Fan Habits and Behavior on Game Day

Subject: Psychology
Pages: 16
Words: 6291
Reading time:
22 min
Study level: PhD

Introduction

Incidents such as the November 23, 2002 fan riot when the Buckeyes (Ohio State University) defeated the wolverines (University of Michigan) is but one of the numerous examples of adverse fan behavior that occur after and even during game day. Examples of such behavior come in the form of fights, shouting, taunting the losers, considerable binge drinking, inappropriate clothing (i.e. going shirtless during the game), and other forms of similarly adverse behavior. The origin of such problems is supposedly alcohol related however there is also something to be said regarding “mob mentality” being an instigator of such actions.

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Studies such as those by Crosby (2006) explain that the origin of such adverse behavioral outbursts during game day can be traced to the “energy” surrounding such games wherein a combination of a sense of camaraderie with the players, the excitement of the game, along with a higher level of emotions result in a propensity for greater levels of emotional outbursts.

From the perspective of Glassman, Braun, Dodd, Miller & Miller (2010) who delved into sporting events and its impact on fan behavior, the source of the various negative behavioral tendencies that were mentioned earlier is based on a type of irrational exuberance that influences the actions of people who attend the games. Irrational exuberance can be defined as the process by which a person models their actions on the behavior of other people without sufficient justification as to why they should act in this particular fashion (Glassman et al., 2010).

Examples of this can be seen in instances of peer pressure, the behavior of “going along with the crowd” and even manifests itself as a form of social conformity wherein a person acts like those around them in order to be associated with a particular group of individuals. In the case of game day behavior, this manifests itself in various rioting behaviors, binge drinking and other types of adverse group activities which come about through irrational exuberance. When irrational exuberance enters into the picture, people simply do not think of the consequences of their actions and act in a manner that is based on group behavior. This of course is a potentially disastrous type of behavioral predisposition given the volatility of “mob mentality” which the fan riot on the grounds of Ohio State University has shown.

It should be noted though that these behavioral predispositions are not evident in all sporting events. In their examination of the various franchises of the MLB, NBA, NFL and NHL, Glassman, Braun, Reindl & Whewell (2011) pointed to the fact that while there was rowdy fan behavior at times, it did not escalate to the same levels as those seen during game day for collegiate level franchises (Glassman et al., 2011). However, Glassman et al. (2011) did point out that the same behavioral predisposition was evident in games involving soccer in South America and Europe where mob mentality often resulted in post game rioting in various soccer games.

In trying to explain why this occurs, Glassman,, Werch, Jobli & Bian (2007) posted that there may be environmental facilitators of irrational exuberance which influence people at such games to act in an adverse manner which are not present at the MLB, NBA, NFL and NHL to considerable degree. Glassman et al. (2010) point to the possibility that the accessibility of alcohol in such games results in a lowering of inhibitions which, when combined with irrational exuberance, results in the adverse fan behavior that was noted early on.

From an ethical marketing perspective, if the assertions of Glassman are correct involving alcohol being a precursor towards negative fan behavior and rioting, then practices involving the promotion of alcohol sales to students by companies and local bars alike during game day should be stopped in order to prevent the industry from contributing towards a form of socially adverse behavior. On the other end of the spectrum, if the assertions of Glassman are wrong and the problem is more in line with mob mentality, then there really would not be a problem with marketing the sale of alcohol during games. The necessity of understanding the origins of such a problem is necessary given the need for proper marketing ethics.

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Based on the perspective of Des Rosier et al. (2013) alcohol and its capacity to lower an individual’s inhibitions is one of the main problems when it comes to rowdy game day behavior. As such, the best solution according to Des Rosier et al. (2013) would be to simply prevent the sale of alcohol before and during game day to university students as well as prevent its consumption during the game itself.

Examples of such preventive measures can be seen in the activities of the University of Michigan, UCLA, the University of Texas as well as the University of West Virginia wherein stringent measures have been applied to curb alcohol consumption during game day in order to prevent students from becoming inebriated during the event. The end result has actually been relatively successful given that adverse student behaviors during home games has actually been reduced to the point that there has been fewer riots and sudden outbursts of fighting between the attendees.

On the other end of the spectrum, studies such as those by (Glassman et al., 2011) claim that it is more of a mob mentality that influences negative fan behavior rather than alcohol on its own. What must be understood is that the audience to such games are not limited to the students of the University itself but also extend to local residents in and around the University premises, the families of the players and University personnel.

As such, not all individuals who participate in disorderly conduct during the event are inebriated. Negative behaviors in this case refer to incidents where audience members act in a disorderly conduct such as, but not limited to, the following behaviors: shouting profanities, going topless to the event, insulting the members of the opposing team, showcasing lewd behavior, and other similar types of conduct (Glassman, Dodd, Sheu, Rienzo & Wagenaar, 2010).

One way of resolving such an issue in various Universities was to implement a code of conduct that all audience members must adhere to when attending the games. Such a code of conduct would focus on prevent adverse behaviors that would cast the attendance of such games in a negative light with violations of set rules being punishable by severe sanctions from the University. The reasoning behind the imposition of severe sanctions is based on the necessity of curtailing the behavior in such a way that audience members would actively obey the codes of conduct instead of merely taking it into consideration (Kavussanu, 2006).

The problem with merely suggesting a manner in which the audience should act during the games leaves it open for them to still act in an irresponsible fashion. By implementing a system of punishment, this creates a more effective means of discouraging adverse behavior which in turn would create a better viewing environment for all other parties (Kavussanu, 2006).

When examining the various viewpoints regarding the origin of negative fan behavior and habits during games and what methods can be implemented to prevent them, it can be seen that there are numerous opposing viewpoints to take into consideration. Does the marketing and sale of alcohol result in negative behavior or is merely the “energy” and mob mentality of a game day that manifests such behaviors. Understanding the origin of such behaviors is important given the necessity of avoiding adverse behavioral activities from occurring during games.

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Aim for this study is to

To examine whether the marketing and sale of alcohol result in negative behavior or is merely the “energy” and mob mentality of a game day that manifests such behaviors.

The Objectives of this study

  1. To analyze the impact of alcohol on game day behaviors
  2. Importance of marketing ethos in the promotion and sale of alcoholic beverages during game day
  3. The Impact of cognitive dissonance and mob mentality on game day audiences

Conceptual framework

From a methodological perspective, I have chosen the document analysis approach coupled with a focus group to better examine whether the marketing and sale of alcohol result in negative behavior or is merely the “energy” and mob mentality of a game day that manifests such behaviors. The value of a document analysis and the importance of a focus group is that it allows the researcher the opportunity to closely scrutinize a very narrow subject.

A case study is the study of the particularity and complexity of a single case, coming to understand its activity within important circumstances. I hope to use an epistemological approach to the case study portion of the research. Being able to closely interact with the study participants will allow me to better understand the processes and procedures utilized by local companies. By understanding all options available to local companies in promoting and selling alcohol during game day and closely interacting with the various employees and managers of the companies examined, the researcher hopes to make some definitive conclusions as to what processes can be implemented in order to prevent the various adverse behaviors that were observed.

Document Analysis

As explained by Merriam (2009), a research study that relies almost entirely on academic literature without other methods of external data collection runs the risk of being confined primarily to the results exhibited by the research studies utilized (Merriam 2009, pp 135-165). This can result in a study that is severely constrained in terms of the number of factors that it is capable of encompassing especially in situations where the research subject that is being examined is focused on a narrowly specific topic (Merriam 2009, pp 135-165).

On the other hand, relying purely on academic literature in order to investigate a particular study does have its advantages since it reduces the amount of time need during the initial stages of preliminary research and enables the research to more effectively justify the results presented by indicating that they had already been verified by previous researchers (Merriam 2009, pp 135-165). It is based on this that this research project will primarily focus on document based research as the method of examination for this study.

Study Limitations

The primary limitation of this study is that it relies on document based research as the source for all the information and views that will be presented. The use of other methods of research and analysis such as a survey, narrative analysis, or other forms of research will be eschewed in favor of focusing entirely on the collected data and results of other researchers. Merriam (2009) elaborates on document based research by stating that document based methods of analysis primarily concerns itself with an examination of various academic texts in order to draw conclusions on a particular topic (Merriam 2009, pp 139-165).

While each method of analysis does have its own level of strengths such as in the case of a narrative analysis that enables a researcher to utilize learning and adaptation approaches in order to examine various types of data, it should be noted that a document analysis is far easier to do and has a higher degree of academic veracity as compared to narrative based research which can often result in mistaken conclusions (Merriam 2009, pp 32-165).

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Another limitation of the research in this paper is that it focuses primarily on game day habits and behaviors of fans. The reason behind this is connected to the desire of the researcher to focus on the problems that are brought about by such behaviors and habits, such alcohol or mob mentality.

Dissertation outline

The dissertation will consist of the following parts:

  • Chapter 1 will contain the introduction, background of the study, the study limitations as well as its aims and objectives.
  • Chapter 2 will consist of a literature review
  • Chapter 3 will consist of the methodology that will be utilized in the study as well as the means by which data will be collected.
  • Chapter 4 will contain the results of the study and will discuss the implications of the results.
  • Chapter 5 will consist of the conclusion and recommendation section of the paper.

Review of Related Literature

Application of the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance on Fan Behavior during Game Day

It is my belief that cognitive dissonance theory best represents how behavior and cognition interact to influence attitudes resulting in the behavior of fans during game day. This theoretical concept has its basis on the fact that people in general are creatures of habit and, as such, they tend to seek a certain degree of consistency in their lives and daily behavior (Awa & Nwuche, 2010).

From a marketing perspective, cognitive dissonance theory is applied by Awa & Nwuche (2010) by showing how purchasing behavior is often predictive and repetitive in that people tend to develop the predilection to patronize products and services that they are familiar with. For example, one of the main reasons why credit card companies tend to have booths on University campuses during events despite University students having low levels of income is connected to cognitive dissonance theory wherein they want to be the first type of credit card they use resulting in a greater likelihood of card patronage for that specific brand,

Not only that, humans in general are social creatures resulting in their desire to associate and mingle in order to satisfy the innate desire to interact and communicate with other people. It is based on this that when an individual is presented with a new social situation or idea (in this case attending game day), they tend to focus on previously learned social behavior in order satisfy the dissonance that they are presented with (Awa & Nwuche, 2010).

Lorant et al. (2013) explains that one of the negative aspects of college/university celebrations is that it is often associated with the consumption of alcoholic drinks. This was noted by a poll conducted by their study wherein various University students were asked what they would normally associate with a college party or college level celebrations. It was seen that more than 85% of the respondents associated the consumption of alcoholic drinks as an inherent aspect of celebrations and various occasions they took part in both on and off-campus with their friends and associates.

Other studies such as those by Buscemi et al. (2011) explain that the tendency for repetitive and habitual alcohol consumption is based on cognitive dissonance theory and socially learned behavior wherein in order to satisfy the dissonance in what they perceive to be a familiar situation (i.e. a school event or celebration) they focus on what they believe satisfies their desire for consistency, in this case alcohol consumption during the game.

Wells (2010) postulates that the resulting consumption of alcohol can have a “liberating” effect on the attitudes and predispositions of students during the game day events resulting in a greater degree of susceptibility towards outside suggestive stimuli. This means that students become more susceptible towards the concept of “mob mentality” when consuming alcohol which creates the various negative behavioral issues that can be seen during game day with the worse outcomes usually coming in the form of a fan riot.

Social control theory developed by Travis Hirschi specially states that all individuals actually have the potential to develop adverse social tendencies, however, it is the “bond” they share with society whether in the form of friendships, recognition of societal rules and norms of conduct, parental influences etc. that prevent them from actually developing such a behavior (Payne & Salotti, 2007). Hirschi goes on further to explain that it is actually quite normal for an individual to go against the norm (in this cases this comes in the form of fights, shouting, taunting the losers, considerable binge drinking, inappropriate clothing and other forms of similarly adverse behavior) however they are prevented from doing so because of a distinct fear of the impact of this type of activity on their position in society (Payne & Salotti, 2007).

The concept of fear in this particular case comes in the form of the loss of societal bonds, careers, social relationships and other connections that individuals have come to rely on due to a person’s inherent nature to rely on social connections to retain a stable psychological state (Payne & Salotti, 2007). In other words people are normally so dependent on social bonds and maintaining them that the thought of losing them after committing a particular action is sufficient enough to deter them from committing an act that would be frowned upon by their social peers (Payne & Salotti, 2007).

Taking this into consideration, it must be questioned as to why the behavior of fans at times become socially adverse during game day which results in the likelihood of their bonds with society being severed due to their behavior. One possible reason might be due to the consumption of alcoholic beverages which has been shown to impact an individual’s normal cognitive processes to such an extent that they would display behaviors that they normally would not.

On the other hand, another way of viewing the case of the student attendees during game day and the manifestation of adverse behaviors can be seen in the case of cognitive dissonance and social control theory which act as a means of both creating the desire for consistency and stability in that individual’s life while at the same time maintaining their place in society which is also an aspect of social control which leads to the behavioral predisposition and cognitive influence. From the perspective of Wei et al. (2010), student behaviors during college/University events are in part influenced by their desire to be “part of the crowd” or to be well liked by their peers.

Consistency under cognitive dissonance in this particular case comes in the form of emulating the behavior of people around them in order to show “school spirit” and to better immerse one’s self into the crowd and be considered “a part of the group”. Taking this into consideration, this can help to explain why adverse behaviors are at times displayed by seemingly ordinary members of the audience. They display such behaviors since they believe that it would result in a greater degree of group acceptance towards them. This shows how the desire for consistency in the form of maintaining one’s place in society impacts the manner in which a person’s behaviors are expressed.

When examining the points of view that have been expressed so far in this section, it can be argued that the negative behaviors shown by students during game day such as fighting, shouting, taunting the losers, considerable binge drinking, inappropriate clothing (i.e. going shirtless during the game), and other forms of similarly adverse behavior can either be correlated to alcohol consumption which makes them more susceptible towards displaying adverse social behaviors or their behavior can be associated merely with their desire to be “part of the crowd” which is also a type of cognitive dissonance.

At this point in the research, it still is not quite clear as to what specific factor clearly influences students to act in the manner seen during the November 23, 2002 fan riot at Ohio state, as such, the next part of this paper will delve into the current marketing ethos behind the sale of alcohol to students and the studies which associate it with the types of behavior that come about through its consumption in order to better understand its impact.

Ethos behind the Sale of Alcohol to College Students during Game Day

The occurrence of MEAC special events is often times considered a boon to local alcohol merchants given the increase in sales in alcohol during this particular period of time. Studies such as those by Ames et al. (2010) show that alcohol sales in and around college campuses increases by roughly 120% during special college occasions, especially game day, wherein students buy copious amounts of alcohol during this particular period of time in order to celebrate the occasion as college students are apt to do.

Various companies and local establishments even go out of their way to advertise their alcoholic products in the form of banner ads near the campus, taking out advertisements in the school newspaper and even booths being placed near the campus that promote certain alcoholic drinks via free t-shirt giveaways. The marketing campaigns involving alcohol during MEAC game days are endemic given the sheer level of profitability that companies and local establishments gain from increased student consumption.

It should be noted though that social influences, such as the consumption of alcohol, have the potential to create both positive and negative outcomes based on the ethos behind their creation. What must be understood is that Ethos refers to the way in which a person (in this case the various bars, companies and establishments that sell alcohol) portrays themselves in an argument, in a sense that it is a method in which persuaders present an “image” to people that they are attempting to persuade (Stirling & Felin, 2013).

This particular “image” refers to a persuaders “character” in the sense that a person is attempting to persuade another person of the righteousness of their statements based on their inherent character. What can be seen during game day marketing campaigns by local establishments and alcohol companies is that the ethos behind their marketing campaign focuses on showcasing the consumption of alcohol as a perfectly normal activity to be done both during the game and after it as well. The marketing campaigns even go so far as to associate the behavior as being a “cool” and “hip” type of behavior that is done by students that are popular or by people that want to be accepted by their respective social groups.

Through the work of Mcshane, Bradlow & Berger (2012), it can be seen that social influences utilize a variety of ethos as a means of justifying their intended outcomes. Normally, such types of ethos are presented in such a way that they appeal to a wide audience and focus on a specific trait or idea that people can rally behind. In the case of game day alcohol consumption it is the “cool factor” (i.e. the behavioral predilection to desire to be associated with a particular social group) that influences people to purchase and consume alcohol during such events.

However, as seen in the study of Ames et al. (2010), alcohol inebriation often results in people that are too drunk to direct their focus towards an immediate and feasible outlet instead of an abstract and hard to understand concept. This means that in cases where a team loses or the outcome of the game is disagreeable, the end result is that viewers that are drunk or inebriated have a high tendency to express their displeasure via erratic if not violent activities that they normally would not take a part in. The same can be said in instances where they display generally unruly behavior during the game itself in the form of shouting, cursing and other similar types of practices.

What must be understood is that It is in the way that marketing tactics are packaged and presented to the public under varying types of ethos that changes the perception of the public to the idea that is being presented. The method in which the idea is “packaged” drastically changes the perception of the audience towards accepting the idea itself or the validity of its statements (Stirling & Felin, 2013). In the case of justifying the sale of alcohol to college students, local vendors and alcohol manufacturers merely explain that they are providing a service and it is no different to the alcohol consumption seen in other sports venues around the U.S.

What they fail to mention though is that the in such venues the amount of alcohol that can be consumed is generally limited given strict restrictions involving bringing outside food into the venue as well as the high prices of alcohol at such events. In comparison, Koordeman et al. (2012) explains that in the campuses of several MEAC schools, alcohol can be easily bought at nearby locations and students at times bring copious amounts of alcohol with them to the event.

It was even noted that some students even attended game day events inebriated from prior consumption of alcoholic drinks resulting in a greater propensity for “wild” behavior. When examining the current marketing situation involving marketing alcohol to college students during game day, it can literally be called a recipe for disaster given the high state of emotions brought about by the game, the possibility for the development of a mob mentality and the lack of sufficient cognitive ability given the inebriated state of the minds of some of the audience members.

While the previous example shows the adverse potential of marketing ethos, it should also be noted that ethos can be utilized to promote righteous causes. For example, the current environmental conservation movement is a type of social influence that was brought about by the ethos of the need to protect the environment for future generations. Such an ethos has resulted in a gradual change in societal perceptions regarding proper utilization of renewable and nonrenewable resources.

The end resulting has been a positive social influence which has preserved the environment for future generations. When taking both factors into consideration, it can be seen that while marketing ethos does have the potential to create negative ramifications (i.e. in this case encourage adverse behaviors during game day), they can also act as a means of positive social behavior. This all depends on the type of ethos that is at the core of the societal influence that is being implemented.

From this section it can be seen that corporations and local establishments have a vested interest in the inebriation of college audiences during game day celebrations given the increase in their level of profit. The studies that have been examined show that there is a correlation between alcohol consumption and a greater likelihood of adverse social behavior which could lead to the various post game riots that have occurred after game days in the MEAC.

Methodology

Research methodology

This section aims to provide information on how the study will be conducted and the rationale behind employing the discussed methodologies and techniques towards augmenting the study’s validity. In addition to describing the research design, the theoretical framework, and the population and sample size that will be used in this study, this section will also elaborate on instrumentation and data collection techniques, validity and reliability, data analysis, and pertinent ethical issues that may emerge in the course of undertaking this study.

Research framework

The research will correlate the views of college students and other local residents with their current experiences in various MEAC game days in order to properly determine whether alcohol is a contributing factor towards unruly behavior.

Thus, the following questions will guide the study in examine the identified issues:

  • What is going on?
  • What is the main problem within the industry for those involved?
  • What is currently being done to resolve this issue?
  • Are there possible alternatives to the current solution?

The researcher will utilize grounded theory during the data analysis stage of the study, the research will seek to determine the current state of alcohol consumption during games, whether significant problems exist, what local companies are doing to address such issues and, if possible, develop alternatives to current methods have been considered. The researcher will design the research questions in such a way that they delve into the opinions of the students and other local residents in order to better understand what factors influence their behavior during game day. The needed information will be extracted through a carefully designed set of questions whose aim is to determine how a particular person’s experience with alcohol or what they observed during game day itself results in the creation of particular types of adverse behavior.

It is assumed by the researcher that there can be an effective correlation between the current issue of unruly fan behavior and the sale of alcohol during games given the findings in the literature review. Through the use of this particular approach in accomplishing the study, the researcher will be able to adequately examine the processes utilized within the companies and local establishments that will be examined. It is expected that by following the indicated framework of approach during the examination process of the paper, the researcher will be able to succinctly address the research objectives of the study.

Study Concerns

This methodology exposes the participants to an assortment of risks that need to be taken into consideration during the research process. The main risk the participants will encounter is if any of their answers that criticize or indicate dissatisfaction with their fellow student’s activity leaks. This may have consequences on the attitude and opinion of other students towards them and can result in victimization. To eliminate this risk, the responses will be kept in an anonymous location. This way, the only way to access the information will be through a procedure that involves the researcher. The project thus observes research ethics in sampling as well as during data collection process.

Results and discussion

Introduction

This section examines the results of the data collection process accomplished by the researcher. As such, a comparison will be created between the research data accumulated and the various facts and arguments presented within the literature review section in order to find any significant correlations between the practices explained by the studies examined and the types of processes implemented.

Do you often see people drinking during game day?

Yes No
Students 25
Local Residents 20
Others 5

Do you believe that there is a connection between alcohol and unruly behavior?

Yes No
Students 25
Local Residents 20
Others 5

Do you think audience members act out due to mob mentality?

Yes No
Students 10 15
Local Residents 8 12
Others 5

Do you believe that by taking alcohol away from campus during game day that incidents related to unruly behavior during these days would go down?

Yes No
Students 25
Local Residents 9 11
Others 5

Do you believe that alcohol companies and local bars should be more responsible on regarding the days they sell alcohol to prevent unruly behavior?

Yes No
Students 25
Local Residents 20
Others 5

Should the school take more proactive steps in preventing unruly behavior by banning alcohol from being brought on the campus during game day?

Yes No
Students 25
Local Residents 20
Others 5

Results

Based on an examination of the results of the study, it can clearly be seen that there is a definite observable correlation between alcohol consumption and unruly fan behavior. It can be seen through the focus group results that they have observed alcohol consumption as being the prime culprit in inciting unruly behavior during game day activities and, as such, its distribution and sale during these particular days needs to be minimized in order to prevent problematic events and behaviors from manifesting.

Conclusion

Based on the information that has been presented so far, it is the assumption of the researcher that the cause of unruly fan behavior during MEAC games is related to the continued consumption of alcohol. The problem really stems from the continued belief that the people that run companies and local establishments will continue to utilize ethical methods of conduct (i.e. not promote rioting) by ensuring that they do not sell alcohol at times where it will most likely result in adverse behaviors such as rioting. The first problem in this case is the assumption of universities that companies and local bars will select and train ethical employees who will always do the right thing.

A survey conducted by various prosecuted individuals serving time for white collar related crime all reveal that the source of unethical behavior is not whether a person is ethical or not in comparison to other employees but rather if the opportunity is there and there are no apparent means of control. As it was seen in the previous sections of this paper involving marketing ethos, the fact of the matter is so long as the opportunity is present; it is likely that an alcohol company or local bar will market its products regardless of the potential problems that may come about as a result of the sale of copious amounts of alcohol during high emotion events.

In such cases where there is no opportunity and stringent means of control exist, even apparently unethical companies have no choice but to conform to an ethical method of doing business. It is based on this that during MEAC games, Universities that host them should place a liquor ban on the sale of all types of alcoholic beverages during the game as well as prohibit individuals from brining alcohol to the game as well as prevent clearly inebriated students from attending. Such strategy has already been implemented in the case of the University of Michigan, UCLA, the University of Texas as well as the University of West Virginia resulting in fewer cases of unruly fan behavior with next to no student riots as of late during game day celebrations or losses.

Resolving the Issue

In order to resolve the issue, this paper recommends the use of influential pop culture icons such as YouTube stars which are well known and popular among college students so as to influence them towards better forms of behavior during MEAC games. Various forms of consumable media in the form of print ads, billboards, commercials, online marketing campaigns and a plethora of other types of advertising initiatives are rife with the images of various popular individuals showing just how prevalent product endorsements are in the advertising campaigns of numerous companies.

The logic behind this particular method of advertising stems from the fact that people are more likely to purchase a product or utilize a particular service if they see someone else happily using it, studies even show that the likelihood of product patronage goes up astronomically if it is seen that a pop culture icon is utilizing a particular type of product. This speaks volumes of the influence of pop culture on consumer buying behavior however it is also indicative of the fact that companies are aware of what causes consumers to purchase a particular product and act accordingly in order to exploit it.

Yet, the inherent problem with using popular culture celebrities is the fact that they are often quite expensive and demand millions of pounds in fees. An alternative strategy that this paper has devised that overcomes this particular problem utilizes YouTube stars as a means of promoting proper behavior among students during the MEAC. On average, YouTube stars such as Ray William Johnson, Philip DeFranco, Shane Dawson, Smosh and others like them often generate millions of views per video, greater even than some shows on cable television. YouTube stars in general do not demand a lot of money for placing ads within their show; it is usually the case that by providing a promotional code or a link in the description of the video, the company that created an advertising contract with them usually pays on the basis on the number of clicks.

This averages to around $1,000 or less on select advertising and promotional deals; this is a vast difference when compared to the millions demanded by A-list stars within Hollywood. You also have to take into consideration the fact that YouTube stars can come from a variety of different countries wherein they have a distinct level of popularity with the local populace. Based on this, a marketing campaign could spend half the amount of money that would normally go to an A-list star yet reach 20 times the intended audience demographic by utilizing a select marketing strategy devoted to using YouTube stars from specific regions that cater to the audience demographics that the campaign is attempting to appeal to.

Possible Issues to Contend With

Humans are creatures of habit in that they enjoy daily routines and standards of procedure that do not constantly change on a daily basis, it is only in instances that change is introduced that it is met with significant resistance due to the inherent desire to keep things as they were. Such a case is often seen in various universities wherein changes implemented by the school is often met with significant resistance due to the desire of students to retain the operational procedures that they have grown accustomed to.

What you have to understand is that when students are exposed to a particular procedural element for daily operations over an extended period of time they develop a certain sense of complacency in that they tend to prefer the current way of doing things (in this case bringing alcohol to games).

Not only that, it is often the case that students are often not informed as to why specific changes are occurring in the first place which results in them feeling threatened. The end result is that students tend to associate change within the school as having the potential for them to lose their freedoms as a direct result of the changes being implemented. Students in certain colleges tend to oppose certain degrees of changes involving school processes due to the perception that such changes would eliminate their rights. Even if such changes would make their lives easier, changes within the school still continue to be met with significant degrees of skepticism and fear. This is a problem that needs to be properly addressed in order to ensure that there would be a broad acceptance of the new policies involving no alcohol consumption during game day.

Reference List

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Buscemi, J., Martens, M. P., Murphy, J. G., Yurasek, A. M., & Smith, A. E. (2011). Moderators of the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Alcohol Consumption in College Students. Journal Of American College Health, 59(6), 503-509.

Koordeman, R., Anschutz, D. J., & Engels, R. E. (2012). The Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in College Students: An Experimental Study. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 36(5), 874-880.

Lorant, V., Nicaise, P., Soto, V., & d’Hoore, W. (2013). Alcohol drinking among college students: college responsibility for personal troubles. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1-9.

Mcshane, B., Bradlow, E., & Berger, J. (2012). Visual Influence and Social Groups. Journal Of Marketing Research (JMR), 49(6), 854-871.

Payne, A., & Salotti, S. (2007). A Comparative Analysis of Social Learning and Social Control Theories in the Prediction of College Crime. Deviant Behavior, 28(6), 553-573.

Stirling, W. C., & Felin, T. (2013). Game Theory, Conditional Preferences, and Social Influence. Plos ONE, 8(2), 1-11.

Wei, J., Barnett, N. P., & Clark, M. (2010). Attendance at alcohol-free and alcohol-service parties and alcohol consumption among college students. Addictive Behaviors, 35(6), 572-579.

Wells, G. M. (2010). The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption. Journal Of American College Health, 58(4), 295-304.