Corporate Social Responsibility in Middle East Football Clubs

Abstract

The primary point of this study was to investigate on corporate social responsibility in the Middle East football clubs. This study utilized the deductive methodology of exploration, whereby the hypothesis and the theories were planned in advance before the writing began. Likewise, quantitative examination system was utilized to test the hypotheses that were planned. The data were related to programs associated with corporate social responsibility of the football clubs. The findings of this study have revealed that social obligation has an impact on the performance of the football clubs. With proper corporate social responsibility programs in place, the organization is bound to have a high return on assets. In addition, proper corporate social responsibility programs are associated with high profits and efficient use of resources. Corporate social responsibility also helps an organization to manage risk and uncertainty and also to create a competitive advantage for the organization.

Introduction

Background to the study

European football, especially the football clubs in England have gained popularity across the world over the past decades. In addition to this, many academic scholars have developed an interest in researching on this kind of sports. The concept of corporate social responsibility is very popular as reflected in the numerous academic journals and professional journals. The first research that was done on corporate social responsibility dates back to five decades ago. But it is worth noting that out of the many journals available regarding the concept of corporate social responsibility, just a few of them have touched on the corporate social responsibility in football clubs. This paper will, therefore, bridge the research gap by exploring in details the corporate social responsibility.

Regardless, if the corporate social obligation is seen as a support of the high ground it might be thought that it may help the firm to have money-related advantages. This kind of exchange off decision may be particularly imperative to the football clubs. McManus’s four commitments served to raise the way that the corporate social obligation is still crucial to a critical piece of the examination of the subject (Babiak & Wolfe, 2006, p. 218). An investigation perfect model that parallels this perspective is accomplice theory, whereby, a business is viewed as tried and true on the four estimations to specific accomplice groupings. Accomplices have been perceived and characterized by their preference, privilege, benefit or ownership in an affiliation. Bhattacharya and Sen (2004) have communicated that “accomplices are those social events or individuals who can impact or are impacted by the achievement of the association’s objectives, or are those on-screen characters with a prompt or underhanded excitement for the association” (19).

Many participants in the field of football have a strong feeling that incorporating the concept of corporate social responsibility in the game of football is a good strategy which is very beneficial as a business plan (Blackshaw et al., 2003, p. 32; Babiak & Wolfe, 2006, p. 218). The kingdoms in the Middle East have a strong support for corporate social responsibility and they always encourage many large corporations to always give back to the society. Many companies that have a well-structured corporate social responsibility have been recognized and rewarded accordingly, and the others that do not have a well-structured corporate social responsibility policy have been challenged to adopt one. Many scholars who have researched on the concept of football and corporate social responsibility have expressed the fact that the football clubs are better placed to engage in unique corporate social responsibilities. This can be attributed to the fact that football clubs are interested to build a large fan base and also need to have a good will to boost their public image (Blowfield & Murray, 2008, p. 19).

Currently, there are many negative attributes that have engulfed the football clubs, ranging from: racism expressed by the footballers on themselves, corruption in electing the football officials, and other negative factors. These negative factors have diluted the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility and portrayed it as a two-sided affair. The concept of corporate social responsibility in football had twofold objectives, for instance, it aims at advancing the effectiveness of the club, and at the same time, it aims at harnessing the level of connection with the indigenous society (Schuttler & Burdick, 2010, p. 14; Blackshaw et al., 2003, p. 32; Babiak & Wolfe, 2006, p. 218). The sports industry has become very popular with the concept of corporate social responsibility over the recent decades, thus, portraying how the concept is regarded in a higher level.

Very few empirical studies have researched explicitly on the concept of corporate social responsibility. In addition, there are few studies that have researched on what motivates the stakeholders to select and adopt a specific concept of corporate social responsibility, especially in the sports industry (Lindgree, Swaen & Thomson, 2009, p. 310; Margolis & Walsh, 2003, p. 274; Remenyi et al., 2002, p. 17). This paper, therefore, will bring out more ideas and notions with regards to the concept of corporate social responsibility in the football clubs. In addition, this study will tend to explicitly define the various corporate social responsibility programs and outline their scope. Lastly, this study will quantify the results of the corporate social responsibility. The study will mainly focus on the football clubs in the Middle East and how they implement their corporate social responsibility programs. This study used a case study approach of research design, whereby two football clubs were used.

The case study is an approach of methodology that is applied when a comprehensive research or investigation is required. The case study is widely applied in sociological studies, but of late it is commonly applied in research institutions. Case study approach has procedures to be followed. hence, the researcher is required to stick to the guiding rules and principles so as to produce the best results. Through a case study approach, the researcher has access to a wide range of data sources. As a result of this, case study results are always very comprehensive and in-depth (Myers, 2009, p. 4; Blackshaw et al., 2003, p. 32; Babiak & Wolfe, 2006, p. 218).

Case study research does not entail sampling, hence, it is beneficial to select the cases in a relevant manner in order to maximize on what should be learned. The case study method of research is applicable in very many situations due to the fact that it brings to a reality the real life occurrences in connection to the occurrences revealed in the study. In addition, the case study approach is well designed for research that involves voluminous data (Myers, 2009, p. 4). Through a case study approach, relevant issues that form the basis of the study are thoroughly exploited. In addition, issues that appear to be more complex are brought to light through the use of case study as a research approach. The basic steps to be followed when structuring a case study approach are,

  1. the research questions should be clearly stated and defined,
  2. choose the cases and the data collection and analysis techniques,
  3. arrange to gather data; process and analyze the collected data, and
  4. make a report with regard to the analyzed data.

Statement of the problem

Numerous researchers who have looked into the idea of football and corporate social obligation have communicated the way that the football clubs are better set to take part in extraordinary corporate social obligations. This can be ascribed to the way that football clubs are intrigued to construct a vast fan base furthermore need to have a decent will to support their open picture (Mahon & Wartick, 2003, p. 19). At present, there are numerous negative properties that have overwhelmed the football clubs, going from bigotry communicated by the footballers on themselves, defilement in choosing the football authorities, and other negative variables. These negative elements have weakened the viability of corporate social obligation, and depicted it as a two-sided issue. The idea of corporate social obligation in football had twofold goals, for instance, it goes for propelling the viability of the club. In the meantime, it goes for outfitting the level of association with the indigenous society (Porter & Kramer, 2006, p. 82). The games business has ended up exceptionally mainstream with the idea of the corporate social obligation over the later decades, hence, depicting how the idea is respected in a more elevated amount.

Objectives of the study

The main objective of this study was to examine how the football clubs in the Middle East embrace the concept of corporate social responsibility to show their commitment to their surrounding communities. In line with the main objective, the specific objectives will be:

  1. To investigate the connection concerning corporate social responsibility and higher profits,
  2. To find out the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the management of risk and uncertainty,
  3. To explore the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the efficient use of resources,
  4. To ascertain the relationship between corporate social responsibility and return on assets, and
  5. To examine the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the creation of competitive advantage.

Research Hypotheses

In order to meet the above objectives, the following hypotheses were tested:

  1. Ho1: Corporate social responsibility does not contribute to higher profits,
  2. Ho2: Corporate social responsibility has no impact on managing risk and uncertainty,
  3. Ho3: Corporate social responsibility cannot contribute to efficient use of resources,
  4. Ho4: Return on assets is not determined through Corporate social responsibility, and
  5. Ho5: Corporate social responsibility does not create a competitive advantage to the organization.

Justification of the Study

Any leadership that is considered to be proficient normally impacts the level of execution of an organization and business manageability in the midst of competition (Smith & Westerbeek, 2007, p. 9; Blackshaw et al., 2003, p. 32; Babiak & Wolfe, 2006, p. 218). The study will uncover the most strategies of corporate social responsibility that support execution, fitness and maintainability of in the current set up of organizations. The study will give a basic assessment of whether the corporate social obligations of the football clubs understudy were sufficient for their daily operations. The study will likewise give suggestions on the best programs that cultivate innovation in organisations and key execution keeping in mind the end goal to ensure proficiency and aggressiveness. The findings of this study are of great value to policy makers. It provides the policy makers with a wide exposure with regard to the assessment on the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility in the performance of organizations, thus enabling them to adopt the relevant strategies in line with the situation. The findings of this study also add to the body of knowledge of related studies concerning the usefulness of corporate social responsibility.

Scope of the Study

This study flows in conformity with the main objective, which was to determine the usefulness of corporate social responsibility in the performance of football clubs. Using secondary data and applying statistical techniques, the study explained the variables to meet the research objectives.

Literature Review

Introduction

The section assesses past investigations that have explored how football clubs engage in corporate social responsibility. The section explicitly defines the various corporate social responsibility strategies, how they are implemented and how the results are measured.

History of corporate social responsibility

Corporate social responsibility is the strategy used by an organization to express goodwill and concern to the society through engaging in projects or activities that add value to the society. The concept of corporate social responsibility dates back to the mid-1800s, when Adam Smith attributed that the business operators. Even though they are in search of profits, the ‘invisible hand’ that exists in the open market will lead them to provide a social good will (Keller, 2006, p. 206; Blackshaw et al., 2003, p. 32; Babiak & Wolfe, 2006, p. 218). The social good will provided to the society through corporate social responsibility varies from one organization to the other, and the concept has advanced over the past many years. There have been many interpretations regarding what activities really constitute the concept of corporate social responsibility.

Morrow (2009) in his study about the key questions about corporate social responsibility argued that, “the concept of corporate social responsibility is revolutionary, and the different results that have been brought about by CSR concepts have called for renewed interest to research more on this concept” (p. 497). The organizations that engage in CSR activities have an inbuilt image in the society. The business will devote part of its resources to contribute to the development and rehabilitation of the society. In some cases, the corporate social responsibility programs are aimed and designed to increase more profits to the company (Daft, 2005, p. 28; Lee, 2008, p. 60). Many researchers today have defined the full range of corporate social responsibility and what compulsions the company should have in the society. The obligations include, adherence to the stipulated regulations, and also the standard obligation of gainfulness. The stakeholders of the organization have a requirement to practice their optional obligations ambiguously characterized as exercises that profited society yet might have payback. Supervisors likewise had a commitment to adjust to the acknowledged moral standards of the business environment not classified in law, commonly known as, a moral obligation (McManus, 2006, p. 12; Keller, 2006, p. 206; Blackshaw et al., 2003, p. 32).

The concept of corporate social responsibility

Companies nowadays want to engage in corporate social responsibility practices that are characterized with economic responsibilities. The act of philanthropy should come with programs that bring economic benefits to the organization. McManus (2006) went ahead to build up his thoughts by proposing a pyramid of corporate social responsibility with financial obligations at the base and altruism at the top (what tops off an already good thing), in which he contended for the acknowledgment of the “great society” (p. 12). McManus acknowledged the essential social obligation of a business to be financially beneficial. His model has demonstrated to be valuable on two tallies. First and foremost, the four obligations give a more refined approach to examining corporate social responsibility. In addition, it gives both an engaging hypothesis of how directors may make compromises among contending requests for the company’s assets and a rigid model of the circumstances where such compromises may be fitting. For instance, firms attempting to make benefits ought not to concentrate on corporate social responsibility exercises (Godfrey, 2009, p. 703).

In any case, if corporate social responsibility is seen as a cradle of upper hand it may be contended that it may help the firm to have financial benefits. This sort of trade-off choice may be exceptionally important to the football clubs. McManus’s four obligations helped to bring up the fact that corporate social responsibility is still fundamental to a significant part of the investigation of the subject (McManus, 2006, p. 12). An exploration ideal model that parallels this viewpoint is partner hypothesis, whereby a business is considered dependable on the four measurements to particular partner groupings. Partners have been recognized and classified by their advantage, entitlement, privilege or possession in an association. Avery (2004) has expressed that “partners are those gatherings or people who can influence or are influenced by the accomplishment of the organization’s goals or are those on-screen characters with an immediate or backhanded enthusiasm for the organization” (32).

The ideas of the partners have more prominent significance for football clubs than for routine organizations in view of the specific highlights of certain football club partners (Morrow, 2003, p. 43; Keller, 2006, p. 206; Blackshaw et al., 2003, p. 32). The 1980s and 1990s saw the scholastic enthusiasm for dwelling much on the concept of corporate social responsibility on building an observational connection in the middle of corporate social responsibility and money related to execution. In their superbly done paper about how companies carry out their social obligations, Margolis and Walsh (2003) examined 127 distributed studies somewhere around the years 1972 and 2002. These studies all analyzed the connection between the social obligations done by the company and their money related execution. Clearly a reasonable example rose up out of the 127 studies. A straightforward aggregation of the discoveries proposed a direct affiliation and almost no proof of a negative connection, between an organization’s obligation to the society and its money related execution. Then again, the researchers discovered that what had all the earmarks of being a clear connection between the organization’s obligation to the society and its money related execution may be more deceptive than the collection of results proposed because of numerous issues they posed to the study (Margolis & Walsh, 2003, p. 286).

The studies that focused on the money related executions of corporate social responsibility did not elaborate about what activities the firms were really doing because of social issues and also about what impacts the firm’s activities have on the society. There was no research gap left by McGuire (2008) after his study focusing on the aftereffects of the financial performance of corporate social responsibility; instead, his study recommended for “the relinquishment of the association of the firm’s social performance vis a vis the firm’s financial performance” (p. 442). The general agreement scholastically would be that corporate social responsibility speaks to an arrangement of activities that seem to extend philanthropy of social goods and amplify past the express financial interests of the firm, and are not a necessity of the law (McWilliams & Siegel, 2001, p. 120).

European football (particularly the football clubs in England) has picked up notoriety over the world over the previous decades. Notwithstanding this, numerous scholarly researchers have created enthusiasm for looking into on this sort of games. The idea of corporate social obligation is extremely well known, as reflected in the various scholarly diaries and expert diaries. The principal research that was done on corporate social obligation goes back to five decades prior. At the same time, it is significant that out of the numerous diaries accessible with respect to the idea of corporate social obligation, simply a couple of them have touched on the corporate social obligation in football clubs. This paper will subsequently connect the examination crevice by investigating in subtle elements the corporate social obligation.

Development towards measuring CSR approaches and results

The corporate social responsibility ought to be measured on the grounds that it is an essential point of business and society and that the genuine inquiry is whether legitimate and solid measures could be created (Carroll, 2000, p. 473). The act of developing scholarly enthusiasm for corporate social responsibility formed a concern toward measuring the corporate social responsibility arrangements on a more extensive premise than simply how everything adds up. Rafferty and Griffin (2004) set forward The four particular criteria for assessing the authenticity of corporate ventures for regulating social obligation according to Rafferty and Griffin (2004) are, “neighborhood information, level of obligation, imparted agreement among partners, and relationship to budgetary execution” (p. 336). The scholars acknowledged that no project would meet the majority of the four criteria, yet put them forward as standards to be sought after, as opposed to as moderate objectives to be gotten effortlessly. The model particularly recommended that there is regularly an interchange between the initial three criteria and the last. The thought of an interchange is one that keeps coming up in the scholarly articles and finds reverberation in this present reality where there are just a few fundamentals (Godfrey, 2009, p. 715).

There is another form of corporate social responsibility that has been conceptualized by other scholars. The scholars added to an instrument to quantify the corporate social responsibility activities and adopted the use of the instrument in France and in the US. The scholars further acknowledged that a shortcoming of their study was the complete dependence on data given by officials, prompting an administrative assessment of the firm’s citizenship (Maignan & Ferrell, 2000, p. 294). A study completed in Turkey by Lindgreen, Swaen and Johnston (2009) rejected the financial part of corporate social responsibility and characterized corporate practices as, “those that plan to influence partners emphatically and that go past its monetary obligation” (p. 313). The study particularly attempted to give a scale measure of corporate social responsibility that mirrored the obligations of organizations to different partners. The scale did not cover each partner of a business and mirrored the discernment, just of the workers in that study. The scholar recommended for further research to be led in diverse divisions and nations.

In a nutshell, an exploration of the existing scholarly articles demonstrates that there are a few routines to quantify a firm’s social exercise. Three principle methodologies have been utilized to survey business’s duty to attaining their social obligations: (a) master assessments, (b) single-issue and different issue pointers, and (c) examination of the administrators (McManus, 2006, p. 12; Maignan & Ferrell, 2000, p. 294). Despite the fact that these techniques have contributed a great deal to the massive literature involving corporate social responsibility, every one of them has a few limits. As a consequence of hypothetical and empirical approaches, a big magnitude of shareholders and institutional financial specialists started to acknowledge the thought that the key selection of corporate social responsibility could prompt money related returns in the course of a firm’s operations (Lee, 2008, p. 66). A more vital way to deal with corporate social responsibility has been advanced by many other different scholars.

Numerous members in the field of football have a solid feeling that consolidating the idea of social corporate obligation in the sport of football is a decent method which is exceptionally advantageous as a strategy for success (Remenyi et al., 2002, p. 16). The kingdoms in the Middle East have a solid backing for corporate social obligation and they generally urge numerous huge organizations to dependably offer back to the general public. Numerous organizations that have a very much organized corporate social obligation have been perceived and compensated in like manner and the others that don’t have an all-around organized corporate social obligation strategy have been tested to embrace one.

CSR as a vital asset

In a premeditated corporate social responsibility, there is no more a reasonable break dividing the corporation’s social performance and monetary execution (Lee, 2008, p. 64). Routes in which the corporate social responsibility projects can make key advantages for the association notwithstanding when they are not promptly quantifiable as partitioned commitments to how everything adds up have been analyzed (Schuttler & Burdick, 2010, p. 14). This origination of a premeditated corporate social responsibility is bolstered by a developing group of scholarly research that authenticates for the most positive impact of corporate social responsibility on the way the consumers assess the corporation and its plans. Meanwhile, organizations are acknowledging there is a need to attempt to gauge the profits of the corporate social responsibility projects. Thus, numerous organizations are starting to use social reviews, and the reports of the corporation’s social programs (Bhattcharya & Sen, 2004, p. 18; McManus, 2006, p. 12; Maignan & Ferrell, 2000, p. 294).

The usage of corporate citizenship exercises can be a key device that is utilized to assemble reputational resources and in the meantime, oversee reputational danger (Godfrey & Hatch, 2007, p. 93). This has likewise been portrayed as the supply of philanthropy and it could be a key player point of driving football clubs with reputational issues and potential problems when it comes to coordination and planning. Mahon and Wartick (2003) propose that, “football clubs and associations must choose between limited options regarding the matter of corporate social responsibility – they can’t overlook it, whether they are propelled by selfless standards of helping other people and, or, by businesslike concerns identified with what really matters” (p. 32).

Football and corporate social responsibility

Sports associations are as of now verifiably tied into society, and participative trademark restricted in different sorts of business associations (Smith & Westerbeek, 2007, p. 8) and it is acknowledged that the corporate social responsibility’s activities related to sports have points of interest in different businesses. Numerous researchers who have looked into the idea of football and corporate social obligation have communicated the way that the football clubs are better set to take part in extraordinary corporate social obligations. This can be ascribed to the way that football clubs are intrigued to construct a vast fan base furthermore need to have a decent will to support their open picture (Mahon & Wartick, 2003, p. 19). At present, there are numerous negative properties that have overwhelmed the football clubs, going from bigotry communicated by the footballers on themselves, defilement in choosing the football authorities and other negative variables. These negative elements have weakened the viability of corporate social obligation, and depicted it as a two-sided issue.

The idea of corporate social obligation in football had twofold goals, for occasion, it goes for propelling the viability of the club, and in the meantime, it goes for outfitting the level of association with the indigenous society (Porter & Kramer, 2006, p. 82). The games business has ended up exceptionally mainstream with the idea of the corporate social obligation over the late decades, hence, depicting how the idea is respected in a more elevated amount. As of late as a decade back, the programs associated with corporate social responsibility did not assume a critical part in sports (Mahon & Wartick, 2003, p. 19; Kott, 2005, p. 5). From that point forward proficient game associations have gone into socially capable activities at a fast pace. They have understood its probable utilization for their own particular associations, yet might likewise have ended up mindful of the way the game is being extraordinarily situated to impact society by and large and groups specifically. Among these are the reputation of big name competitors and the wide media coverage of the sports, football league, football clubs and the footballers themselves (McManus, 2006, p. 12; Babiak & Wolfe, 2006, p. 216).

There are seven different highlights of the association between sports and corporate social responsibility that contributes to its success. These seven highlights include, broad coverage by the media and the correspondence power, the high interest on the sports by the youth, positive contributions to health, social status, maintainability mindfulness, social comprehension and incorporation, and quick delight advantages (Smith & Westerbeek, 2007, p. 8). These favorable circumstances can bring about the football clubs having more noteworthy impacts than different organizations in giving motivation in various fields, for example, instruction and medicinal services for kids, fitness and health, showing care toward nature, and social enhancement (Godfrey, 2009, p. 715; Kott, 2005, p. 5). Football and corporate social responsibility are today part and parcel of each other and many football clubs across the world have launched their foundations that cater for various programs in the society. The programs include: initiatives that care for children and vulnerable people in the society, health programs such as free eye checkups, promoting education programs for young children, and also initiatives that care for the marginalized societies. Yet, it must be recalled that confirmation for the advantages is inconsistent and the procedures through which game is dared to prompt them not well comprehended (Coalter, 2007, p. 542).

Positively the thought that corporate social responsibility can be useful for the football clubs themselves is getting to be caught on. Solid relations with the nearby group are crucial for any football club. The effective usage of corporate citizenship activities can convey a scope of advantages for football clubs, for example, the advancement of a consistent dedication of the fans, authenticity, hope and brand value, which can add to the improvement of the football club having an upper hand and enhance the budgetary execution (Crabbe & Slaughter, 2004, p. 77). The results from the previous studies that explored into the corporate social responsibility exercises of Scottish Premier League clubs in the 2007/2008 season shows that the compelling utilization of the corporate social responsibility strategies by football clubs offers a lot of advantages to both the giver and an extensive variety of partner beneficiaries of such approaches (Remenyi et al., 2009, p. 15). There is a general propensity for corporate social responsibility to be seen plainly; this has implied that disagreeable issues, for example, whether the football clubs are making a true political gift in return for future favors when they partake in government supported exercises, the extent to which clubs assume praise for fan-driven actions, and whether clubs ought to focus on working a manageable monetary business instead of placing assets into the corporate social responsibility exercises that have not been inspected in any point of interest (Avolio, Walumbwa & Weber, 2009, p. 430).

The last issue beholds back to the fundamental point on the reason for business and is of sincere worry in football because of the quantity of misfortune affecting football clubs that have depended on the football creditor’s standard for their steady presence. This has often at times brought about neighborhood non-football banks accepting just a small amount of obligations owed if the club makes a contestation. The hidden presumption must be that a football club is an association that has associations with, and commitments toward, the surrounding society – the local neighborhood, the nearby local administration, and so on – and that these commitments can now and again clash with the club’s business destinations (Davies, 2002, p. 20).

The clubs are faced with the illustrative hypothesis and prescriptive model of trade-off. This is a justification why there has been a critical number of community section that is dedicated to the football clubs since 1997. The section of the community also has set up as an outer philanthropic association (Abbas & Asher, 2010, p. 42; Brown, Crabbe & Mellor, 2008, p. 23). Community sections involved with football clubs ought to look to create organizational autonomy and money related autonomy from their clubs. This will shield them from variances in execution of the roles at clubs and furnish them with an opportunity to build up their own particular tradition of doing things (Watson, 2006, p. 452). It can be contended that football clubs are associations that have various partners and obligations, so they cannot be judged just on the commitment to the business. Football clubs additionally need to be excellent in terms performance.

Generally, many football clubs were set as nonprofit associations and without a doubt numerous football clubs have been run in the same manner by their proprietors (Godfrey, 2009, p. 702; Brown, 2008, p. 2). Football today is characterized by the act of philanthropy, and many football clubs have adopted the concept of philanthropy at the base of their association. This argument, therefore, demonstrates that the ideas underlying corporate social responsibility may be more multifaceted given the results it induces, both positive and negative, particularly for football clubs than is generally recognized. Not very many observational studies have explored expressly on the idea of corporate social obligation. Moreover, there are a couple of studies that have inquired about on what rouses the partners to choose and receive a particular idea of corporate social obligation, particularly in the games business (Lindgree, Swaen & Thomson, 2009, p. 310; Margolis & Walsh, 2003, p. 274; Polelle, 2008, p. 33). This paper, along these lines, will carry out more thoughts and ideas concerning the idea of corporate social obligation in the football clubs. What’s more, this study will have a tendency to expressly characterize the different corporate social obligation projects and diagram their extension. Finally, this study will evaluate the aftereffects of the corporate social obligation. The study will principally concentrate on the football clubs in the Middle East and how they execute their corporate social obligation programs. This study utilized a contextual analysis methodology of examination configuration, whereby four football clubs were utilized.

The argument has been made not only for the contribution of football clubs in their nearby society, yet for all more prominent parts for game in handling international and group complications of fitness, peace, advancement and morals (Godfrey, 2009, p. 702; Davies, 2002, p. 2). The controversy is that the game of football has characteristics that make it a capable vehicle in changing the face of the community is a positive dimension (Smith & Westerbeek, 2007, p. 15). Some scholars have brought up an explicit exploration into football and its surrounding community. This explicit exploration was to a limited extent, give a comprehension of how football can draw in with its surrounding community (Brown, Crabbe & Mellor, 2008, p. 310). There is software that has been developed to help the football clubs to assess the projects run by their community sections.

Proof has been delivered to recommend that the possibilities for positive engagement in corporate social responsibility strategy by football clubs is starting to flourish in different ranges of European football. Case in point, somewhere around 2005 and 2008, an organization known as ‘Business in the Community’, based in the UK spearheaded an initiative called ‘Clubs that Count’ and revealed a significant increment in corporate social responsibility exercises by football clubs in the UK (Snider, Hill & Martin, 2003, p. 177). There are several structures that have been put in place by various football clubs in order to manage and implement their corporate social responsibility programs. This study relied on the institutional theory to argue these facts.

Organizations these days need to participate in corporate social obligation programs that are described with financial obligations. The demonstration of generosity ought to accompany programs that convey financial advantages to the association. Adetule (2011) proceeded to develop his musings by proposing a pyramid of corporate social obligation with budgetary commitments at the base and unselfishness at the top (what finish off an officially good thing), in which he battled for the affirmation of the “considerable society” (p. 12). McManus recognized the fundamental social commitment of business to be monetarily valuable. His model has exhibited to be significant on two counts. As a matter of first importance, the four commitments give a more refined way to deal with analyze corporate social obligation. What’s more, it gives both a drawing in the theory of how executives may make bargains among battling solicitations for the organization’s benefits and an unbending model of the circumstances where such bargains may be fitting. Case in point, firms endeavouring to make advantages should not focus on corporate social obligation works out (Snider, Hill & Martin, 2003, p. 180).

Corporate social responsibility and institutional hypothesis

Institutional hypothesis looks to provide more insights as to why various firms, working in altogether different situations, are regularly fundamentally the same in construction. For any firm to sustain it, they must fit in with the standards and conviction frameworks that rule the business environment, which would be beneficial to the firm in terms of gaining authenticity. The course in which one firm comes to look like others have been labelled as ‘institutional isomorphism’ (Abbas & Asher, 2010, p. 42). This notion is a valuable apparatus for comprehending the governmental issues and service that are enshrined in the firm’s operations. This is particularly genuine on due to the fact that it is acknowledged that the main consideration that firms need to make is to check on how the other related firms operate. According to the authors, there are three systems through which institutional isomorphism happens and this study will consider their importance to the football clubs and the ways in which they deal with corporate social responsibility.

Coercive isomorphism is the result of inward pressure and outward pressure that are exerted on a firm by different firms whereupon they are dependent, by social desires and by lawful tenets. Some of the time, it might be a direct reaction to an administration order or it might be a reaction to subsidizing prerequisites to give reviewed data. The coercive isomorphism can likewise be unpretentious and less express. On the other hand it happens, firms get to be progressively similar and sorted out in line with the connections or similarity with the other firms (Abbas & Asher, 2010, p. 42).

Simulated methods emerge in situations of vulnerability that empower impersonation. At the point when objectives are vague or there are uncertainties regarding what may add up to achievement, firms may demonstrate themselves on other firms. Firms have a tendency to shape themselves to the form of other firms after comparative associations in their field that they see to be more genuine or effective (Abbas & Asher, 2010, p. 42). Regularizing isomorphism comes principally from specialization, incorporates firms and instructive organizations and subsequently permits new models to spread rapidly. These instruments make a pool of compatible people that model the conduct of the firm towards a comparable structure (Fombrun, Gardberg & Sever, 2000, p. 250). This subject matter is both intriguing and essential for the future development that is preceded with the accomplishment of the community sections of the football clubs. It is likewise applicable to the more extensive corporate social responsibility activities of the football clubs.

In order to keep on surviving, firms must adjust to the principles and conviction frameworks that are in place which would pick up the association authenticity. The local administration’s acknowledgment of key firms through the gift or contract procedure may contribute to the authenticity of the firms and lure the other related firms to duplicate parts of their structure or working methodologies (Keller, 2006, p. 206). Motivation systems make basic changes in the firms by giving an impulsion to the firms that are willing to comply with the negotiator’s state of affairs. Keller (2006) gave the applicable illustration of subsidizing specialists that, “obliged itemized proof of how operations are carried out as intermittent reports, keeping in mind the end goal to stay qualified for constant financing” (p. 503). As the concept of development spreads an edge is realized, in which appropriation gives authenticity instead of enhancing execution (Bhattcharaya & Sen, 2004, p. 15; Kantabutra & Avery, 2010, p. 40). Philanthropy in the field of football was first demonstrated by The Leyton Orient Community Sports Program (LOCSP), way back in the year 1997. The subsequent reports later on showed that the charity program was profoundly inventive and fruitful. This exploration will consider to what degree institutional isomorphism has impacted the corporate social responsibility approaches in football clubs.

Summary

In summary, the literature review opines that that the association between football and corporate social responsibility is a territory of developing speculation and enthusiasm for research specialists and scholars. Additionally, there are numerous issues that still need further examination. These issues include a requirement for better estimation models of corporate social responsibility (Margolis & Walsh, 2003, p. 286; Lee, 2008, p. 66), the investigation of the fundamental reason for the firms’ corporate social obligation, for instance, if they are persuaded by practice and/or standards (Snider, Hill & Martin, 2003, p. 177; Babiak & Wolfe, 2006, p. 218), and the examination of how the corporate social responsibility program is considered and honed in different organizational connections, including small and medium enterprises (Lee, 2008, p. 66; Lindgreen & Swaen, 2010, p. 5).

If corporate social responsibility is seen as a cradle of upper hand it may be contended that it may help the firm to have financial benefits. This sort of trade-off choice may be exceptionally important to the football clubs. McManus’s four obligations helped to bring up the fact that corporate social responsibility are still fundamental to a significant part of the investigation of the subject (McManus, 2006, p. 12). An exploration ideal model that parallels this viewpoint is partner hypothesis, whereby the business is considered dependable on the four measurements to particular partner groupings. Partners have been recognized and classified by their advantage, entitlement, privilege or possession in an association. Mellor and Brown (2004) have expressed that, “partners are those gatherings or people who can influence or are influenced by the accomplishment of the organization’s goals or are those on-screen characters with an immediate or backhanded enthusiasm for the organization” (46).

Numerous researchers who have looked into on the idea of football and corporate social obligation have communicated the way that the football clubs are better put to take part in exceptional corporate social obligations. This can be ascribed to the way that football clubs are intrigued to fabricate an expansive fan base furthermore need to have a decent will to help their open image (Kvale & Brinkmann, 2009, p. 19). At present, there are numerous negative characteristics that have immersed the football clubs, going from bigotry communicated by the footballers on themselves, defilement in choosing the football authorities, and other negative components. These negative variables have weakened the viability of corporate social obligation, and depicted it as a two-sided issue. The idea of corporate social obligation in football had twofold goals, for case, it goes for propelling the viability of the club, and in the meantime, it goes for saddling the level of association with the indigenous society (Godfrey, Hansen & Merrill, 2009, p. 438). The sports of football has ended up exceptionally famous with the idea of the corporate social obligation over the late decades, along these lines, depicting how the idea is respected in a larger amount.

A piece of the issue that the researchers specializing in the concept of corporate social responsibility is the detachment, both clear and genuine, of good information in circumstances where a few firms can be by and large scheming or tricky in their procurement of applicable data. Creating complete methods of corporate social exercises that truly discourse social execution is plainly a test (Polelle, 2008, p. 33; Adetule, 2011, p. 52). This paper tries to respond to the call to contemplate the importance of institutional isomorphism to the corporate social responsibility arrangements of football clubs, in order to comprehend the inspirations of football club administrators for actualizing the corporate social responsibility approaches; to portray the strategies and projects explicitly; and to figure out how results are gauged.

Research Methodology

Introduction

Methodology is the process of instructing the ways to do the research. It is, therefore, convenient for conducting the research and for analyzing the research questions. The process of methodology insists that much care should be given to the kinds and nature of procedures to be adhered to in accomplishing a given set of procedures or an objective (Myers, 2009, p. 242). This part includes the research design, the sample and the methods that were used in gathering information. It also contains the data analysis methods, validity and reliability of data and the limitation of the study.

Research design

There are three sorts of exploration configuration: exploratory research, descriptive exploration and causal examination. Exploratory research basically investigates on the way of the issue keeping in mind the end goal to draw derivations. In this situation, the analyst is in a decent position to comprehend the issue under scrutiny. The stream of exploratory exploration includes recognizing the issue and looking to discover the fitting arrangements and new thoughts (Easterby, Thorpe & Jackson, 2008, p. 46; Myers, 2009, p. 242). Exploratory exploration is generally appropriate in circumstances where the structure of the examination issue is not unequivocal. Then again, expressive examination is for the most part appropriate in circumstances where the structure of the exploration issue is express. This sort of examination is utilized when the specialist hopes to recognize the different watched truths in an example or a populace (Easterby, Thorpe & Jackson, 2008, p. 46). Moreover, elucidating examination is typically utilized by the specialist when he has an earlier comprehension of the issue under scrutiny. Causal exploration is the sort of examination whereby there is an unmistakable structure of the examination issue. In this situation the specialist is intrigued to investigate on the reason for the impact relationship. The reasons are recognized, broke down and the degree of the impacts is checked on (Easterby, Thorpe & Jackson, 2008, p. 46).

Myers (2009) confirms that the “goal of exploratory examination is to pick up bits of knowledge and thoughts identified with an issue” (p. 106). The study will be in light of the blended examination approach. Easterby, Thorpe and Jackson (2008) argued that “receiving the combined examination configuration comes from a full circle in a successful understanding of the issue under assessment” (p. 48). Both subjective and quantitative examination methodologies will be connected with the arrangement. This declaration implies that the subjective methodology will be connected first and afterward the quantitative approach later. Quantitative methodology will be utilized as a part of expounding the subjective discoveries. Easterby, Thorpe and Jackson (2008), declare that the “preferences of blended approach in which the creator supports the authenticity of subjective strategies is improved through the joining of quantitative systems, which are known as triangulation” (p. 48).

Research techniques

There are two primary systems that are prominent in the field of exploration. These methodologies are deductive methodology and inductive methodology (Easterby, Thorpe & Jackson, 2008, p. 46; Myers, 2009, p. 244). The recognizing element between the two methodologies identifies with the building of the hypotheses. In the deductive methodology, the theories and hypothesis are developed in the wake of investigating on the accessible important writing. In the inductive methodology, the hypothesis is built after the information has been investigated and broke down. This study utilized the deductive methodology; whereby the hypothesis and the theories were figured in the wake of experiencing the pertinent writing.

Data collection

In any examination that is done, there are essential stages that are included with respect to the forming of the exploration. These stages include: understanding the exploration issue, the calculated structure of the examination, information gathering, information investigation and translations, and drawing of derivations and making proposals. In this study, quantitative examination technique was utilized to test the theories that were formed. The exploratory study will be taking into account optional exploration, which will be attempted by leading a writing overview. Myers (2009) characterizes writing overview as “an examination method that includes a survey of distributed insights and investigates” (p. 108). Directing a writing study empowers a scientist to create fitting learning on the subject under scrutiny. With an end goal to add to a far reaching comprehension of how football clubs execute their corporate social responsibility strategies, an audit of the past writing in the field of corporate social responsibility and football will be attempted.

Myers (2009) argued that, “the effectiveness of secondary data may be hindered by a low level of reliability and validity” (p. 148). In the process of reviewing the past literature, the researcher will ensure that data is collected from valid sources. Through the secondary approach, the researcher will be in a position to enhance the validity of the research study. Data will be sourced from internal and external sources. The internal sources will entail data generated from within the football clubs (Easterby, Thorpe & Jackson, 2008, p. 46; Myers, 2009, p. 148). Thus, a review of diverse annual reports relating to the football clubs, such as reports on corporate social responsibility and human resource management will be conducted. Conversely, external secondary data will be obtained from outside the organisation. However, data will be sourced from credible agencies such as KPMG, PricewaterhouseCoopers, and Deloitte & Touché. The choice of these agencies is informed by the view that they provide a comprehensive analysis on diverse aspects relating to organisations’ operations.

Secondary data will also be collected by reviewing articles, journals, and case studies hosted by credible databases such as the social sciences research network [SSRN] and the EBSCO databases. An evaluation of such case studies will play a fundamental role in understanding the strategies adopted by the football clubs to execute their corporate social responsibilities. Easterby, Thorpe and Jackson (2008) assert that, “secondary research can lead to the attainment of the actual data, hence improving the accuracy with which the research questions are answered” (p. 48).

Sources of data

There are two general classifications of information sources; this study utilized bot primary and secondary information. The secondary information is whereby the analyst utilizes data that is now as a part of presence. Auxiliary information was utilized as a part of the writing audit whereby the past information/data were utilized to present the hypotheses of this exploration. The information was gathered from course books, diaries, significant articles and the web. The researcher was of the opinion that effective application of the above research methodology would improve the degree to which the research contributes to the development of a comprehensive evaluation on how corporate social responsibility can be applied in order to enhance organisational performance. Then again, before leading the study, all the systems will be taken after as a base prerequisite of the establishment.

The methods including the consent to direct the study by the foundation, approbation by different capable powers especially, the organisations that have been chosen, procurement of assent structures and additionally confirmation shapes for the insurance of the assembled data and the data gave. Basically, all the morals endorsement methodology will be embraced before the initiation of the study with a specific end goal to secure the scientist. The legitimacy of the information speaks to the information, honesty and it suggests that the information is precise and much steady. Notwithstanding the above perspectives, including optional examination will help in minimizing the expense included in directing the study with reference to time and exertion. The information gathered from optional sources may be investigated already or crude.

Data Analysis Techniques and presentation

According to Easterby, Thorpe and Jackson (2008), “the raw data collected from the field might not be of significance to the target audience due to its voluminous nature” (p. 46). Thus, the target audience might not understand the correlation between the various aspects related to the research objective, which underscores the importance of conducting data analysis. The data collected from the secondary sources will be analysed effectively in order to increase its relevance to the target stakeholders such as organisational leaders. Moreover, data will be analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. By using these tools, the researcher will be in a position to undertake effective data analysis by incorporating diverse statistical analysis concepts such as percentages, standard deviation, variation, and correlation. Furthermore, these data analysis tools will improve the effectiveness with which the findings of the study are presented using graphs, charts, and tables. Subsequently, it will be possible for the target stakeholders to interpret the data effectively and efficiently.

Reliability and validity

The validity of the data represents the data integrity and it connotes that the data is accurate and much consistent. Validity has been explained as a descriptive evaluation of the association between actions and interpretations and empirical evidence deduced from the data. Reliability of the data is the outcome of a series of actions which commences with the proper explanation of the issues to be resolved. This may push on to a clear recognition of the yardsticks concerned. It contains the target samples to be chosen, the proper sampling strategy and the sampling methods to be employed (Easterby, Thorpe & Jackson, 2008, p. 46; Myers, 2009, p. 244).

Variables

The dependent variable was corporate social responsibility. The five independent variables under investigation were: the connection concerning corporate social responsibility and higher profits, the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the management of risk and uncertainty, the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the efficient use of resources, the relationship between corporate social responsibility and return on assets, and the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the creation of competitive advantage.

Case Study Approach

Case study is an approach of methodology that is applied when a comprehensive research or investigation is required. Case study is widely applied in sociological studies, but of late it is commonly applied in research institutions. Case study approach has procedures to be followed; hence, the researcher is required to stick to the guiding rules and principles so as to produce the best results. Through case study approach, the researcher has access to a wide range of data sources; as a result of this, case study results are always very comprehensive and in-depth (Easterby, Thorpe & Jackson, 2008, p. 46; Myers, 2009, p. 244). Case study research does not entail sampling; hence it is beneficial to select the cases in a relevant manner in order to maximize on what should be learnt. Through case study approach, relevant issues that form the basis of the study are thoroughly exploited. In addition, issues that appear to be more complex are brought to light through the use of case study as a research approach. The basic steps to be followed when structuring a case study approach are, the research questions should be clearly stated and defined, choose the cases and the data collection and analysis techniques, arrange to gather data, process and analyze the collected data, and make a report with regard to the analyzed data.

Sampling procedure

There are two popularly used procedures for sampling. The sampling procedures include prospect sampling and non-prospect sampling. In a probability sampling procedure, the samples are representative of the population. This is because all the entries have a chance of being selected. On the other hand, items in the non-probability sampling do not have an equal chance. In this scenario, all the items in the population do not have equal chances of being selected (Easterby, Thorpe & Jackson, 2008, p. 46; Myers, 2009, p. 244).

The data for the study was collected among the employees of the organization understudy. The employees were used because their profiles fit the context of this study. Therefore, the employees were an excellent choice due to the fact that many of them have had employment experience. Due to the fact that all the employees could not be accessible, a non-probability sampling procedure was employed in this study. Out of all the 450 issued questionnaires, only 237 got a positive response. A pilot test was conducted in order to ensure that the questionnaires were reliable and valid. The test was conducted with a sample of fifty respondents. The respondents were not aware that it was a pre-test. After the pre-test, the questionnaire was edited by removing and changing some words. A pre-test was done again to ten additional respondents just to be sure that the questionnaire was now very reliable and very valid.

Limitations of the study

There have been a considerable measure of concerns on extra budgetary costs for gathering of the information, paying little mind to whether the accumulated information is truly genuine or not and whether there may be an unequivocal conclusion when translating and breaking down the information. What’s more, a few representatives were hesitant to offer some data that was private and perilous in the hands of their rivals. This represented an extraordinary test to the examination as the specialist needed to take a more drawn out time to discover workers why should willing give out sufficient data.

Findings, Data Analysis and Interpretation

Introduction

This section covers the analysis of the data, presentation and interpretation. The results were analysed using SPPS, ANOVA, regression and correlation analysis.

Descriptive statistics

Biographical information

237 respondents (52.6%) of the expected 450 respondents completed the questionnaires. The respondents had varied age distribution which is summarized in the Figure 4.1 below. The respondents were the employees at the bank.

 Age distribution of respondents
Figure 4.1: Age distribution of respondents

The figure indicates that many respondents were from the age group 40-49 years (43%, n=101). This was followed by respondents in the age group 30-39 years (24%, n=57). The third largest age group was 50-59 years, which had 55 respondents (23%). The age group under 30 years had the lowest number of respondents (10%, n=24).

An analysis of the gender of the total respondents was made. The gender distribution is summarized in Figure 4.2 below.

Gender distribution
Figure 4.2: Gender distribution

The figure indicates that many respondents (60%, n=142) were female, whereas only 40% (n=95) were male employees.

An analysis of the employee qualification was made. The qualification level is summarized in Figure 4.3 below.

Employee qualification, distribution
Figure 4.3: Employee qualification, distribution

The figure shows that many employees (54%, n=128) hold Bachelors degrees. This was followed by employees who had Higher diplomas (18%, n=42), Diploma holders (16%, n=39) and Masters degree holders (12%, n=28) in that order.

An analysis of the employment category of the respondents was done. The employment category is summarized in Figure 4.4 below.

Employment category distribution
Figure 4.4: Employment category distribution

The figure shows that a majority of the respondents (55%, n=130) was employed on a permanent basis. This was followed by 89 respondents (37%) who were temporarily employed. Only 8% (n=18) of the respondents were employed on contract.

Descriptive statistics

Summary of descriptive statistics

Descriptive statistics using the measures of central tendencies were computed from the analysis of the variables. The five independent variables of the study were: the relationship between corporate social responsibility and higher profits, the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the management of risk and uncertainty, the relationship between and the efficient use of resources, the relationship between corporate social responsibility and return on assets, and the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the creation of competitive advantage.

Summary of results

The results of the descriptive statistics for the analysis of the variables in line with the main objective of the study indicate that the mean for the relationship between corporate social responsibility and higher profits is 113.20 with a standard deviation of 14.30. From this computation, it can be deduced that many stakeholders believe that the corporate social responsibility of the football clubs had a long term effect of increasing the profits and revenue of the organization; this is indicated by the higher value of the standard deviation. In addition, the calculated arithmetic means for the relationship between corporate social responsibility and return on assets, efficient use of resources, and creating competitive advantage are less than the calculated arithmetic mean for the relationship between corporate social responsibility and managing risk and uncertainty. Corporate social responsibility has more effect in managing risks and uncertainty (Mean=127.21, SD=15.31) than creating competitive advantage (Mean=114.351, SD=14.221), efficient use of resources (Mean=103.11, SD=10.81), and return on assets (Mean=102.11, SD=11.31).

Table 4.1: Summary of the results

Mean Standard deviation
Higher profits 113.21 14.31
Return on assets 102.11 11.31
Efficient use of resources 103.11 10.81
Managing risk and uncertainty 127.21 15.31
Creating competitive advantage 114.351 14.221

Inferential statistics

The results of inferential statistics were used to establish the relationship that exists between corporate social responsibility and the performance of the organization; inferential statistics was used to ascertain the connection among the variables. The results are summarized in Table 4.2 below.

Table 4.2: Pearson correlation matrix for the variables

Corporate social responsibility
Pearson correlation Sig (2-tailed)
Higher profits 0.2734 0.0440*
Return on assets 0.5981 0.0000**
Efficient use of resources 0.2682 0.0420*
Managing risk and uncertainty 0.5852 0.0000**
Creating competitive advantage 0.3861 0.0030**

NOTE:

  • * = p<0.05
  • ** = p<0.01

The results in the table above show that there are major correlations between corporate social responsibility and return on assets (r = 0.5981, p < 0.01), corporate social responsibility and managing risk and uncertainty (r = 0.5852, p < 0.01), corporate social responsibility and creating competitive advantage (r = 0.3861, p < 0.01) and between corporate social responsibility and efficient use of resources (r = 0.2682, p < 0.05). There was also a significant relationship between corporate social responsibility and higher profits (r = 0.2734, p < 0.05).

A regression analysis to analyse how the variables predict the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility and the results are summarized in Table 4.3 below.

Table 4.3: Summary of regression analysis

Multiple R 0.6022
R Square 0.3613
Adjusted R Square 0.3322
Standard Error 12.959
F 5.305
Sig F 0.000**
Variable Beta T Sig T
Higher profits -0.21639 -0.2700 0.03970*
Return on assets -0.26839 -2.4020 0.0110*
Efficient use of resources -0.3190 -3.09419 0.0030*
Managing risk and uncertainty -0.1540 -1.3001 0.0701
Creating competitive advantage -0.1810 -1.1100 0.0230*

NOTE:

  • * = p<0.05
  • ** = p<0.01

The result found out that the multiple R-value is 0.6022. The R-Square value of 0.361 indicates that 36.1% of the variables explained the dependent variable. The F-statistic (5.305) is statistically significant at 0.01 level; meaning that the economic variables significantly enlighten 36.13% of the variance in addressing the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility. Efficient use of resources is the best predictor of the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility as it has a beta coefficient value of -0. 0.3190, and is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. In addition, return on assets, higher profits and creating competitive advantage are statistically significant at 0.05. The negative value of the beta coefficient of creating competitive advantage indicates that corporate social responsibility has a greater effect in bigger football clubs, than in smaller organisations. In the like way, the negative beta value of the higher profits coefficient shows that corporate social responsibility is really important in uplifting the performance of the system.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Introduction

This chapter presents the summary of the findings and discussion of the results in accordance to the objectives of this study. In addition, this chapter contains recommendations which can be applied to various organizations to address employees’ resistance.

Conclusion

The main aim of this study was to explore the motivations that make football clubs participate in corporate social responsibility. This study used the football clubs in the Middle East as a case study. The results of the interviews delivered a considerable measure of material that went generally on issues associated with how the football clubs impact the society and the parts that they play in the groups, the structure of their group associations, particular group ventures and the more extensive corporate social obligations of the clubs. To consolidate the extensive variety of issues that were disclosed, the results of the study are as per the exploration of the related literature. The results also incorporate citations from other contextual investigations meets significant. This paper considered how football clubs and their related group arms adopt the concept of corporate social responsibility in the sports of football, with a perspective to attempting to characterize the extent of their adoption of the initiatives. This incorporates subtle elements of their particular group plans and more extensive corporate social responsibility strategies executed by the football club.

Corporate social responsibility is an important factor in any system. The findings of this survey have revealed that corporate social responsibility has an impingement on the operation of the system. With proper and corporate social responsibility in place, the system is bound to receive a high return on assets. In increase, proper corporate social responsibility is linked up with high profits and effective utilization of resources. Corporate social responsibility also helps an organization to manage risk and uncertainty and also creating a competitive advantage for the organization. Corporate social responsibility is associated with setting of goals and objectives. Goals are very important to the organization due to the fact that they provide clear direction to steer the organizational progress.

Furthermore the inspirations driving the execution of corporate social responsibility approaches by the football clubs and their associated group arms were introduced. It focused on checking on to what degree clubs think deliberately by attempting to accomplish business advantages, whether it is simply an instance of carrying out good programs or an intricate mix of these inspirations. It will likewise talk about whether clubs need to comprehend corporate social responsibility all the more comprehensively. There was an audit of the courses in which football clubs and their group arms evaluate the effects of their corporate social responsibility approaches and the programs in the society. It will look at whether there is a requirement for more modern methods for evaluating the effects through a more extensive social review of football clubs. This will bring out how it may support clubs with administrative issues. At long last there will be a talk concerning the pertinence of institutional hypothesis to the development of free group arms of football clubs and more extensive corporate social responsibility strategies.

Recommendations

Not very many observational studies have explored expressly on the idea of corporate social obligation. Moreover, there are couples of studies that have inquired about on what rouses the partners to choose and receive a particular idea of corporate social obligation, particularly in the games business (Lindgree, Swaen & Thomson, 2009, p. 310; Margolis & Walsh, 2003, p. 274; Remenyi et al., 2009, p. 36). This paper, along these lines, will carry out more thoughts and ideas concerning the idea of corporate social obligation in the football clubs. What’s more, this study will have a tendency to expressly characterize the different corporate social obligation projects and diagram their extension. Finally this study will evaluate the aftereffects of the corporate social obligation. The study will principally concentrate on the football clubs in the Middle East and how they execute their corporate social obligation programs. This study utilized a contextual analysis methodology of examination configuration, whereby four football clubs were utilized.

In order to keep on surviving, firms must adjust to the principles and conviction frameworks that are in place which would pick up the association authenticity. The local administration’s acknowledgment of key firms through the gift or contract procedure may contribute to the authenticity of the firms and lure the other related firms to duplicate parts of their structure or working methodologies (Keller, 2006, p. 206). Motivation systems make basic changes in the firms by giving impulsion to the firms that are willing to comply with the negotiator’s state of affairs. Keller (2006) gave the applicable illustration of subsidizing specialists that “obliged itemized proof of how operations are carried out, as intermittent reports, keeping in mind the end goal to stay qualified for constant financing” (p. 503).

Contextual analysis is a methodology of approach that is connected when a complete exploration or examination is needed. Contextual investigation is broadly connected in sociological studies, however recently it is generally connected in exploration organizations. Contextual investigation methodology has methods to be taken after; thus, the analyst is obliged to stick to the managing guidelines and standards to deliver the best results. Through contextual investigation approach, the specialist has admittance to an extensive variety of information sources. As a consequence of this, contextual analysis results are constantly extremely complete and inside and out.

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