Communication Process Stages


For communication to be effective, its process is very vital. The communication process is essential in the step-to-step transfer of information from the sender to the receiver, and various channels are used in the transmission of information. Among the stages of the communication process discussed include the sender, receiver, the message content, encoding, and decoding of the message (Genç, 2017). Without these steps, the communication process can greatly distort the message. This paper focuses on the communication process and steps that facilitate the successful transfer of information.

Communication Process


The sender acts as the source of the message, where the message originates from. The sender should ensure the message is clear, concise, and understandable (Genç, 2017). The information intended to be passed should be important and accurate.

The Message

This is the topic of communication from the sender, which may contain ideas, tasks, instructions, or needs (Genç, 2017). The subjects may be an area of challenge for the sender to communicate with and the receiver to hear because of disagreements or an uncomfortable past with the subject matter.


Encoding involves packing the information to be communicated in a manner that can be easily sent by the sender. The information should be put in a simple way to give the receiver an easy time deciding. Encoding entails translating a subject matter that is theoretical and intangible, that is, feeling liked or appreciated into symbols such as words, actions, visuals, or gestures. Many factors need to be considered when encoding to avoid misunderstanding and interruptions such as misunderstanding. The factors to be considered include the difference in culture, assumptions that the receiver knows the basics about that particular information, and steering the mental leap gaps (Genç, 2017). In general, encoding a message requires a clear understanding of the target audience.


The channel is an important stage of the communication process. The chosen channel should corresponding to the type of information being passed. When a wrong channel is used, there might be a breakdown in communication or distortion of the final message. The channels of communication include telephone, emails, face to face, and social media formats, among others. The various channels have strengths and weaknesses, so it is wise to choose the best channel depending on the type of information and nature of communication. When passing sensitive information, face-to-face is the best channel since it expresses actions as facial expressions (Genç, 2017). Too wordy information or a message with a lot of information can be difficult to pass through a phone. If a sender transmits a message via an incorrect channel, its message cannot reach the correct recipients. For this reason, senders should remember that picking the correct channel helps the recipient to understand more effectively. There are various elements that influence the decision of a sender to choose either an oral or a written channel to communicate a message. In order to pick the channel, the sender should consider the urgency, if a permanent record or paperwork is required, or feedback is needed immediately.


The message must be decoded into the intended meaning of the message when it reaches the recipient. He or she must, therefore, translate the words, symbols, and actions as intended by the sender (Genç, 2017). Since two people do not process information in exactly the same way, misunderstandings could lead to the wrong decoding of a message. However, if receptive environments are created and distractions are ignored, successful decoding is more likely.


The receiver is the individual who gets the communication or for whom the message is meant. He or she is the one who tries to interpret the information in the best feasible manner. The receiver is best to take some deep breaths, let go of defenses, and remind oneself that they are not a bad person but that this is a time to clarify and sort things out (Genç, 2017). The level of understanding of communication by this person will rely upon various elements, including how much the person or persons know about the subject, its receptivity to the message, and the relationship and trust between the sender and the recipient. All the interpretations are dependent on their experiences, attitudes, knowledge, abilities, perceptions, and culture. The link between sender and encoding is similar.


Feedback is the process of verifying that the recipient has gotten the exact meaning of the sender’s message. This is a critical phase that can go wrong in case the receiver argues, counterattacks, and defends themselves (Genç, 2017). Conversely, reflecting in preparation for delivering feedback requires repeating or paraphrasing what the receiver heard the sender mention. It may involve asking the inquiry if one comprehended the message correctly; this may avert harmful misconceptions.

From the discussion above, the process of communication is the perfect guideline for good communication. When properly followed, the method usually ensures that the recipient comprehends the message from the sender. Although the process of information transmission appears simple, it is essentially not. Admittedly, during the entire procedure, some impediments are present. Nevertheless, the communication process is the basis of successful and effective communication inside an organization. All members within the organization, if followed by communication and kept away from the different barriers, will develop their communication abilities.


Genç, R. (2017). The importance of communication in sustainability & sustainable strategies. Procedia Manufacturing, 8, 511-516. Web.