Batman is a famous comic book character who often appears on TV and in films. The character has a significant number of fans and is one of the most popular superheroes in the DC comics universe. Throughout the years, there have been many attempts at adapting Batman’s story for film and animation, resulting in a franchise of movies and TV series. However, despite having the same protagonist, each adaptation has a different approach to character development, plot, and even visual representation, and thus serves a certain target audience. Studying the various adaptations of Batman provides a view on how the different media relate to one another, forming what Ioannidou calls a transmedia bridge between comics, films, and TV1. The present research will focus on how Batman comics were adapted in film and animation.
Batman: The Animated Series aired from 1992 to 1995 and had 85 episodes. It became popular among child and adult fans alike. The series was accredited as the best Batman adaptation, influencing how comic book stories were adapted for TV and film in the future. The Dark Knight trilogy, on the other hand, is a series of three feature films, directed by Christopher Nolan and released in 2005, 2008, and 2012. The movies are an example of complicated plot and character development, which was never fully explored in comic film productions until then. Therefore, both works largely influenced the genre of comic film and TV.
However, what makes the two adaptations particularly interesting is how they were both able to connect with the fans and the target audiences in different ways. As shown by Johnson, popular stories, such as superhero narratives, attract diverse audiences with varying interests and demographics2. Thus, ensuring that the film or TV adaptation is successful involves responding to the interests, needs, and wishes of various audiences. The present paper will seek to explain how each version appealed to fans and connected with the audience differently, as well as to discuss the different aspects of the two adaptations and their contribution to the development of Batman’s story.
History of Batman
Batman was originally created by Bob Kane, a young comic artist, in 19393.The creation of Batman closely followed the success of Superman comics, first published by the same company (National Periodical Publications) in 1938. The company, which was later renamed DC Comics, hoped to build on the success of the Superman comics by adding another character to what is now known as the DC comic universe4. To this day, Batman remains just as popular as the leading character in DC Comics and has a strong presence in comics, as well as in TV and film adaptations.
There were several aspects of Batman’s story that made it attractive to the audience and allowed the character to become so popular. First of all, Batman had a strong motivation. His ambition to protect Gotham was based on a traumatic experience of witnessing his parents being killed in a street robbery. By drawing the character’s motivation from such a strong emotional experience, the creators contributed to the emotional connection between Batman and his fans. Another aspect of Batman’s personality that was attractive to the audience was that, as opposed to Superman, Batman was a human. Also, the portrayal of the character was important. Wainer argues that part of Batman’s appeal was his dark and mythical image5. Throughout the years, this characteristic of his identity was supported by comics and adaptations.
The first attempt to adapt Batman was made by Columbia Pictures in 1943 and 1949 when the company produced two serials named Batman and Batman and Robin6. Batman’s TV debut occurred years later, in 1966 when the Batman TV series aired. Where the 1966 TV series presents a rather simplistic view of Batman, the 1992 animated series returned to the dark image of the character, touching upon the genre of film noir. The Dark Knight trilogy also remains one of the key points in Batman’s development, as it gained enormous popularity among the fans and took an interesting turn on the original comic story regarding realism and character development. The development of Batman after The Dark Knight trilogy attempted to follow a similar style. The latest appearance of Batman in the film was in 2017’s Justice League and featured Ben Affleck as Bruce Wayne.
Batman: The Animated Series
Created in 1992, the animated series built on decades of story and character development. Freeman states that Batman: The Animated Series incorporates various elements of Batman comics and adaptations to create a coherent and diverse world, which “systematically fused elements of Golden Age comics with Tim Burton’s gothic fairy-land film style, along with the 1940s ‘dark deco’ sensibility”7. Batman: The Animated Series is also different from the TV adaptation of 1966 in their tone and setting, as they attempt to re-discover Batman’s story in the genre of film noir. The series was broadcast on Fox Kids network for three years and became popular among children and adult comic fans alike. According to Freeman, achieving this was an important challenge for the creators, as they had to include various aspects of earlier adaptations, aimed at adults while making a series suitable for children8. For instance, while the series could avoid sexual content and violence that were inherent to Burton’s adaptation of the comic, they could not alter the dark and mysterious visual style that became an important part of Batman films.
As this section will argue, there were three key aspects of the animated series that made it popular among the fans. First of all, the series managed to portray Batman’s character in accordance with comics, thus attracting comic fans. Secondly, the series was also successful at conveying Batman’s story through visuals and atmosphere characteristic of the film noir style. Lastly, the structure of the series also added to its popularity among children and adults alike.
According to Joye and Walle, fidelity is among the core concepts of adaptation9. Therefore, the central aim of adapting a popular story such as Batman’s is to stay true to the original source while adding something new to the character and his story. In Batman: The Animated Series, the creators managed to fulfill this goal. The character’s identity in the series remains unaltered, featuring most of the aspects included in comics, such as his dual personality, backstory, and ambitions.
However, the animated series also introduced some new aspects to Batman’s story. First of all, in order to comply with the regulations imposed on children’s television programs, the series had to avoid portraying graphic violence and murder. As noted by Freeman, violence was a significant part of Batman comics and adaptations until the animated series aired10. However, by reducing violence, the series portrayed Batman as being on the side of justice rather than on the side of revenge and vigilance. In the animated series, Batman would also attempt to pass the criminals into the hands of the law enforcement, creating a new storyline of his relationship with the police, which was further explored in future films and TV adaptations.
Batman’s refusal to kill the criminals would also be prominent in later adaptations, highlighted by his fear of crossing the line and becoming similar to the villains he battles. Also, the series also served to highlight the distinction between Bruce Wayne and Batman. Wainer explains that in Batman: The Animated Series, the difference between the two personalities is more visible than in other adaptations and even comics11. The difference is evident in all aspects of the animated character, including his voice: where Bruce Wayne’s voice is pitched higher to comply with his rich playboy persona, Batman’s voice is dark and deep, making the character more menacing12. Both the inner conflict and the dualism pictured in the animated series made this adaptation more interesting for the audience and contributed to the future development of the superhero.
Film noir is a distinct genre that is characterized by a dark aesthetic, a sense of fatalism, and the exploration of complex topics, such as justice, crime, and violence13. The genre is not often used in comic book adaptations because it is widely considered to be unsuitable for a wide audience. Besides, the genre implies violence and pessimistic attitudes, which often contradict the tone of superhero stories. However, Batman: The Animated Series used some features of the genre to paint a fuller picture of the character and attract adult audiences to the series.
Despite being aimed at children, the series features dark aesthetics and touch upon various social conflicts. The inspiration behind a darker and more complex story of Batman was found in Tim Burton’s adaptations of the character. According to Freeman, using some features of the genre improved the image of Gotham City, making it seem darker and more devilish, thus adding to the sense of menace and fatalism14. Moreover, the sound used to accompany the animated series was vastly similar to the soundtrack used by Burton: “The music became an additional means of synchronizing cinema’s Batman and Batman Returns with television’s Batman: The Animated Series as components of a cohesive transmedia whole”15. The use of film noir features allowed the series to attract audiences that liked a darker image of Batman and to make the character more interesting for children by distinguishing him from other animated comic characters.
The series’ structure is also important, as it affects the viewers’ experience. Because the target audience of the animated series was kids, it was important to make short, independent episodes that could be viewed in any order. One particular difficulty that comes with making films or series for young audiences is preserving the viewers’ attention. In particular, children struggle with watching long films, which is why most animated films are shorter than movies aimed at adults. Thus, separating the series into 85 22-minute episodes contributed to the series’ popularity among children of various ages.
Another important feature of the animated series is that in most cases, each episode featured a new storyline. On the one hand, it allowed viewers to watch episodes in no particular order while maintaining their interest in the character and the series overall. On the other hand, it allowed exploring more stories and secondary characters, thus contributing to the development of Batman’s overall storyline. As mentioned by Wainer, most of the stories that appeared in Batman: The Animated Series were new, and only a small share was adapted from earlier comics16. Thus, the animated series served to add new characters and plots to the Batman story while also drawing from it and remaining true to the character. This added to the popularity of the series, allowing devoted Batman fans and new audiences to enjoy the stories without getting bored.
The Dark Knight Trilogy
The Dark Knight trilogy was among the most popular adaptations of Batman on the big screen. Released in 2012, the last film of the trilogy, The Dark Knight Rises, reached $1 billion box office worldwide and became the most successful versions of Batman on the big screen17. However, creating a film that would become so successful in the light of previous adaptations was not an easy task. The present section will argue that The Dark Knight trilogy attracts audiences through its realism and character development, as well as some similarities with other adaptations.
One of the most interesting aspects of the trilogy is its connection to the real world. Although set in the fictional location of Gotham City, the films explore various issues and conflicts of modern society. Russel argues that The Dark Knight trilogy was produced in the context of many important issues, such as terrorism, increased surveillance, corporate scandals, economic crisis, growth in mass shootings, racism, inequality, and police brutality18. Not only does Nolan’s trilogy place Batman in a similar sociocultural context, but it also attempts to portray him as a solution to the problem. The image of Batman in this context is more relevant than ever before, and Nolan’s Batman can be viewed as a representation of the force that can keep American citizens’ safety, as opposed to the law enforcement and the government, which does little to protect Gotham City. A similar vision of the trilogy is discussed by Fradley, who argues that the film expresses the audience’s desire for radical change in the justice system, society, and government19. Batman appeals to the audience as he represents such change.
The development of Batman’s character adds to the exploration of the real-world sociocultural tensions. While Batman’s refusal to kill Joker is a result of his strong moral compass and the fear of becoming a villain, the plot creates a feeling that Batman’s attempts to handle the situation are futile and that as long as Joker is alive, the threat to the people of Gotham persists, as the government cannot contain his ambitions successfully. Whether Nolan’s adaptation advocates for the improvement of the justice system or a social reformation is unclear. Nevertheless, the inclusion of a deeper socio-cultural context makes the film more interesting for the general audience.
Before Nolan’s trilogy began in 2005, there were many attempts at adapting Batman, some of which were popular among the fans. Joye and Walle argue that to create a new take on the character, Nolan had to remain true not only to the original source but also to previous adaptations, as they have already become part of Batman’s story and identity20. The new adaptation had to conform to the fans’ expectations while attempting to exceed them in order to become successful. Therefore, Nolan’s trilogy has some similarities with previous adaptations of Batman comics, primarily with Burton’s films and the 1992 animated series. Similarly to both adaptations, the trilogy features some aspects of the film noir genre, including dark imagery, the atmosphere of fatalism, and exploration of social issues. Moreover, it also returns to the animated series for Batman’s inner conflict regarding killing the villain, Joker. Thus, the trilogy managed to build upon previous adaptations to conform with the fans’ expectations while also introducing new aspects to Batman’s character and story. This made the trilogy suitable and interesting for varied audiences, including long-time Batman fans and new viewers.
Overall, the paper shows how the two adaptations function separately to attract diverse audiences and appeal to fans. Moreover, the study also showed how the animated series and Nolan’s trilogy fit together in the context of Batman comics. The similarities and differences between the three sources create a transmedia bridge, prompting fans and non-fans alike to pursue more information in comics or other adaptations, adding to the popularity of the character21. The Dark Knight trilogy and Batman: The Animated Series are thus examples of successful comic adaptations, which build on the characters’ story and develop it further to attract a wide audience.
Freeman, Mathew. “Transmediating Tim Burton’s Gotham City: Brand Convergence, Child Audiences, and Batman: The Animated Series.” Networking Knowledge: Journal of the MeCCSA Postgraduate Network 7, no. 1 (2014): 41-54.
Joye, Stijn, and Tanneke Van de Walle. “Batman Returns, Again and Again: An Exploratory Enquiry into the Recent ‘Batman’ Film Franchise, Artistic Imitation and Fan Appreciation.” Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies 7, no. 1 (2015): 37-50.
Russell, Patrick Kent. “Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight Trilogy as a Noir View of American Social Tensions.” Interdisciplinary Humanities 33, no. 1 (2016): 171–186.
Fradley, Martin. “What Do You Believe In? Film Scholarship and the Cultural Politics of the Dark Knight Franchise.” Film Quarterly 66, no. 3 (2013): 15-27.
Ioannidou, Elisavet. “Adapting Superhero Comics for the Big Screen: Subculture for the Masses.” Adaptation 6, no. 2 (2013): 230-238.
Johnson, Derek. “Fan-Tagonism: Factions, Institutions, and Constitutive Hegemonies of Fandom.” In Fandom: Identities and Communities in a Mediated World, edited by Jonathan Gray, Cornel Sandvoss, and C. Lee Harrington, 285-300. New York: NYU Press, 2007.
Wainer, Alex M. Soul of the Dark Knight: Batman as Mythic Figure in Comics and Film. Jefferson: McFarland, 2014.
- Elisavet Ioannidou, “Adapting Superhero Comics for the Big Screen: Subculture for the Masses,” Adaptation 6, no. 2 (2013): 231.
- Derek Johnson, “Fan-Tagonism: Factions, Institutions, and Constitutive Hegemonies of Fandom,” in Fandom: Identities and Communities in a Mediated World, ed. Jonathan Gray, Cornel Sandvoss, and C. Lee Harrington (New York: NYU Press, 2007), 285.
- Alex M. Wainer, Soul of the Dark Knight: Batman as Mythic Figure in Comics and Film (Jefferson: McFarland, 2014), 5.
- Mathew Freeman, “Transmediating Tim Burton’s Gotham City: Brand Convergence, Child Audiences, and Batman: The Animated Series,” Networking Knowledge: Journal of the MeCCSA Postgraduate Network 7, no. 1 (2014): 42.
- Ibid., 48.
- Stijn Joye and Tanneke Van de Walle, “Batman Returns, Again and Again: An Exploratory Enquiry into the Recent ‘Batman’ Film Franchise, Artistic Imitation and Fan Appreciation,” Catalan Journal of Communication & Cultural Studies 7, no. 1 (2015): 38.
- Freeman, “Transmediating Tim Burton’s Gotham City”, 51.
- Wainer, Soul of the Dark Knight, 61.
- Patrick Kent Russell, “Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight Trilogy as a Noir View of American Social Tensions,” Interdisciplinary Humanities 33, no. 1 (2016): 174.
- Freeman, “Transmediating Tim Burton’s Gotham City”, 50.
- Wainer, Soul of the Dark Knight, 121.
- Joye and Walle, “Batman Returns”, 38.
- Russel, “Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight Trilogy”, 171.
- Martin Fradley, “What Do You Believe In? Film Scholarship and the Cultural Politics of the Dark Knight Franchise,” Film Quarterly 66, no. 3 (2013): 15.
- Joye and Walle, “Batman Returns”, 42.
- Ioannidis, “Adapting Superhero Comics”, 230.