Analysis of Le Corbusier’s Colour Choices

Introduction

Le Corbusier is a Swiss architect and designer who was one of the pioneers of the International Style in architecture. Le Corbusier or, to be more exact, Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris (his real name), was born in Switzerland in 1887. From the early childhood, La Corbusier was attracted to the visual arts. Later the boy got interested in architecture as well; however, for a long time, art remained his primary interest. His first teacher in the Art School was René Chapallaz, an architect. This person had a profound influence on Le Corbusier’s architectural style. This can be especially evidenced from his earliest houses. In general, some people and places affected Le Corbusier’s ideas about art and architecture. Le Corbusier’s travelling around Europe has also influenced some of his works. Paris, Vienna, Berlin and the famous architects of these cities shaped Le Corbusier’s view on architecture and resulted in his unique artistic style. Paris had a special influence on Le Corbusier’s life. Before 1922 Le Corbusier was known as an artist only. All this time he remained focused on painting and Purist theory. In 1930 Le Corbusier became a full-fledged French citizen. Le Corbusier died in 1965 on August 27 at the age of seventy-seven. Le Corbusier will always remain a famous architect due to his use of colors in his works; such colors as blue, green, brown, and yellow will be the focus of this dissertation; in addition, this dissertation is going to interpret the meaning of these colors from Le Corbusier’s point of view and discuss some of Le Corbusier’s buildings exemplifying his use of these colors.

Background Section

Discussing Le Corbusier’s creative work is impossible without mentioning some events from his early life and career, explaining his change of name, and paying due attention to the period of his life when he was preoccupied with theoretical urban schemes. As far as Le Corbusier’s early career is concerned, it is worth mentioning his teaching in La-Chaux-de-Fonds, a Swiss school of arts, during the World War I. Back then, most of Le Corbusier’s life was concentrated in Paris; however, he opted not to return there until the war was over. During the years spent in Switzerland, Le Corbusier became interested in theoretical architectural studies and the use of modern technologies. “Domino” House was the result of his interest; this project served as the foundation of Le Corbusier’s architecture over the following years. Shortly afterwards, Le Corbusier started his architectural practice and began collaborating with Amédée Ozenfant, a Cubist painter with who he had much in common. They both were the founders of Purism, an artistic movement characterized by the depiction of the ordered clear forms of the modern machine age. Apart from this, Le Corbusier and Ozenfant founded the Purist journal which they called L’Esprit Nouveau.

There is an idea that this journal served as a motivation for Le Corbusier’s adopting a pseudonym. In reality, those were the French tendencies of those times that were responsible for the change of the architect’s name. It was in vogue in Paris back then to adopt a single name as a pseudonym. The architect chose “Le Corbusier”, as a modification of his maternal grandfather’s name (Lecorbésier). His new name was a symbol of reinvention, an idea that everyone can re-discover him/herself. This name made Le Corbusier famous and recognizable. The first issue of the journal was released with the new name of the architect and quite soon he became famous.

Shortly after this, Le Corbusier became known as a designer of the house models. One of his first works in this period was the Maison “Citrohan”. The name of the model was a pun on the company Citroen because the model was Le Corbusier’s “attempt to design a modest dwelling that would be as affordable as the Citroen automobiles then being manufactured in France” (Moffet, Fazio, and Wodehouse 509). This model was performed in a three-floor structure with the roof of the house intending to be a sun terrace. The model had one large living-room on the first floor, two bedrooms on the second, and one kitchen on the third floor. Interior and exterior walls of the model were left white; the furniture in the house was made from metal frames and was movable. In the next five years, Le Corbusier made some houses similar to this model, which brought him his popularity. Among these there were Maison Cook, Maison La Roche, the Villa Lipschitz, and some others.

Later, the urban housing crisis in Paris made Le Corbusier seek for the ways to house a great number of people in the city. This was when Le Corbusier’s theoretical urban schemes found practical implementation. The architect designed new housing blocks according to modern architectural forms; these blocks were expected to make housing affordable for lower classes. In general, le Corbusier’s idea consisted in building sixty-story skyscrapers that would allow housing people in cell-like apartments situated one upon another. Some architectural historians of modernism explore Le Corbusier’s urban design schemes aiming to discover their meaning (Rendell, Penner, and Borden 321). Most of them agree in the idea that Le Corbusier’s urbanism emerged as a desire to solve the housing crisis in France. Among the most widely known schemes of this period of Le Corbusier’s creativity there is “Plan Voisin”. According to this plan, a great part of central Paris had to be bulldozed with the parking space being replaced by a sixty-story skyscraper. Though this idea was met with criticism, it gave a beginning to the discussion of the urban crisis and forced to find solutions to this crisis.

Le Corbusier’s Use of Colors

Apart from the abovementioned merits, Le Corbusier was quite successful in the use of colors. To be more exact, his use of colors attracted the attention of other artists, as well as architects and historians. The matter is that Le Corbusier considered colors more expressive than forms. According to him, the colors could be experienced cerebrally, while the forms could be perceived only in a sensory way. These days, his art could be regarded as color therapy for he attributed to each of the colors a definite meaning and function. Le Corbusier used definite colors to emphasize emotional expressiveness of the forms and structure.

Using Nature’s Pigments to Avoid Color Misadventure

Le Corbusier was absolutely against the industrial colors which could lead to the color misadventure. He believed that using natural pigments when manufacturing the paints is more beneficial, especially if the colors are applied in accordance with the rules of nature. Natural pigments, according to Le Corbusier, can already be regarded as the works of art due to their elegance, perfection, and splendor. Le Corbusier firmly kept to the point that if the colors are manufactured and used properly, they retain their meaning, the meaning that can be understood by all the people around the world. This meaning is universal because it comes from nature and because the understanding of this meaning is cognized by people through their understanding of the things that surround them. All that is needed is association of the colors with natural objects. Thus, for instance, using blue colors on the surfaces that are meant to be solid, such as floor, is incorrect because this color is meant to represent water and air. Similarly, all other colors have their application and psychological meaning. Throughout his career, Le Corbusier developed two main palettes, one in the 1930s and another one in the 1950s. The first palette consisted of soft cool and warm blue color, as well as deep red and dark and light green ones. The colors from the 1950s’ palette are more saturated and brighter. Among these, yellow, orange, and aubergine prevail. Though tints and shades of different colors were often used by Le Corbusier, he remained the most loyal to the following colors only: blue, green, brown, and yellow.

Blue Color: The Meaning and Application

Blue is a cold color which, if mixed with other colors, can produce warm hints. This color represents the air and water present in the nature and, as stated by Le Corbusier, should be used to emphasize the might of water and air. Blue is a color that has several important meanings. Le Corbusier considered each of these meanings relevant and was guided by these meanings when creating his masterpieces. Blue color used in the apartment can tell much about its owner’s character. All of its meanings have to be discussed in detail to discover the psychological reasons by which Le Corbusier was guided when using blue color.

As the color of the sky, blue symbolizes power and stability. Le Corbusier attributed the meaning of confidence to the deep blue color. Deep blue resembles the color of the sky at night. It is mysterious for one never knows what it hides in its depths. Blue is the color of the Universe, the color of continuity and novelty. Darker hues of the blue color are strong, while the lighter ones are friendly. There is hardly a person who does not like at least some of the hues of the blue color. Finally, blue is the color of future because, looking in the clear vast sky, a person makes plans about his/her future life.

As a color of the water (rivers, seas, oceans, etc) blue is a calming color. It makes the interior balanced and calming. Le Corbusier considered blue as an appropriate color for bedrooms. Having all the qualities of the running water, blue ensures confidence. It is impossible not to notice its calming effect. If it is discussed as a color of water, the varieties of the hues of blue can be explained. For instance, pure water is light blue; the deeper it is, the darker is its color. The water changes its color when the impurities are dissolved in it; similarly, blue acquires new hints when mixed with other colors. For instance, when mixed with red, it produces deep violet color, while its mixture with yellow results in green color.

As believed by Le Corbusier, blue may have meanings apart from the natural ones. To be more exact, it has its meanings with regards to the human nature. Le Corbusier kept to an idea that blue color symbolizes a woman in nature. There were two things which Le Corbusier did not imagine his life without: women and nature. As an artist and architect, he made nature the subject and the essence of his works; as a man, he could not live without women. He used blue color as a symbol of women in nature. Le Corbusier attributed special value to the role of women in the men’s life. Women can be the men’s friends and sisters, as well as their mothers and wives. Le Corbusier’s attention to women was caused by his special relations with his mother who he adored and his wife for whose care about him he has always been grateful. Therefore, the use of the blue color was psychologically important for Le Corbusier because he used this color to represent women and their place in the world, as well as in the life of every man.

According to Le Corbusier, the meaning of blue is multitiered; this, however, does not concern the application of the blue color. Blue should be applied in accordance with the rules of nature. For example, using blue color for the floor is incorrect because the floor is solid, whereas water, as well as the air, is liquid. In other words, blue cannot be used where the stability is required. In contrast, the use of the blue color on the ceiling is natural. The ceiling in any house symbolizes the sky; blue color of the ceiling makes the room more spacious, adds it brightness and continuity. Le Corbusier also believed that blue is a perfect color for walls. When used for coloring walls, blue may represent waterfalls. Streaming, cool, and confident blue color of the walls adds the room confidence and calmness as if filling it with the sounds of the waterfalls. Thus, if used improperly, blue color will disrupt the natural balance and, consequently, the overall atmosphere in the house.

Green Color: The Meaning and Application

Green, unlike blue color, is secondary. It is created through the mixture of blue and yellow, two primary colors. Green color, above everything else, is a symbol of nature which was so beloved by Le Corbusier. The first association with green color is, of course, rich grass somewhere at the meadow under the blue sky and bright warm sun. The beauty of the green color is hard to overestimate. It is abundant in nature, anywhere one may look: the flowers, the trees, the bushes, even the swamp has the hues of the green color. It is difficult not to admire the varieties of the green color in nature. It can be found anywhere starting from the young sprouts of the plants and ending with the almost brown evergreen thujas. There is no wonder that Le Corbusier attributed special meaning to the green color because it is a joy for the human eye and heart.

Just like blue, the green color has a variety of meanings. According to Le Corbusier, one of its most important meanings is that of growth. In terms of growth, green is a symbol of progress. A plant is alive until it is green; as soon as its greenish coloring vanishes, it dies. Green color in the apartment symbolizes life and growth. Its proper use in the house can bring luck and progress. Le Corbusier also attributed the meaning of environment to the green color. Green, like blue, is an earthly color this is why its connection with the environment is inevitable. Moreover, green is the sign of the environmental health. Le Corbusier was rather concerned with the state of the environment this is why his use of the green color can also be predetermined by his desire to protect the nature and to ensure that the coming generations are going to enjoy the same fresh air and green grass as France of the 20th century. Le Corbusier’s environmental concern spread not only to the colors, but the paints themselves. For instance, he was against using chemicals in the production of paints; instead, he emphasized that the use of natural pigments can not only make the paints more environmentally friendly, but allows them to express their meaning clearer. This especially concerns the green color. Thus, growth, life, and environment are the most important meanings which Le Corbusier attributed to the green color.

As far as the application of the green color is concerned, the rules are similar to those for the blue color. Green color should prevail in those parts of the apartment that remind the natural environment most of all. For instance, green will be quite appropriate on the floor; in this way, it will resemble the grass. Various hues of the green color can help make the color of the floor correspondent to the character of the apartment’s owner. For example, more expressive people are likely to choose bright rich green color, while people with calmer personality will choose olive, light green, fern green, or asparagus. Green color on the walls is no less appropriate. Judging from Le Corbusier’s ideas about the meaning of the green color, walls colored in green can create the right atmosphere in the house. They will remind of the crones of the trees, the leaves rustling in the forest, the beauty of the nature, the eternity of life, and the health of the environment which everyone should strive to maintain.

Therefore, the main meaning of the green color, according to Le Corbusier, is that of nature. Green color, like nothing else, can reflect the beauty of the nature, its growth, its life, and its health. Its use in the apartment can make it more live and add it the notes of beauty present in the nature. The more green color is used in the house, the livelier is the atmosphere in it. Of course, here one should keep to the rules of the green color application developed by Le Corbusier, that is never to apply the green color where it is not present in nature (the ceiling in particular). Green color used on the walls and floor, as believed by Le Corbusier, will bring balance and harmony into the house.

Brown Color: The Meaning and Application

Brown color, of course, also has its specific meaning. Le Corbusier associated brown color with earth, which gave this color a special meaning. Brown is a neutral color this is why its use in the apartment can be unlimited. This is the color of calmness and responsibility. It is not bright or irritating and it can hardly be used in contrast with other colors (a contrast similar with that of green and red). Instead, brown can be used in combination with lighter colors or even its hues, from chocolate to caramel. Brown is a color of stability; it is deep, rich, and saturated. It can be used in any part of the apartment: bedroom, kitchen, living-room, or even bathroom. It is suitable to any furniture and interior. In contrast to the blue color which, as stated by Le Corbusier should be used only on those surfaces that seem liquid and unstable, the architect preferred using the brown color on solid surfaces, such as floor and walls of the apartment.

Le Corbusier believed that earth, or terra firma, is one of the closest associations with the brown color. From this perspective, brown color has a meaning of trust. Earth is firm; it can handle anything and anybody irrespective of size and weight. Earth has endured much this is why brown color can also be endurable. Le Corbusier valued the richness of the brown color. Its tints and shades allow decorating the whole apartment and give it an unobtrusive look. Since brown color is the most closely associated with earth, its application at the floor seems to be the most appropriate. Le Corbusier thought that brown was ideal for the floor because it made it look reliable and endurable. Brown floor reminds of the solid earth, the one that can be found in nature. The houses where the floor is brown ensure trust and resemble natural environment most of all. Floors colored in brown remind of the ground in the forest, either simply dry ground or the one covered with soft rustling brown leaves. In this way, brown floors bring the owners of the apartments harmony and balance, as well reliability and trust. This being the reason, the use of the brown color for the floor by Le Corbusier can be justified.

Another association with the brown color, according to Le Corbusier, is that of the wood. The wood of most of the types is brown or at least some of its hues. The wood is also a part of nature and its quality depends on the sort of the tree it comes from, its age, and conditions in which it grew. This creates an idea that the value of the nice brown color is the same as that of the great wood. This association of the brown color with wood allows Le Corbusier to state that it is also appropriate in case with the walls. Le Corbusier kept to an idea that brown color adds the walls structural length. Indeed, the walls painted in natural brown colors acquire warmth and coziness of the country houses; they become visually longer and smoother because the color allows concealing drawbacks of the walls. In addition, it makes them look more natural. The walls painted in unusual pink, violet, purple, or the like colors break the balance in the apartment, while the walls painted in the hues of the brown color add the apartment natural looks.

Finally, brown color can be associated with stone. This, however, does not have much to do with the walls, floors, or ceilings. Still, it is much related to the interior of the house. Stone means something unmovable, heavy, and stable. This goes for furniture in the first place. Furniture performed in brown colors harmonizes with the rest of the room almost always irrespective of the color of the walls of floor. Brown furniture perfectly suits red, yellow, green, and even blue colors in the house this is why this color was considered universal by Le Corbusier. Therefore, brown can be associated with earth, wood, and stone possessing at this the meanings of reliability, stability, and coziness.

Yellow Color: The Meaning and Application

Yellow is a warm cheerful color that is associated with the sunshine at the first place. Joyful and optimistic people choose yellow as the color for their houses because yellow can set people in the right spirits and evoke happiness. Le Corbusier valued yellow color no less than blue, green, or brown; it attributed special meaning to it, as well as used it only in houses where the lighting was appropriate. The meanings of the yellow color are also numerous and, from time to time, controversial; however, what Le Corbusier was sure of is that yellow color cannot be used in the dark rooms.

One of the most vivid meanings of the yellow color is that of joy and happiness. This, however, concerns pure yellow color. Pure yellow is bright and easy to notice; remarkably, even blind people can see and feel yellow color due to the energy it possesses. This color is appealing to people of high intellect and creativity, as well as wisdom. Yellow is associated with the sunshine, its warmth and clarity which it brings. The meanings of this color’s tints and, especially, shades can vary. For example, yellow-green is a color of deceit, while orange-yellow used in the apartment gives its owner a sense of establishment. Le Corbusier, just like any artist, paid special attention to the meaning of colors. Quite interesting was the mixture of colors which Le Corbusier preferred. For instance, he never used black color to create the shades of other colors. Instead, he used to mix different pigments which mixed well with each other, such as red and yellow, blue and yellow, green and yellow, etc. Le Corbusier’s attitude towards colors was different than that of other artists and architects. Not only did he attribute each color a definite meaning, but insisted that the places where the colors are used should meet definite requirements. He believed that only then will the colors be able to disclose themselves and to transfer their meaning to the fullest extent.

In whole, yellow color is inevitably connected with light. Le Corbusier strongly believed that it can be used only in those places where the light is sufficient. He explained this by the fact that yellow color needs natural light because it gives it glowing. This is why using this hue in the dark rooms is not recommended. If yellow is used where there is no access for natural light, it acquires grey hues that spoil the color and general looks of the room. Generally, yellow can be used anywhere in the room. As stated by Le Corbusier, the only condition for the use of the yellow color in the apartment is sufficient natural lighting. Therefore, yellow would be perfect on the walls and even the floor. When used on the walls, the yellow color will create an impression of the sun rays falling on the walls through the window. If it is used on the floor (calmer hues of it, such as cream, lemon chiffon, or peach-yellow), yellow can add the room special glowing and warmth which will not let the owners get cold during the winter evenings. The use of the yellow color on the ceiling, however, is not recommended. No matter how much natural light there is in the room, the ceiling will remain slightly darkened. This is why choosing the hue of yellow for the ceiling, it is better to select lighter hues than one expects them to be eventually. For instance, if one wishes the ceiling to be peach yellow, one should choose the color like papaya whip because after spreading it on the ceiling, it will become darker.

Le Corbusier was right preferring to use this color in well-lit premises or, what is even more beneficial, outdoors (for coloring porches or fences, for example). Thus, yellow, just like any other color should have its application in which it will serve the atmosphere of the house best of all. Its meanings, such as joy, happiness, and energy should also be taken into account when the color is used in the apartment. According to Le Corbusier, the yellow color used in the dark rooms will never be able to convey its real meaning and bring joy into the apartment.

Some of the Buildings Exemplifying Le Corbusier’s Choice of Colors

Villa Savoye: The Use of Green and White Colors

Villa Savoye is one of the most recognizable works of the International style and, of course, of Le Corbusier. The architect finished this building in 1929; its primary purpose is that of the country house though, in reality, this work of Le Corbusier’s serves as a masterpiece of architecture “conceived as the natural consequence of machine-age standardization applied to classical architectural principles” (Gans and Le Corbusier 82). The construction of Villa Savoye required much time and attention on the part of Le Corbusier. Unlike most of his contemporaries, Le Corbusier refused to use metal in those parts of the house where it could be replaced by wood. This especially goes for the window frames made from timber. Such work demanded great efforts: “To evoke attention, to occupy space powerfully, a surface of perfect form was necessary first, followed by the exaltation of the flatness of that surface by the addition of a few projections or holes creating a back and forth movement” (Samuel 77). This, however, did not stop Le Corbusier who strived to make this country house as close to the nature as it was possible. Besides, maintenance of space was also of great importance to Le Corbusier: “Further, window frames were placed at the outer edge of openings so that the glass would appear to be part of the continuous space” (Samuel 77). All the elements of the house interrelate and are interdependent. Le Corbusier aimed to reach harmony and balance above all, as well as wished to make Villa Savoye correspondent to five basic tenets of the architectural aesthetics, namely, flat roof, horizontal windows, freely-designed façade, free plan, and the presence of columns elevating the building.

There are two main colors which Le Corbusier used in Villa Savoye: white and green. Apart from these there are also some blue and pink used in the interior, but white and green colors are the most important to discuss. White, as it is known, is a color of purity; Villa Savoye’s whiteness is meant to help the house stand out amidst the natural environment. To smoothen the transition from the natural and something created by a human, dark green color is used around the exterior. It serves as a disguise of the house or at least its side parts that are colored in green. In case with Villa Savoye, this color denotes closeness to the nature, desire to harmonize with it, and ability to link to the natural landscape. Therefore, Le Corbusier used green color in the Villa Savoye to attract the attention to the significance of nature and the closeness of the house to the nature.

Notre Dame du Haut, or Ronchamp: The Use of White and Brown Colors

Unlike Villa Savoye, Le Corbusier achieved closeness to the nature in Notre Dame du Haut by means of shape rather than colors. Nevertheless, the use of the brown color is still significant in case with this building. In general, Notre Dame du Haut was constructed in 1954 and is still considered to be one of the greatest creations of Le Corbusier. The building is organic, both in terms of materials and shape. With regards to material, Notre Dame du Haut is made of stone and concrete which are natural materials. Hence is the white color of the building. It is not for nothing that Le Corbusier chose the stones of namely white color. As it was already mentioned above, white color symbolized purity and it is most appropriate for the place like Notre Dame du Haut which is a chapel. In addition, in case with Notre Dame du Haut, white color symbolizes naturalness and, thus, harmony with nature. The walls of the building are purely white, which means that Le Corbusier preferred to leave the stone as the nature created it without painting the walls or adding the colors to the stone. This idea can be further proved by the smoothness of the walls which, apart from the holes for the light to get into the building, do not have any figures or patterns. This shows how much Le Corbusier wished to retain the naturalness of the building.

Quite interesting is the use of the brown color in Notre Dame du Haut. The roof is made of beton brut, which accounts for its color. It is not for nothing that Le Corbusier chose namely this material for the roof of the building. The color of it was symbolistic for Le Corbusier, because brown symbolizes reliability and stability which are so necessary for the roof of the chapel. This is further emphasized by the shape of the chapel which protects the chapel from leaking in case of rain. The water pours off the roof when it rains and, what is the most striking, serves as a fountain for abstract forms placed behind Notre Dame du Haut. In this way, brown color proves its meaning; it is a reliable guardian of the building that protects its interior from the rain. Le Corbusier did not limit himself to the use of the white and brown colors only. Green and yellow colors can occasionally be met in the glass of the windows. As far as these colors are concerned, they connect Notre Dame du Haut with nature even closer. Green and yellow colors are a pleasure to the eye in a chapel made of white stone. They remind people who are inside the chapel of the grass and sun that wait for them from the outside. Therefore, there are two main colors used by Le Corbusier in Notre Dame du Haut, white and brown; apart from these, there are also green and yellow ones that diversify the interior of the chapel and make it closer to nature.

Unite d’Habitation: The Use of Green, Blue, and Yellow Colors

Unite d’Habitation is, perhaps, the most exemplary when it comes to the use of blue, green, and yellow colors by Le Corbusier. Unite d’Habitation, however, is not a separate building. It is simply a housing design principle developed by Le Corbusier as a solution to the housing crisis in France. He borrowed the idea from the Soviet Communal housing project but, of course, introduced his original ideas into it. Unite d’Habitation was Le Corbusier’s desire to achieve his utopian goals with regards to the city living design (Gans and Le Corbusier 54). The concept of Unite d’Habitation consists in locating a great number of people in one building at the same time. This can be done through housing people in multistory buildings in which the apartments are situated in blocks one over another. Le Corbusier could not but diversify such a gloomy construction by the use of bright colors each of which had its meaning.

One of the examples of the buildings performed in accordance with the principles of Unite d’Habitation is Briey Unite in France the construction of which finished in 1963. This building is performed in Unite d’Habitation’s style. It is a multistory building with flat roof and it is made mostly from concrete plates. Such a house looks gray and gloomy, but not if it was designed by Le Corbusier. The architect diversified this grey ordinariness with the use of bright blue, red, yellow, and green colors. Some of the walls of the house’s cell-balconies are painted in these colors as if reminding their residents of the natural beauty which they might have forgotten in their daily routine. The same goes for the interior of the house. The varieties of yellow and green colors prevail in the corridors and apartments’ design, which adds beauty and diversity to them. Through the use of these colors Le Corbusier was aiming to show that people should not forget about their connection with nature, irrespective of such things as housing crisis. The variety of colors used testifies to the fact that Unite d’Habitation was not only Le Corbusier’s desire to house as many people as possible, but to make their living colorful and joyful. The use of yellow was his concealed desire to bring happiness to people, while the use of blue and green was to express people’s connection with nature and their place in it.

Conclusion

Taking into account the characteristics of different colors, it is quite clear why Le Corbusier attributed special meanings to them. Throughout his life and career, Le Corbusier has been shaping his ideas about colors and forms. This resulted in his creations being so outstanding and memorizable. According to Le Corbusier, each color, especially those which can be found in nature, such as green, blue, yellow, and brown, have developed their meaning with regards to the natural objects they represent. Consequently, the correct application of these colors allows them to retain and convey their meaning in the apartment or room they are used in. Thus, blue color which symbolizes water and air should not be used on surfaces meant to be solid, such as floor where, as Le Corbusier believed, the brown color having the meaning of terra firma is the most appropriate. Green is the color of nature and, predominantly grass; this is why it should be used where the grass (and moss) can grow, that is floor and walls. Finally, yellow can be used in most of the places, but only where the natural light is sufficient. Some of the buildings exemplary of Le Corbusier’s color use are Villa Savoye known for the use of green and white colors, Notre Dame du Haut in which brown, white, green, and yellow colors can be found, and Unite d’Habitation buildings diversified by the use of green, blue, and yellow colors.

Works Cited

Gans, Deborah and Le Corbusier. The Le Corbusier Guide. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006.

Moffett, Marian, Fazio, Michael W., and Wodehouse, Lawrence. A World History of Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2004.

Rendell, Jane, Penner, Barbara, and Borden, Iain. Gender space architecture: an interdisciplinary introduction. London and New York: Routledge, 2000.

Samuel, Flora. Le Corbusier in Detail. London: Elsevier, 2007.