In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the dissertation will be guided by the qualitative method and phenomenological research design. As one may see, the chosen method and design are aligned with the problem statement. The specific population chosen for the upcoming case study will be a certain amount of people which work in a particular police organization located in Kabul (Afghan capital city). Correspondingly, the geographical location of study is Afghanistan.

Research Questions

Taking into consideration the research topic, problem, and purpose, the following questions are offered to meet the objectives of the upcoming study:

  • Q1. What is the nature of the EPMs’ professional training in the area of law enforcement?
  • Q2. What is the impact of the EPM’s job training on performance improvement of Afghan national police?
  • Q3. What are the challenges faced by EPMs and ways in which they are met in the process of reforming the local police forces in Afghanistan?

Definition of Key Terms

The list of critical and unique terms that will operate in the dissertation is presented below.

  • Assistance. Assistance can be defined as “the action of helping someone by sharing work”; this term also suggests “the provision of money, resources, or information to help someone” (Online Oxford Dictionary, 2012).
  • Case Study. A case study is a method applied mostly in social sciences “for the purpose of investigating activities or complex processes that are not easily separated from the social context within which they occur”; this method usually presupposes analysis of a person, group, organization, event, etc., identifying developmental factors in relation to a certain context (Munhall, 2007, p. 350).
  • Dependency Theory. The Dependency Theory is a social science theory suggesting that capitalist (developed) countries exploit Third World countries, controlling and keeping them dependent; in other words, the theory provides the idea that “the poverty of many countries is a result of exploitation by powerful countries” (Andersen & Taylor, 2010, p. 218).
  • Embedded Police Mentors (EPMs). Embedded Police Mentors (EPMs) are workers sent to another police institute to assist the national police force, and to provide it with essential knowledge and skills related to police work through advising and assisting in a law enforcement area; the job of EPMs (as that of IPAs) is associated with staff mentoring, instructing, training programs, logistics, etc. (Law enforcement/Police mentor, 2012).
  • International Police Advisors (IPAs). International Police Advisors (IPAs) provide civilian law enforcement expertise to assess, advise, mentor, and train Police Service officers and cadets over the world, also called CIVPOL (U.S Department of State, 2012)
  • Civilian Police (CIVPOL). Civilian police (CIVPOL) of the United States and more than 50 other countries are deployed around the globe in support of international post-conflict stabilization and redevelopment operations. Their presence promotes peace and stability in areas recovering from conflict, and their efforts to reform and/or develop indigenous police forces into modern, democratically-oriented law enforcement services prove the necessity of CIVPOL in Third World countries (U.S Department of State, 2012).
  • International Police Training Associates Consulting Services (IPTACS). The IPTACS are training programs providing “sustainable law enforcement training to developing countries and new democracies throughout the world”; the representatives of the IPTACS have a responsibility to “support the rule of law, strengthen international security, and stabilize new democracies” (IPTACS, 2009, p. 12).
  • Intervention Policy. Intervention Policy is “a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries”; in the context of the dissertation, this term is used in relation to the appearance of the EPMs in Third World countries (Online English Dictionary, 2012).
  • Interview. Interview is a method used in qualitative research as a data collection instrument, and is defined as “deliberately initiated conversation wherein two persons, and more recently more than two, engage in verbal and nonverbal communication toward the end of gathering information which will help one or both parties better reach goal” (Knoff, 2002, p. 107).
  • Law Enforcement. Law enforcement refers to a system that promotes adherence to the law in an organizing manner; in other words, it is engagement in “prevention, detection, investigation, or prosecution of, or the incarceration of any person for, any violation of law” (U.S. Department of Justice, 2006, p. 2).
  • Modernization Theory. The Modernization Theory is defined as a theory used to explain the modernization (or democratization) process within a society by identifying the social variables which contribute to development of societies and social progress; the theory provides the idea that “health, education (elementary and further), and economic resources (from basics to mass consumption)” are the “elements of basic needs” for all societies (Zapf, 2004, p. 8).
  • National police. National (sometimes called domestic) police (can be followed by the word “force” also) can be defined as a collective term relating to law enforcement agencies and “national security agencies such as the police, customs and border services and agencies with military status such as the gendarmerie, which exercise police powers, especially the powers of arrest and detention” (Noble & Roy, 2009, p. 2).
  • Police Reformation (in the context of a Third World country). Positive changes and transformation in a police institution made to increase professionalism and effectiveness of police officers’ performance, reduce or eliminate corruption, to restore public trust, to improve police community services, to ensure organizational discipline, etc. (Panth, 2011)
  • Post-conflict environment. A post-conflict environment is an environment characterized by “multiple transition processes,” including the transition from war to peace often accompanied by democratization, decentralization of the state government, and market liberalization; usually, countries with post-conflict environment are poor and underdeveloped, with low economic opportunities (Brown, Langer, & Stewart, 2008, p. 3).
  • Qualitative research. Qualitative research is a research method applied to investigate a certain phenomenon in relation to the complex and multilayered world; the primary aim of the method is “to develop an understanding of how the social world is constructed” (McLeod, 2011, p. 3).
  • Social welfare policy. Social welfare policy is usually defined as “meeting basic human needs”; its provision is always “guided by a single goal”, and “enhances well being” (Blau & Abramovitz, 2007, p. 28).
  • Third World country. A Third World country (sometimes called an underdeveloped country) is “a country with a relatively low standard of living and which lacks the economic development of more advanced industrialized nations” (such as the USA); the majority of Third World countries have high rates of population growth, poverty and unemployment, and are located in Asia, Africa, and South America (Online Economic Glossary, 2008).
  • Training. Training means usually “the process of bringing a person to an agreed standard of skill by practice and instruction”; however, the broad definition of this term is “a trainer and participant working together to transfer information from the trainer to the participant, to develop the participant’s knowledge, attitudes or skills so they can perform work tasks better” (Curtis, 2003, p. 2).
  • World Systems Theory. The World Systems Theory is based on a multidisciplinary approach to social change and world history; the theory suggests that “economic relations are embedded in larger social structures”, the “nation-states are part of a larger unit” (capitalist, developed, or core countries), and that national development of semi-peripheral and peripheral countries are “conditioned by the larger world-system” (Robinson, 2011, p. 11).

Brief Review of the Literature

Literature review will be an essential part of the dissertation aimed to provide a solid theoretical basis related to the impact of the EPMs on the reformation of Afghan national police. The subheadings of the literature review (or sub-themes) limit the scope of the research field, making a researcher focus on the crucial aspects of the topic. Taking into consideration the phenomenon under investigation and research objectives, the following subtopics are offered: “The Causes of the Assistance of the US Department of Defense to the Third World Countries”, “The EPM Training and Assistance to the Law Enforcement System in the Underdeveloped Countries”, and “The Nature of the EPMs’ Impact in Afghanistan”. In-depth understanding of the US international policy’s nature in underdeveloped countries, and of the EPMs’ activities that improve the quality of law enforcement in the Third World will undoubtedly help to understand the impact of training and assistance to the national police force reformation in Afghanistan. To reveal each of the three aspects chosen as sub-topics for the upcoming dissertation, nine reputable sources (two books and seven articles) are selected.

Sub-Topic 1: The Causes of the Assistance of the US Department of Defense to the Third World Countries.

The first subsection of the literature review is dedicated to the analysis of three developmental theories, and their application to the policy of the US Department of Defense. He (2012), Hall, Kardulias, and Chase-Dunn (2010), Shandra (2007), and Matunhu (2011) were chosen as the principal sources that provide necessary information for this sub-topic. Modernization Theory, Dependency Theory, and World Systems Theory will be discussed in the context of their practical application to understanding of Third World countries.

Sub-Topic 2: The EPMs’ Training and Assistance to the Law Enforcement System in the Underdeveloped Countries.

The second subtheme of the literature review is dedicated to the EPMs’ training and assistance meant to improve the law enforcement system in Afghanistan. Paul and Kaushik (2011), Schwartz (2010), and Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) (2010) specialists provided essential information on this sub-topic. These sources revealed the necessity of reformation of national police force in underdeveloped countries, identified law enforcement problems peculiar for them, and showed positive impact of the EPMs’ training and assistance on the improvement of law enforcement system in the Third World countries (including Afghanistan).

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Sub-Topic 3: The Nature of the EPMs’ Impact in Afghanistan.

The last subsection deals with the EPMs’ training in Afghanistan. The chosen authors (Hooker, 2011; Flight, 2010; Murray, 2007; O’Rawe, 2007) presented necessary information related to the EPMs’ training and assistance to the Afghan national police force. The impact of the EPMs’ activities on the reformation of the domestic police of this underdeveloped country is presented in the authors’ articles.

Summary

The key authors chosen for the literature review of the upcoming research presented the observed trends related to the topic that should be summarized in brief. These trends are related to the subordinate position of Third World countries, their strategic value for developed ones, current policy of the US Department of Defense associated with the EPMs’ activity in Afghanistan, and its potentially positive but doubtful impact on the state development. The upcoming study will bridge the gaps in insufficiently researched processes and concepts related to the dissertation topic.

Research Method

The proposed research method and design should be discussed in brief; besides, their choices need to be justified. Qualitative research method and phenomenological design are chosen for the upcoming research for evident reasons. According to Keegan (2009), and Richey and Klein (2007), qualitative research method allows to conduct a comprehensive social inquiry, to gain in-depth insight into the nature and reasons of a complex concept, and to arrive at certain decisions related to its aspects. This method will allow finding the evidence of the true impact of the EPMs’ training and assistance in reformation of the domestic police in the Third World country. Moustakas (1994), Rubin and Babbie (2010), and other related authors agree that the phenomenological design gives an opportunity to understand complex and multi-faceted phenomena peculiar for all social studies through the presentation of empirical observation and provision of people’s life-based experience concerning a certain issue. The application of this design to my dissertation will help me to understand the nature of social contact, interaction, attitudes, and processes that lie behind the topic. Overall, the appropriateness of the research method and design will ensure the theoretical and practical value of the dissertation.

The adequacy, appropriateness, and reasonability of the chosen method and design are obvious. The topic of the future research paper belongs to the area of social studies, since it deals with the investigation of a social phenomenon, mainly, of the developed countries world’s interaction with Third World countries. As one may see, the social nature of the chosen topic and complex central phenomenon under investigation supposes the implementation of a qualitative research method and phenomenological design, since they fit the problem and purpose statements of the dissertation; in addition, the proposed method and design will allow to answer the set research questions (Trochim & Donnelly, 2006; McNabb, 2010; Houser, 2008).

The central phenomenon of the upcoming qualitative research will be international assistance in reformation of national police force in Afghanistan through training in a specific area (law enforcement). The present EPMs’ policy will help undeveloped countries to gain professional experience, and to acquire necessary skills for the improvement of domestic police (Babbie, 2010). Hence, the mentioned phenomenon will be studied for the sake of the research objectives; in this context, the usage of phenomenological design is reasonable. In addition, the qualitative method will help to reveal the nature of the EPMs’ activities in a law enforcement area, impact of the EPMs’ training and assistance on the performance improvement of an undeveloped country’s national police, and challenges met by the EPMs during reformation of the domestic police in the Third World country. Hence, the qualitative method is appropriate for the chosen research problem, purpose, methods, and questions.

The upcoming research will operate several constructs of main themes presented in the dissertation text’s content (Addington-Hall, Bruera, Higginson, Payne, 2007). Polit and Beck (2008) said, “constructs are abstractions that are deliberately and systematically invented (or constructed) by researchers for a specific purpose” (p. 57). Some of the constructs used in the upcoming research are presented below.

  • Constructs derived from the phenomenon under investigation and subtopics of the literature review: the reasons for the implementation of the current policy of the US Department of Defense in Third World countries, the indicators of an unsatisfactory law enforcement system in underdeveloped countries before the reformation, the effects of the reformed domestic policy, etc.
  • Constructs derived from the interviews with participants: attitudes of Afghan national police officers to the EPMs’ training and assistance, the positive and negative consequences of the reformed domestic police force, etc.

Measurement

In the upcoming research, data will be collected, analyzed, and measured in an appropriate way. The secondary data will be collected through literature review and case study, while the primary ones – through interviews. The collected data will be analyzed with the help of content analysis, compare and contrast method, and identification of main themes (in interviews). Besides, there will be certain variables related to the organization’s training methods and interview participants’ opinions about the EPMs’ training. Finally, I will measure credibility (believability of a source/message), dependability (a value indicating the reliability of a source/information that encourages someone to depend on it), and integrity (consistency, honesty, trustworthiness, accuracy) of the research constructs, received results, and study findings (Boeije, 2009). The following measures will be taken to ensure:

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  • credibility: engagement in the data collection and analysis processes for a sufficient length of time, usage of multiple data sources, and involvement of participants in revision of collected and analyzed data (Riordan & Wambach, 2010);
  • dependability: inquiry audit and personal rigor (Riordan & Wambach, 2010);
  • integrity: accurate and fair research process, accurate transcription of participants’ answers, disclosure, and willingness to challenge previous thinking on the matter of doubtful positive impact of the EPMs’ training.

Summary

As one may see, the chosen qualitative methodology (presented by data collection and analysis methods, phenomenological study design, etc.) for the upcoming dissertation is reasonable, since the topic of the research paper will deal with the investigation of the complex social phenomenon, the interaction between the First and Third World. Literature review, case study, and interviews will help to meet the research objectives. The study constructs, received data, and overall findings will respond the main criteria of credibility, dependability, and integrity.

Appendix: Annotated Bibliography

Addington-Hall, J. M., Bruera, E., Higginson, I. J., & Payne, S. (2007). Research methods in palliative care. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

The authors dedicated their book to the peculiarities of research in a healthcare area. They revealed how qualitative research methods should be applied, and how constructs can be correctly identified. Although the upcoming research deals with another research area, the present source is helpful, since it provides a solid theoretical basis (a range of research methods of data collection and analysis) for the study.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D. C.: Author.

The manual provides invaluable guidance for students, writers, educators, and other people on all aspects of the writing process and citation system. The APA referencing style is widely spread; in addition, with the help of this source, it becomes an easy-to-use style. Since the upcoming research paper deals with this referencing style, the present manual will be undoubtedly useful because it contains all necessary information related to all aspects of the writing process.

Andersen, M. L., & Taylor, H. F. (2010). Sociology: the essentials (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage learning.

The authors were interested to investigate the essence of society-related research and sociological issues in studies. They provided in-depth understanding of the role of sociological perspective, social interaction, psychometrical data, and culture in sociological research. The book is of high value because it will help to conduct the upcoming social research.

Babbie, E.R. (2010). The practice of social research. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

The book’s author focused on the nature of human inquiry and theory of social research. The source provided data collection and analysis methods that can be applied to social studies. In the context of the upcoming social research, the information about qualitative research methods and ethics seems to be necessary.

Blau, J., & Abramovitz, M. (2007). The dynamics of social welfare policy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

The authors dedicated their book to the peculiarities of the social welfare policy. They thoroughly discussed the concept of this policy, its model, analysis, and application methods; besides, the authors revealed the advantages of a social welfare policy for society. Since the upcoming dissertation deals with the current social welfare policy of the Department of Defense, this source will be undoubtedly helpful.

Boeije, H. (2009). Analysis in qualitative research. London, UK: SAGE Publications Ltd.

The author focuses on the analysis in qualitative research, paying attention to different relevant associated with this process. The author’s book provides essential information concerning the techniques that ensure validity and reliability of a study data. The present source is valuable for the upcoming qualitative research because it will help to make its findings valid and reliable.

Brown, G., Langer, A., & Stewart, F. (2008). A typology of post-conflict environments: an overview. Web.

The authors of this working paper aimed to design a typology of post-conflict environments. They provided an overview of post-conflict environments (the essence of this concept, nature of post-conflict societies, their conditions and obstacles, etc.). The present source will help to identify the type of post-conflict environment of the country of interest.

Curtis, D. (2003). Exploring the training process. Web.

The author was interested to discuss the nature and stages of the training process in detail. The paper provided comprehensive information about the assessment of training needs, trainer choice, training methods and materials, trainer’s challenges, etc. The upcoming study deals with the EPMs’ training activities, so this source will be useful.

Flight, N. (2010). Optimizing Canada’s commitment to police reform in Afghanistan. The Canadian Army Journal,13(1), 105-114.

The author revealed how Canadian assistance and successfully implemented strategies helped to conduct Police Reform in Afghanistan effectively. The source suggested the idea that Canadian commitment to reformation of Afghan law-enforcement system will lead to feasible positive changes in this underdeveloped country. The present source will be used in the dissertation because it is relevant.

Fraternal Order of Police (FOP). (2010) H.R. 218, the “Law Enforcement Officers’ Safety Act” and S. 1132, the “Law Enforcement Officers’ Safety Act Improvements. Act”. Web.

The present source deals with the legal documents that reveal the essence of law enforcement officers employed by the US Department of Defense. Their responsibilities, main tasks, and key role in the establishment of the democratic law enforcement system all over the world are identified. Since the upcoming paper is focused on the activities of the EPMs (the same law enforcement officers) supported by the US Department of Defense, this source is valuable.

FOP. (2012). The voice of our nation’s law enforcement officers. Web.

The official website of the Fraternal Order of Police reveals the nature of law enforcement and police officers. These essential employees help to provide communities with experts and specialists on democratic law enforcement system. The upcoming dissertation deals with the EPMs, the same law enforcement officers aimed to provide their help all over the world; hence, this source should be used.

Hall, T.D., Kardulias, P.N., & Chase-Dunn, C. (2010). World-Systems Analysis and Archaeology: Continuing the Dialogue. Journal of Archaeological Research. Web.

The authors analyze World Systems developmental theory, and its application to some countries. They proved that the deep insight into this theory helps to understand the origins and tendencies of the existing countries. Since the focus of the dissertation is Afghanistan, the present source seems appropriate for the discussion and analysis of this country’s political, economical, and social environment.

He, C. (2012). Modernization science: The principles and methods of national advance. Beijing, China: Springer.

The author focused his attention on the definition of the modernization science, and the methodology of national advancement. In addition, the book provided detailed information about theoretical concepts associated with national advancement, history and type of modernization, along with the peculiarities of a modernization policy. The present source will fit the context of the upcoming study, since it deals with the Modernization Developmental Theory that explains the assistance of the US Department of Defense to the Third World countries.

Hooker, R. D. (2011). Operation enduring freedom X CJTF–82 and the Future of COIN. Joint Force Quarterly,63(4), 140-147.

The author revealed how the successfully implemented national project helped to improve law-enforcement system and increase the level of civil security. In addition, the article clearly demonstrated what social and police problems are most peculiar for Afghanistan. Since the upcoming study focuses on the national police of this country, the present article should be used.

Houser, J. (2008). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

The author was interested to reveal the important aspects of research in a specific social area, namely nursing. The book provided essential information about the research area, process of planning, research method and design selection, ethical and legal considerations, population description, ways to enhance validity, etc. Since the upcoming dissertation will lie in the social research area, the value of this source cannot be underestimated; it will serve as a theoretical framework for the study.

International Police Association. (2011). U.S section bylaws (statutes and standing rules). Web.

The present paper dedicated to the IPA principles and rules is written by the representatives of this famous international organization located in the USA. The source provided the information related to the aims and objectives, membership, authorities, duties, restrictions, and rules of order prescribed for the US IPA’s officers. Since the upcoming research paper deals with the EPMs’ activities (the same activities in which IPAs are involved), the source is of high value; it will present theoretical foundations for the organization’s training and assistance realized in the Third World countries.

IPTACS. (2009). IPTACS training. Web.

The source is written by the representatives of the international organization that help countries around the world providing its training activities. The book provided the information about the agents of the International Police Training and Consulting Services (IPTACS) who assist all national police forces that need help. In addition, the paper indicated the main purpose of this organization (to train law enforcement representatives in a country with a challenging environment) Hence, the present source will be undoubtedly helpful within the framework of the upcoming research.

Keegan, S. (2009). Qualitative research: Good decision making through understanding people, cultures and markets. London, UK: Kogan Page Publishers.

The author was interested to prove that qualitative research create favorable conditions for appropriate decision making for understanding people and other elements of sociological research area. The book’s author revealed the qualitative research nature, process, issues, methodology, along with researcher’s stimuli and interpretations of the data. Naturally, the value of the present source for the upcoming dissertation is high, since it deals with the qualitative research in a social area.

Knoff, H. M. (2002). The assessment of child and adolescence personality. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

The author dedicated the book to the assessment of personality of young people through different research methods and techniques. The theories associated with personality assessment and assessment instruments were revealed in the book; the author proved their value for identification of children’s and adolescents’ interests, tendencies, real-life experiences, etc. The information about the interview process is the most essential for the upcoming research, since it provides a theoretical framework for the data collection method (interview).

Kratcoski, P.C., & Das, D.K. (2007). Police education and training in a global society. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

The authors focused on general police education and training in the condition of globalization. The book covered the most essential aspects of the topic (including police training systems in different countries, issues in police education, challenges, etc.), and demonstrated that the police force should be educated and trained in correspondence to the needs of its environment. This source should be involved in the upcoming research process, since the dissertation topic is associated with police education and training.

Law enforcement/Police mentor. (2012). Conflict area management (CAM) data search base. Web.

The source provides essential and detailed information related to the EPMs. The EPMs’ duties, tasks, problems, opportunities, and other peculiarities emerging during the management activity in a conflict area are revealed. Since the upcoming research deals with the EPMs’ activities in the post-conflict environment of Afghanistan, the present source is highly valuable.

Marks, R.B. (2007). The origins of the modern world (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

The author dedicated the book to the global narrative about the origins of the modern world from XIV to XXI centuries. Through the comprehensive overview of the history, economics, and politics of different countries, and comparison of their development, the author proved that modern developed countries have been formed by an active trading policy, leadership in the industrial revolution, and application of advancement strategies. Hence, this source is valuable for the upcoming study dealing with the policy of the US Department of Defense in the Third World countries.

Matunhu, J. (2011). A critique of modernization and dependency theories in Africa: Critical assessment. African Journal of History and Culture, 3(5), 65-72.

The author dedicated the article to the overview and critical assessment of the implementation of some developmental theories in the African context. As one may see, the research findings indicated that the implementation of Modernization and Dependency Theories in African underdeveloped countries is irrelevant owing to certain historical, political, and economic reasons. Since the upcoming research deals with the application of developmental theories in a Third World country, the source presents a high value.

McLeod, J. (2011). Qualitative research in counseling and psychotherapy. London, UK: SAGE Publications Ltd.

The present book was dedicated to the nature and role of qualitative research in counseling and psychotherapy. Through a comprehensive narrative, the author demonstrated the advantages of phenomenological qualitative research, value of active participation in inquiry, and benefits of case studies to make a thorough social investigation. Since the source provides a clear theoretical framework for the implementation of qualitative research principles and methods in social studies, it is indispensable for the upcoming dissertation.

McNabb, D. E. (2010). Research methods for political Science: Quantitative and qualitative approaches (2nd ed.). New York, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

The author was interested to describe how different research approaches can be applied to investigate a certain phenomenon, process, or issue in political science research. The present book covered all essential theoretical and practical points of discussion; the results showed that whatever approach is chosen, a researcher should always take into consideration fundamental principles and the ethical environment of a political science study. The information about a qualitative approach to political science research is useful for the upcoming dissertation.

Moustakas, C.E. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

In the book, the author clearly discussed the theoretical underpinnings of phenomenology, and took the readers step-by-step through the process of conducting a phenomenological research. The source provided essential information related to the appropriateness, reasonability, and adequacy of phenomenological design in a social research focused on the investigation of a complex multi-faceted phenomenon. Since the upcoming research will be guided by the phenomenological design, this source is valuable.

Munhall, P. L. (2011). Nursing research: a qualitative perspective (5th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

The author focused on revealing a qualitative perspective applied to the research in a nursing area. The book clearly provided a wide range of qualitative methods for investigation based on the principles of postmodern philosophy. The author proved their appropriateness and effectiveness for social studies. Hence, the present source should be taken in consideration for the sake of the research objectives of the upcoming dissertation dedicated to a social research area.

Murray, T. (2007). Police-building in Afghanistan: a case study of Civil Security Reform. International Peacekeeping,14 (1), 108-126.

The present article is dedicated to the police building process and improvement of civil security through the reform in Afghanistan. The author provided the idea that reformation of Afghan national police promises positive changes and beneficial democratic innovations. This source is invaluable for the upcoming dissertation related to the reformation of the country’s national police.

Murrin,J.M., Johnson, P.E., McPherson, J.M., & Gerstle, G. (2007). Liberty, equality, power: A history of the American people (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

The authors were interested to reveal the meaning of liberty, equality, and power for the American history. Through the comprehensive narrative, the authors pointed out the significance of fundamental human rights and their protection for the contemporary Americans. Since the context of the upcoming research deals with the role of the social welfare policy established by the US Department of Defense in underdeveloped countries, the present source presents a high value for the work.

Online Economic Glossary. (2008). Economic definitions of terms. Web.

The present glossary provides definitions to various economic terms, such as the Third World countries, a developed country, an intervention policy, etc. The present glossary reveals the essence of numerous economic concepts, processes, and issues. Hence, this online source will be extremely helpful for the upcoming study, since it gives valuable explanations to the processes associated with the assistance of the US Department of Defense to the Third World, and phenomena involved in the environment of underdeveloped countries.

Online English Dictionary. (n.d.). Definition of the term. Web.

This online dictionary provides enough brief information about a certain phenomenon, issue, or process related to all research spheres. The definitions of specialized terms can often be necessary for research paper writing. Within the framework of the upcoming dissertation dedicated to the political science topic, this online source will be useful because it will reveal the general information about the concepts that will be used in the study.

Online Oxford Dictionary. (2012). Dictionary: definition. Web.

This dictionary is one of the most reputable online dictionaries to which numerous studies may refer. Dictionary definitions are essential to understand the concepts and processes related to the research topics in economics, history, sociology, and other areas. The present online source will undoubtedly help to conduct thorough research in a political science area.

O’Rawe, M. (2007). Human rights, transitional societies and police training: legitimating strategies and delegitimating legacies. St. John’s Journal of Legal Commentary,22(1), 199-259.

The author dedicated the present article to the necessity in human rights and police training in transitional societies. The article clearly provided the information about the current performance of domestic police in Afghanistan, and effective ways of law enforcement improvement. Since the dissertation topic deals with Afghan national police reformation, this comprehensive source is essential.

Palmiotto, M.J., & Unnithan, N.P. (2010). Policing and society: a global approach. Clifton Park, NY: Cengage learning.

The authors presented a global approach to police studies and sociology, and revealed the essence of police in numerous environments. In the book, all important aspects of the police as a powerful social instrument and a global system are revealed; the authors proved the indispensable role of the police for a civilized democratic society. This source will undoubtedly be used in the upcoming study, since it deals with the reformation of the national police in the post-conflict environment of an underdeveloped country.

Panth, S. (2011). How do you improve the behavior of the police? World Bank Data search base. Web.

The present source is focused on the implementation of effective policies to change the negative political, economic, social, and environmental situation presented in the Third world countries. The emphasis on the reformation of domestic police force in an underdeveloped country is made. Taking into consideration the content of the article and nature of the upcoming research, this source should be used in the dissertation.

Paul, J. C. N., & Kaushik, R. (2011). Urban poverty and the right to a decent habitat as established by International Human Rights Law. Rutgers Law Review,63(3), 905-939.

The authors dedicated the article to the widespread problems of the Third World countries such as poverty, violation of fundamental human rights, corruption, etc. The research results demonstrated the legal way for poverty elimination and civil security enforcement in underdeveloped countries. The present source provides necessary information about the economic and political environment of the Third World countries, and reveals the effective strategies that ensure social welfare; hence, this article will be useful for the upcoming dissertation.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

The authors dedicated their book to all aspects of the research in a nursing field. The source provides a wide range of research methods that helps to conduct high-quality research. In addition, the book revealed the link between scientific investigation and evidence-based practice. This source should be used in the upcoming dissertation that focused on receiving evidence–based information from the interview participants.

Richey, R., & Klein, J. D. (2007). Design and development research: methods, strategies, and issues. Mahwah, NJ: Routledge.

The present book contains all information needed for conducting high-quality research with implementation of different methods and strategies. The authors proved that a researcher needs to know all issues that may emerge during the research process, and all its peculiarities related to the data collection to data analysis process, and presentation of findings. This source will help to apply all research methods and strategies to the upcoming study in an appropriate way.

Robinson, R. (2010). Developing the Third World: The experience of the nineteen-sixties. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

With the present book, the author made a valuable contribution to the political science research area. The research findings indicated that regardless of the poor economic condition, Third World countries located in Central America are actively engaged in the globalization process that leads to drastic social changes in these underdeveloped countries. Taking into consideration the context of this book, this source needs to be used in the upcoming study.

Robinson, W. I. (2003). Transnational conflicts: Central America, social change and globalization. London, UK: Verso.

The author dedicated the book to the development period in the Third World countries that happened in the middle of the previous century. The book clearly demonstrated that the development on underdeveloped countries is an extremely challenging process owing to the problematic economic, political, and social environment. The upcoming dissertation deals with the reformation of the national police in one of these countries, so the author’s research findings presented in this source will be useful.

Rubin, A., & Babbie, E. R. (2010). Research methods for social work (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

The authors of the book focused on revealing the appropriate and effective research methods (qualitative and quantitative) to investigate a social sphere. The real-life examples, information related to social studies, and invaluable recommendations presented in this book make it a useful source. The upcoming paper deals with the social research field, so this book should be undoubtedly used.

Schwartz, M. (2010). Department of Defense Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Background and Analysis. Darby, PA: DIANE Publishing.

The author provided the essential information about the contractors employed by the US Department of Defense to serve in such underdeveloped countries as Iraq and Afghanistan. Law enforcement officers and police advisors are some of these contractors that help national governments to overcome the challenges created by the post-conflict environment. Since the upcoming research deals with the EPMs employed by the US Department of Defense to help to reform Afghan national police, this book is extremely essential.

Shandra, J. M. (2007). Economic dependency, repression, and deforestation: a quantitative, cross-national analysis. Sociological Inquiry, 77(4), 543-571.

The author dedicated his article to the problems presented in different countries of the world. Through the comparative and cross-national analysis, the author proved that underdeveloped and repressive nations create a favorable climate for multinational capital; in their turn, developed countries are used to externalize their costs onto poorer ones, making them economically dependent. The economic peculiarities of interaction between developed and underdeveloped countries seem to be important for the upcoming research study.

Smith, B.C. (2003). Understanding Third World politics: Theories of political change and development. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

The author provided comprehensive theoretical and evidence-based information related to the politics of underdeveloped countries. The book clearly demonstrated that all complex economic, political, and social processes in countries are based on certain scientific theories that reveal real-life conditions in the Third world countries. Hence, this source is helpful for the dissertation that deals with one of these countries.

Steverson, L. A. (2008). Policing in America: A reference handbook. Santa Barbaram CA: ABC-CLIO.

The author provided a clear vision of the national policing process from the American’s point of view. Through the transformation of American policing methods and strategies, one may see the factors that shape an optimal national policing system. The American experience in policing is essential for the research that deals with the social welfare policy established by the US Department of Defense in an underdeveloped country.

Trochim, W. M. K., & Donnelly, J. P. (2006). The research methods knowledge base. Mason, OH: Thomson Custom Learning.

The present source provides a researcher with all necessary information about theoretical and practical aspects of studies. The authors clearly outlined a wide range the most effective data collection and analysis methods implemented in multiple research fields. The information about a descriptive study is essential for the upcoming research paper.

the research paper deals with the social welfare policy of the US Department of Defense in a Third World country, this book will be helpful.

U.S. Department of Justice. (2006). Guidance regarding the law enforcement officers safety act. Web.

This source outlined all principles and rules related to the law-enforcement system and civil security in the USA. As one may see, the same values are reflected in the social policies implemented by the US Department of the Defense in different corners of the world. The value of this paper cannot be underestimated because it provides in-depth understanding of the democratic and well-developed law-enforcement system that may serve as an example for the Third world countries.

U.S. Department of State. (2012). Civilian police programs. Web.

The essential information about civilian police programs implemented in many underdeveloped countries is provided in a comprehensive way. Besides, the source revealed the details of afghan democratic programs, and their impact on the state development. Taking into consideration the data provided by this source, it should be used in the upcoming dissertation.

Zapf, W. (2004). Modernization Theory – and the non-Western world. Web.

The author described the Modernization Theory in the context of non-Western countries. The research findings presented in the paper indicated that this developmental theory can be effectively implemented in all Third world countries. The author proved that all underdeveloped countries lack modern tendencies in national politics, economy, and social sphere. Since the upcoming research paper deals with the interaction between the developed and underdeveloped countries, this source should be used.