External, Internal, and Construct Validity

Subject: Sciences
Pages: 3
Words: 593
Reading time:
3 min
Study level: PhD

The global business demands of industry have made use of many employees through harsh working conditions and inhumane treatment. Malaysian people are being sent by the Vietnamese government to work in conditions that almost never meet proper conditions and procedures. The government and the industry focuses too much on the financial gain and the end result, without taking proper care of the people who make all the difference in the success of societies.

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Malaysian workers are often mistreated, as they come from poverty stricken homes and families. The environment they are forced to work in is unsafe and does not make their life any better (Huling, 2012). An even greater problem emerges when the treatment of women is analyzed. Due to their vulnerability and inability to use their non-existent status, they are often exploited in sexual nature (Jeyathurai, 2012). All of these instances are regularly observed and thus, inferences can be made about the validity of these cases. There is much evidence which can be verified that proves how unequally and unfairly Malaysian workers are being treated.

“Hope for New Life” is a direct step to change the worsening conditions and create leaders who can take control of the deteriorating situation. There is also evidence that improper work environment is leading to stress and people are becoming affected psychologically. The fact that such condition involves great parts of the population shows the true nature of things. It is understandable that economics, market value and differences between nations play an intricate role in the situation. The global crisis has added more negative factors, causing the system to become even more unfair towards the workers.

In order for the proper research of factual information, validity and reliability must be taken into consideration. The factual knowledge of the situation depends on the observations that the researcher carries out, so the collection of data and concrete referencing is instrumental (Trochim and Donnelly, 2008). Also, the intricate relationship between culture and society must be added to the equation. All these factors create threats to construct validity because there is a possibility that the measures will not actually measure what they are supposed to (Murphy, 2013). Since people’s experiences are sometimes completely individual and the construction of reality becomes relative, the results might not be used to explain behavior or attitudes of others.

All these parts of the social structure make up external validity. The conditions that are predominant in society and the interdependence within the population can be somewhat predicted, whereas others are not as clear cut. The ability to generalize the findings of the research would mean that the majority of people are suffering unequal treatment (Lissitz, 2009). The cause and effect relationship must be established in order to determine the outcomes and the true reasons for the specific environment. The narrowing down to the random samples will provide for higher internal validity and accuracy of the findings (Hall, 2008).

Overall, it is clear that a great amount of research must be produced, so that exact conclusions are drawn. There is no doubt that Malaysian workers are being abused through inhumane conditions but the patters and the leading out results can be fluctuating and unspecific. Proper organization and qualitative, as well as quantitative research will enable the collection of reliable data, which will help to draw conclusions and find solutions (Creswell, 2009). Both perspectives must be examined to come to definite results, as one often adds to the other. In the end, such type of research is a delicate matter and should be addressed with uttermost detail.


Creswell, J. (2009).Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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Hall, R. (2008). Applied social research: Planning, designing and conducting real-world research. South Yarra, Vic.: Palgrave Macmillan.

Huling, A. (2012).Domestic workers in Malaysia: Hidden victims of abuse and forced labor. International Law and Politics, 44, 629–680.

Jeyathurai, D. (2012). Labouring bodies, labouring histories: The Malaysian-Indian estate girl. The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 47, 303–323.

Lissitz, R. (2009). The Concept of Validity: Revisions, New Directions, and Applications. Charlotte, NC: IAP.

Murphy, K. (2013). Validity Generalization: A Critical Review. Mahwah, NJ: Taylor & Francis.

Trochim, W.& Donnelly, J. (2008). The research methods knowledge base. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.