The conversion of torque into rotary motion for transmission to the differential unit is the subject of much research and innovative engineers for many years (Parker, 1999; Lechner & Naunheimer, 1999; Zhang & Liu & Wen, 2007).
A vehicle’s transmission system is important because it converts torque into circular motion that is used to propel the vehicle. However, not much research has been done on how transmission systems technology has evolved, creating a gap in knowledge that the proposed study intends to cover (Suh, 1990). This study will focus on the historical development of transmission systems beginning with Watt’s gearbox and transmission system that was designed using a constant mesh engagement, to the present day automatic transmission systems (Lechner & Naunheimer, 1999; Naunheimer, Bertsche, Ryborz & Novak, 2010; Navet, Song, Simonot-Lion & Wilwert, 2005).
The category of vehicles under investigation includes land vehicles, vessels, and aircrafts. However, the study will investigate the types of transmission systems that are used to propel motor vehicles in the automotive industry. The two types of systems in use include z-speed transmission (geared transmission with z speeds) and continuous variable transmission systems (Crolla, 2009).
The scope of this paper covers the history of transmission systems that will include the fundamental innovations that have occurred in the development of transmission systems, how the drive units were developed, the phases of development of drive units, how vehicle transmissions were developed, and an investigation of the transmission phenomena, which includes the loss of power and the efficiency of the transmission systems in converting torque into the rotary motion for vehicle propulsion.
Statement of the problem
The development and innovations of transmission systems have not been discussed in academic literature, creating a gap on the importance of innovation in mechanical engineering to be filled by this study. To provide a solution to the problem, the study will be guided by three research objectives.
- To investigate the history of transmission systems
- To conduct a study in transmission design trends
- Investigate the design of the gearwheel transmission of the vehicles
- What is the historical trend of the development of transmission system?
- What are the design trends of transmission systems?
- How is the gearwheel transmission of the vehicles designed?
The articles and books on the internet, online databases, and libraries on transmission systems will be used to write this paper. The proposed format of the paper includes the title page, the introduction section, which consists of the background discussion of transmission systems, the problem statement, objectives, research questions, and the significance of the study. The problem statement provides a brief description of the problem that was researched on in this paper (Wang, Li & Peng, 2003).
- History of the transmission systems
- Type of innovations done on transmission systems
- How the vehicle drive units were developed
- The development phases of the transmission systems
- How the gear toothed systems were developed
- How torque converters were developed
- The phenomena of transmission systems, efficiency and power losses during power transmission
- Transmission design trends
- Vehicle basic design principles
- Arrangement of the transmission system in the vehicle
- Transmission formats and designs of other components
- The design principles of the gearwheel transmission.
Statement of Work: the tasks and the time required to write the paper are shown on table 2.
I decided to write on a topic that is relevant to my mechanical engineering discipline that discusses on the development of transmission systems to show how innovation, one of the most important tools in modern engineering works.
Facilities and Equipment-The following equipment will be necessary to complete the study.
- Printing papers
- Access to various online libraries and the Internet.
Fiscal: The items are important because they will contrite to the success of the paper
Table 1: Items budget.
|ITEM||BUUDGET (IN $)|
|Payment for database access||100|
|Printing, photocopying and Binding||500|
The proposed study is to investigate the development of transmission systems from 1884 when the constant mesh gearbox was developed until today when automated systems have replaced manual systems. The prosed study will cover the development and design of the transmission system that are used in the propulsion of vehicles investigate the efficiency of the transmission systems in converting torque into the rotary motion used to move vehicles.
Crolla, D. (Ed.). (2009). Automotive Engineering e-Mega Reference. Butterworth- Heinemann. Web.
This book provides a detailed discussion of Watt’s discovery and how he proposed to use the variable speed gearbox. I intend to use this book to demonstrate how power can be transmitted using a variable speed gearbox with dog clutch engagement and the constant mesh gearbox. The book discusses how the need to adapt the power of the steam engine for the intended use, which underpinned the evolutionary development of the transmission systems. It also talks about the importance of the dog clutch as one of the components necessary to transmit power from the engine to the differential units.
Lechner, G., & Naunheimer, H. (1999). Automotive transmissions: fundamentals, selection, design and application. Springer Science & Business Media. Web.
This book is on different transmission systems and focuses on automotive transmission systems. I plan to use this as a resource to provide a detailed discussion of the categories of vehicles and their transmission systems. The books classifies into land vehicles, vessels, and aircrafts. In intend to use the books to show how z-speed transmission systems and continuous variable transmission systems work and how they have been developed so far by discussing in detail on constant mesh, synchromesh, and fully automatic transmission systems. In addition, the transmission systems operate the principles of power interruption when shifting gears while others operate on the principle of continuous power supply.
On the other hand, I intend to use the books to show how the vehicle engine speed can be adopted using the drive units to power output required to propel the vehicle forward.
The other areas that I will use in the study in this book include the stages in the development of the transmission system. The book provides detailed discussion on z-speed geared transmission systems and how they work, the fully automatic z-speed gearbox, and mechanical and hydraulic transmission systems. It shows the evolution of the transmission system from the past to the present models.
Naunheimer, H., Bertsche, B., Ryborz, J., & Novak, W. (2010). Automotive transmissions: Fundamentals, selection, design and application. Springer Science & Business Media. Web.
The book is a valuable resource on the development of transmission systems and the components such as the gear-toothed system. I intend to use this book to discuss the development of components such as the bearings, shafts, and gear wheels. In addition, I will be able to show the historical development of the gear wheel and the materials used to make the gearwheels. The books classify the history and development of transmission systems into four sections. The first part was between 1784 and 1884, which discusses how the power produced by the internal combustion engine could be captured by using the constant mesh gearbox for the intended use.
The next phase occurred between 1884 and 1914, which provides a detailed discussion of the speed/torque conversion principle. Here, the third phase occurred between 1914 and 1980 when the popularity of geared transmission systems were high because the power of the internal combustion engine had increased significantly making the need better and more efficient geared transmission very important.
Navet, N., Song, Y., Simonot-Lion, F., & Wilwert, C. (2005). Trends in automotive communication systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 93(6), 1204-1223. Web.
This article is on the transmission trends that have occurred in the mechanical engineering field on the development of transmission systems. I intend to use this resource to express my understanding of why vehicles need gearboxes and the role of the gearboxes on the transmission systems. The article discusses the interrelationship between power transmission ratio and torque produced by the engine. The article will enable used as a source of knowledge on the fundamental performance features of transmission systems and the development process of transmission systems used in automotive engineering.
Parker, M. (1999). The History of Manual Transmissions. Web.
This paper provides information on how block transmission systems emerged and evolved to the modern day gearbox. I plan to use this resource to investigate how power is transmitted from the clutch into the gearbox and to the propeller shaft. The paper provides the background theories leading to innovation and development of transmission systems for different vehicles. The article discusses the reliability issues such as the service life of the transmission system, economic issues, and the ease of operation of the transmissions system for road safety.
Suh, N. P. (1990). The principles of design. New York: Oxford University Press. Web.
This book provides detailed discussion on the best principles that are followed in the design and development of gearboxes and other power transmission systems. I intend to use this as an important resource to demonstrate the changes that have occurred since the first gearbox was designed.
Wang, J., Li, R., & Peng, X. (2003). Survey of nonlinear vibration of gear transmission systems. Applied Mechanics Reviews, 56(3), 309-329. Web.
This article is very important because it provides the best methods that have been adopted for use today on the design and development of transmission systems with a specialised emphasis on the gearbox transmission system. I intend to use this resource to show the changes that have occurred and how they have been implemented in the design and development of gearboxes for the transmission of power from the clutch to the differential unit.
Zhang, Y., Liu, Q., & Wen, B. (2007). Reliability-based sensitivity design of gearpairs. 12th IFToMM World Congress, Besançon (France). Web.
Typically, this article provides a discussion of the sensitivity if the gears and the factors to consider when designing them. I will use this article to show how innovation and development in mechanical engineering has led to the development of new gear boxes that are lighter, faster, and more efficient when used to transmit power from the engine to the propeller shaft.