Chapters 9-10 of Global Women’s Issues by Aragon & Miller

Subject: Sociology
Pages: 2
Words: 683
Reading time:
3 min
Study level: School

Chapter 9

This chapter dwells on the history and importance of the women’s rights movement worldwide. Human rights are fundamental freedoms and rights given to an individual once they are born. Women’s rights are rights to promote equality among men and women in order for the latter to gain undeniable access to human rights and fundamental freedoms. The movement officially began with the United Nations Decade of Women of 1976-1985, which was one of the first global initiatives to promote women’s rights globally.

Women’s rights worldwide are ratified by several conventions and documents. The first one is the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, defined as “a key international agreement on women’s human rights adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979” (Aragon & Miller, 2012, p. 154); served as a legally binding document to eliminate discrimination and promote equality. The second document is the Beijing Declaration of Action. It ratifies the international commitment to promote women’s rights and empower women by removing any legal and social obstacles in the way of their self-actualization and well-being. These documents promote global action toward equality. For example, the Platform for Action is an international agenda on empowering women’s rights, which includes four objectives: “to promote and protect women’s human rights through the full implementation of all human rights instruments (especially CEDAW), to ensure equality and non-discrimination under the law and in practice, and to achieve legal literacy” (Aragon & Miller, 2012, p. 155).

Currently, there is a number of initiatives and organizations that contribute to women’s empowerment. Thus, “Voices of Change” is a Cambodian women’s rescue program adopted by Sina Vann, where she fights against violence and sex slavery. Women in Cities International (WICI) is a non-profit Montreal-based organization that promotes woman’s safety in urban communities. Acting for Women in Distressing Situations is a non-governmental organization that rescues women and children from abuse, violence, and gender-related hate crimes. Gender Inclusive Cities Program is a WICI program that engages with women worldwide to build safer communities. The United Nations Trust Fund to End Violence Against Women is a worldwide grant-maker that funds initiatives to promote gender equality and women’s rights.

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 focuses on women’s representation and involvement in the media. The fight for just women’s representation began with the New Era of Women’s Rights, the period of the 20th century marked by rapid changes in social life, urbanization, and growing interest in mass media. Since the 20th century, the fight for women’s rights has become more global and used media as a communication tool. At the time, media for women had two primary characteristics: exclusion and stereotyping. Media Exclusion is the process of ignoring women’s portrayal in the media if the images are not compliant with the socially accepted stigmatized portrayal of women; simultaneously, the process of limiting women’s access to media jobs, including editing, journalism, and television. Media Stereotyping is the process of mass generalization and oversimplification of a woman’s image by mass media.

The changes began with the foundation of the International Women’s Media Foundation, an organization that promotes equal women’s representation in the media labor sector by ensuring that women have proper access to media jobs and are represented fairly by the media worldwide. Women’s Edition, funded by USAID, is of particular interest nowadays because it is a US-based program that encourages women to work in the media sphere by providing them with educational and internship opportunities worldwide. Population Reference Bureau is a US-based NGO that curates the Women’s Edition program and cooperates with major media companies to provide internship opportunities for applicants.

Women’s active involvement in the media field is associated with Ann Moore, the first woman to become the head of The Time magazine, one of the most prominent figures in female journalism and media. She is responsible for reshaping the media environment from a woman’s perspective. For example, People and InStyle magazines are the first style and fashion magazines oriented to the female audience. Edited by Ann Moore, these magazines helped recognize women as an important part of the media audience demographic.


Aragon, J., &. Miller, M. (Eds.). (2012). Global women’s issues: Women in the world today, extended version [E-book]. BCcampus. Web.