Firstly, the vision develops the last. The vision and recognition increase as “infants become more alert and active.” As the neonate’s vision is not well developed, he or she can possibly distinguish between the silhouettes since other characteristics will be improved later. The neonates develop hearing techniques in the mother’s womb. When he/she is one month old, she/he can tell the differences between similar sounds. Speaking about what the infants could hear, it could be generalized. After the birth, he/she is able to hear external noises and voices. A newborn advances the ability of touch, as it is also pivotal for survival. Moreover, newborns are able to feel pain, taste, and smell. Taste and smell are crucial parts of life. Their development starts in the womb. In conclusion, it could be said that a newborn is able to distinguish between sweet and bitter tastes and smells.
Basic biological needs such as food, water, and sleep are required for the infant’s survival. As for the states of arousal and sleep, there are several stages. Sleep could be regular or irregular; the main difference lies in the irregularity of the breath. Drowsiness and alert inactivity can be characterized by calmness. Walking activity and crying is the most active state of arousal. There are many reflexes present during the first month of life. However, all of them disappear later. The main role of the reflexes is the eagerness for survival. For example, the swimming reflex helps a neonate to have the right position in the water, which is suitable for swimming. In turn, the rooting reflex reflects the movements present during the nutrition process, as food is another important biological need required for survival. The role of other reflexes is similar. It could be said that reflexes show the neonate’s reaction to the changing environment.
The creation of the appropriate environment for the child is critical, as it is a key factor for successful development. The protective factors increase safety and reduce stress levels. Giving children protection is vital for the creation of the right environment. Moreover, proper nutrition, attention to the child’s development, and satisfaction of the newborn’s basic biological and social needs are essential for the infant’s development.