Fire Service Risk Management Plan in the UK and Iran

Abstract

This paper compares risk management planning in the fire service in the UK and Iran. According to Rasbash (2004, p. 12), a risk management plan is described as a document prepared to predict hazards, evaluate impacts, and explain responses to concerns. In addition, it also covers risk management matrix. On the other hand, a risk is defined as an indefinite occurrence which could have either a negative or positive impact. Risk is intrinsic in any kind of society and policy makers should consider risks constantly so as to develop proper strategies in addressing them. One of the most risky events in any organisation or society is fire. Fire outbreaks cause much devastating, effects ranging from destruction of properties and ecosystem, resulting in loss of lives. Therefore, fire service organisations have been developed in all countries worldwide.

According to Smalley (2005), fire service is described as a public or private institution that offers firefighting and rescue services in a particular jurisdiction including a metropolis, province, or fire safety district. Generally, a fire service comprises of one or several fire stations, which could be operated by professional firefighters or volunteers or even a combination of both. In addition, a fire service could also offer a fire safety or fire avoidance services. In these services, firefighters could make a visit to different households and offer their proficient fire safety advices or fix fire gadgets such as smoke alarms to the families. In most nations, fire protection or preclusion is perceived as a significant responsibility for the fire service, since the very act of preventing the fire occurrence can apparently save lives. Most civic or metropolitan fire service sectors also conduct an implementation role, to make sure that commercial houses such as offices, hotel rooms, workshops, and many more are fitted with enough fire protections to make sure that during fire outbreak, individuals can securely relinquish the buildings without any injury. However, fire service also faces risk along the line of their duties, which makes it necessary to have proper risk management plans.

Introduction

The fire service available in the UK function under distinct jurisdictive and organizational structures in wales, Northern Ireland, England and Scotland. Fire service sector have experienced substantial modifications since the start of the 21st century. This has been impelled by the decentralization of the federal goverment powers, new set of legislations as well as a transformation to effective measures with regard to terrorism attcks and fears. One of the facilitator for the transformation arose from the 2002 write-up of an evaluation of the fire service in the UK, which was conducted by Professor Sir George Bain. His review was entitled ‘independent review of the Fire service’, and it resulted into fast modifications to the fire and rescue services in the UK. Laws concerning fire services in both England and Wales started operating in 1865 when an act reffered to as Fire Brigade Act was enacted. It took the obligation of providing fire services from insurance to corporations. During that time, there were approxiamtely 1,600 brigades all over the united kingdom.

In Iran, fire services are provided by firefighting organizations. Creation of these institutions have been facilitated by advancements in technology and industry throughout the last decade. The first major firefighting service in Iran was started in 1842 when Tabriz was inhabited by the Russian troops (Houtsma, 1993). Currently, there are several firefighting organizations distributed all over Iran. The aims and objectives of this paper is to illustrate a comparison between risk management in the fire service in the United Kingdom and Iran. This paper is based on a research conduceted through reviewing already established works on this topic. Some of the research works that have been presented that focus on this issue is reviewed to help in providing a more insight. Finally, the results of the reserch is provided. Even though, there are several issues discussed with several authors, which present diverse views in this topic, only publications that help in illustrating a comparison in the risk management planning in the fire service in the UK and Iran is analyzed.

In line with Rasbash (2004), a risk management plan entails an examination of the expected risks with both high and low effects, and extenuation plans to help in curtailing the harmful impacts of an unpredictable event should it occur; like fire outbreak in this case. Risk management plans have to be revised sporadically by the professionals and policy makers to evade having the study become old and not insightful of the real potential hazard. One of the most important elements of risk management plans is the inclusion of a risk strategy. Generally, there are four major approaches, with several disparities. These include; risk avoidance which involves strategies to avoid the risk, risk vindication to diminish the likely impact through intermediary steps, risk acceptance that involves taking the chance of the harmful effect, And Transferring of risk, which involves subcontracting the risk to a third entity that can manage the consequences. For instance, this could be accomplished financially by employing insurance contracts or prevarication dealings or operationally by subcontracting an activity. Risk management is considered an indefinable term, and it raises contemplations of safety surveys, invasive checkups, subjective regulations, as well as consequences for desecrations. Even though risk management has been largely embraced by the private industry because they realize the importance of proper risk management plans, the fire service has conventionally assumed a more inconsiderate approach toward this subject.

A good risk managements plan will provide a guarantee that objectives set by the fire service will be achieved, unpredictable events will have more injurious impacts, and generally set goals are likely to be met (Grant & Hoover 1994, p. 92). It does not eradicate risks; rather it helps in managing these risks to minimize their devastating impacts. The prospective advantages of a proper risk management plans are: supporting tactical and fire service planning, assisting in the efficient utilization of resources, enhancing an uninterrupted improvement in service delivery, minimizing jolts and undesirable shocks, rapid clutch of fresh prospects, improving proper communication between fire service providers and the public and encouraging stakeholders in the fight against fire risks.

Methodology

The preliminary phases of this research involved visiting three diverse fire and rescue areas in both the United Kingdom and Iran to get a clear picture of the present practices regarding fire risk management planning undertakings. In the course of such visits, semi-structured discussions were employed in developing a comprehension of an integrated risk management planning associated with undertakings and the tools utilized by the Fire risk and rescue services. In the United Kingdom, the three fire and rescue areas visited include: Fire rescue and service station 1 located in South west of England, station 2 in East Midland and finally station3 located in Scotland. In Iran, the three stations visited were located in the Shiraz municipality Firefighting and protection service society. The results obtained from these stations will be presented later. In addition, much of the secondary research was also conducted in the Library and internet.

The research will adopt purposive research technique/method that holds requisite incentives to ensure the realization of credible results. The technique is relevant in ensuring that, the purposive nature of the study (risk management planning in the fire service in the U.K. and Iran) is achieved. This research will go through research design, literature review, primary data collection, data compilation, analysis, and derivation of the intended findings. This will involve both primary and secondary methods where raw and established data will e utilized respectively. Purposive research technique will provide the researcher with superior study mechanism that is relevant in executing investigations with well-orchestrated objectives. The technique ensures that the purposive nature of the topic under study is understood adequately. This will help in identifying viable sampling techniques including respondent identification and delivery of credible information.

As indicated, the primary methods will help in identifying resources and respondents. This will be based on professional judgment and relevancy in providing pertinent information. In the primary context, the study will be executed successfully by applying the designed techniques comprehensively (Flick 2011, p. 98). Consequently, the research method used will provide potential guidelines to facilitate the identification of credible data collection techniques. On secondary methods, electronic materials from credible sources will be used. This will incorporate the adoption of superior data gathering procedures where use of questionnaires and electronic resources will be applied in this context (Goddard & Melville, S 2001, p. 55). The questionnaires will be presented randomly to the selected sample size. Indeed, the techniques will provide superior and detailed information based on the research topic formulated. For this research, a review of established works available online as well as library was selected as they were considered appropriate.

Justification of this methodology

As indicated, the methods hold immense relevance and significance in driving purposive research ventures. They give the researcher a superior guideline and freedom to choose the sampling size, population, and data collection procedures based on his/her professional judgment and relevance. According to Russell & Purcell (2009, Pg. 73), a research methodology is very significant in any dissertation not only so as to accomplish the set aims and objectives but also collect sufficient data. The greatest advantage of using online research method is the instantaneous accessibility of the required information. There are several databases with much information that could be accessed any time. Information from various publications such as articles, books, as well as scholarly journals written by professionals on the subject could be accessed easily. The library provided the best source of primary information available in the books, newspapers, original diaries and maps. Actually, library provided more primary source of information for this research compared to the internet. There are several reasons for selecting library as a major approach for this research. Besides the availability of lots of reference publications such as several books, professional encyclopedias and magazines, there also librarian assistants and numerous computers to use (Mann 2005, Pg. 102)

Even though internet and library provided good sources of information on fire service in the two countries, there were some challenges encountered with these methods. For instance some of the articles and journals found in the internet have never been assessed or carefully screened by professionals. This implies that some information from these sources could be false, not accurate or not valid. Materials available online are highly disorganised, prompting much research or excellent skills in conducting research to find the most appropriate information. Besides, there is a charge paid for accessing articles that proved costly for some materials. Equally, library research also takes much time since several books and publications have to be checked from time to time to ensure that the information is in consistent with the subject matter. Some materials also could not be found in the library because they are lost, misplaced or borrowed.

To overcome these challenges, careful assessment of the material used for research was taken into consideration. In order to assess an appropriate source of information the author of the particular publication was analyzed. In addition, the author was checked if he or she has a relation with any trustworthy institution and whether the publication is his or her own or acquired from somewhere else. Finally, the date of review was considered to find out if the material is outdated or it is current. Adequate amount of time was allocated for this research so as to find appropriate materials from the internet and the library.

According to Keith et al (2007), researchers have to apply rigorous judgment in making appropriate decisions with regard to which library or internet source is used in a research. The core issue in the suitability of any source used for this research is relevance to the topic and suitability for this particular research and explicit research questions. In considering the suitability of any source of information for this research there were some factors that were considered. These include the scope, audience and timeliness. The scope involved careful analysis of the topics as well as subtopics covered by the source and the universal impression of the subject matter. The target audience considered the intentional readers of that particular publication and how best it could be in line with the expectations and the purposes of this research. The crucial factor for fruitful assessment of an internet information research source, just like any other study sources, involves applying careful reading as well as intelligent thinking about the content.

The proposed study purposively chose all the samples within the chosen parameters. After this purposive selection, there was an application of random sampling procedures with equal chances and opportunities given to all the possible partakers into the proposed research. Application of various statistical formulas and inferences including the use of the Fischer’s formula in determining the sample size requirement will be applicable. The exclusion and inclusion criteria will therefore depend on whether the research is to be extensive or not. The samples will be chosen due to their intensive involvement with the fire problems and solutions within a relatively new environment.

Due to this factor, they are reportedly bound to experience notable challenges within the UK and Iran’s fire systems, and particularly, on the topic of effective comprehension of fire problems. Both the qualitative and quantitative approaches of research were applicable in the proposed study. This mixed methodology was critical in enhancing the triangulation objective and determining the best applicable strategies for unveiling the results. The quantitative approaches considerably involved the application of such mechanisms like the structured questionnaires and general questions. The approach of secondary methods was widely applicable for most studies across different investigative fields. This is mainly because the approach has the competency to offer the unique and powerful depths of the distinct outcomes and results.

Literature Review

A lot of research has been done in the field of risk evaluation and management not only with regard to fire but also on other emergencies. However, much of these works have largely been based on determining the likelihood of risks as well as their effects measured in terms of destruction of properties and lives. This has been done by modeling fire progression and spread. In the United Kingdom, development of fire service risk management planning at present is based on the incorporation of the routine and usefulness of prevention and security measures applied in constructions. This is done with an aim of allocating equitable resources for better services. However, less attention has been focused on this approach.

In recent times, an effort was made by the department of communities and local government, the home office, and the office of the Deputy Prime Minister carried out an investigation on evaluation of risk in line with the creating suitable system for planning Fire service Emergency Cover. Relatively, this research work gave rise to the advancement of a toolkit to evaluate risk, plan for suitable response action, and model the magnitudes of resource utilization. Nevertheless, the new necessities of an integrated risk management planning in the UK that require an all-inclusive and incorporated method and emphasize on prevention are creating extra research difficulties. Some of these challenges include; Lack of substantiation centered approaches for the evaluation of the efficiency of the prevention and security measures used in various houses, complications in evaluation and forecasting assets, heritage, and human loss, and finally necessity for rational decision making gears to help in selecting the cost effective provision of prevention and protection resources.

Risks that influence structures and threaten the lives of human beings are increasingly becoming key concerns of the 21st century society (Grant & Hoover 1994). Management of these jeopardies and developing appropriate response mechanisms to emergencies like floods, fires, and terrorist attacks is significant and necessitates proper planning so as to effectively guarantee negligible influence on the society. In 2003, the government of the United Kingdom published a white paper titled ‘Our Fire and Rescue Service’. This paper triggered reforms that emphasized on the responsibility of the Fire and rescue service in preventing the occurrence of fires as well as mitigating the impacts. In addition, this paper extended the mandate of fire and rescue service in handling other emanating threats that are associated with change of climate and artificial disasters (Smalley 2005). Consequently, a new constitutional framework is currently available that puts the obligation of producing integrated risk management plans to fire and rescue services. Besides helping in planning for emergencies, this strategy also assists in responding to them.

Even though there is minimal research that has been conducted with regard to the fire services in Iran, there are literatures that touch on this topic. For instance, the department of fire service and rescue services based in Shiraz did a research in the history of the development of firefighting and rescue service in Iran. According to this research progress and developments in the fire service has resulted into a decline in the risk associated with them. This research reveals that a lot of effort has been made to ensure that there is proper risk management planning in the fire service in Iran. In 2003, a research was conducted by Mahdavi, Fallah Shamsi, and Nazari on Forests and rangelands’ wildfire risk zoning using secondary techniques. According to this research wildfire that occurs, mostly, in the forests and rangelands despite their causative factors are regarded as an ecological disasters (True 2001).

The management risk employed by the Iranian government in dealing with these disasters majorly includes the risk management planning. According to these researchers, zoning of the natural regions based on their vulnerability to fire or fire risk is significant to prevent the incidences and decreases the disastrous losses that could result from these fires. Therefore a sound fire risk management plans is one of the key factors towards the realization of this factor. In their research, they used a zoning map that focused on the wildfire menace in the forest and rangelands using GIS (Geographic information system), Analytical Hierarchical Processing as well as remote sensing methods. A total area of 196,000 hectares of land positioned in the western parts of Iran was used as a study area (Louis, C 2007).

To be able to plan effectively to reduce risks in the provision of fire services, knowledge of inducing factors are very important. The major factors that contribute to the occurrence of wild fires in Iran is comprised of the present land use or cover, presence of roads and rivers, in addition to physiographic, environmental and anthropogenic themes. They calculated weight for each factor that is likely to result into fire hazard and classified them into different categories. This assisted in the development of a map of factors and production of the eventual map of the wildfire risk zoning.

Lastly, the zoning map of the danger of wildfire that was produced through this process. The map comprised of five different classes of the risk graded from high risk to low risk. The results from the research indicated that 50% and 40% of the fires in this region, originated from the areas that were manifested as high risk and risky areas indicated on the map, correspondingly (Kreimer & Arnold 2003). The outcomes from this research showed a high agreement of the map of wildfire risk developed in the research and the positioning of the fires in the area under research. This study proved very important in this research because could help in predicting well over 90% of the fires taking place in the forest and rangelands. The data from this research is used by the fire risk management and planning not only at regional level but also national levels (Rafilson 2009).

Contextually, Quality Assurance services are always vital for the fire rescue services as they ensure that the life of the general public is safe. Through the application of the quality assurance services, the fire companies will be able to respond to various emergencies on time; hence, prevent casualties that might arise (Grant & Hoover, H 1994). For instance, any fire company will be able to quickly respond to more grievous occurrences. This include when people are captured in buildings, and other rescue operations that require specific skills and equipment. By applying various strategies and techniques, the chances of the casualties occurring will be slim. Moreover, workers of the west Yorkshire fire service will be able to save property and lives citizens.

There are a number of quality assurance services that can be used by the west Yorkshire fire service to ensure that their business, workers and the society at large have access to better services (Great Britain 2006). The company should ensure that it has necessary equipment and machines that can ensure that they are ready to quickly respond to an emergency on time. According to Rafilson (2009) quality assurance services like installing smoke alarms in large organisations, institutions and schools will greatly help through quick response. For instance, the alarms will alert people who are at risk. West Yorkshire fire service will provide thorough training to their members and the public at large to ensure that they are on the safer side (Clark 1991).

The company will also provide adequate measures on how to obtain more information regarding operational risk (IAFC & NFPA 2009, p. 213). For any fire company to achieve its goals and objectives, the community must also pay an important role through active participation in the mentioned processes. On the other hand, the Iran government should also ensure that it recognizes and evaluates some of the areas that are prone to face various risks including fighting fire, solving problems of civil strife, domestic crises of terrorism and chemical seepages and spills. Additionally, the Iran and U.K. government should also work close with the communities and a number of partners within their country and internationally (Clark 1991, p. 60).

The UK government is providing some funds to the company to ensure that they are able to purchase the necessary equipment used fighting various crises (University of Surrey, 2012). Consequently, this will reduce the number of deaths and injuries that might arise in the various disasters. The Iranian fire departments should improve their control rooms to ensure that they are able to receive information from different parts of the country. Therefore, they will be able to respond to the crisis on time and rescue lives and properties. West Yorkshire Fire & Rescue Service has introduced computer application to store their important information and to receive complaints from the local and international community (Shelley, Cole & Markley 2007). In addition, they can easily forecast and manage the availability of their workers.

The other quality assurance systems that can be used by the West Yorkshire Fire & Rescue Service (FRS) in regard to quality enhancement within the organisation is by presenting some fresh command support trucks that can be used to help the incident commanders. Consequently, the commanders will be able to easily handle some of the complicated incidences that might arise (Cote 2004). The commanders will also be able to easily communicate with the fire control operators to ensure that their operation is successful. Basically, nonetheless, property losses due to fire breaks should be averted at all costs. In this context, a fire department is provided by the local administration to ensure that any emergency cases are easily dealt with by a group of dedicated and professional persons. Crowd management, disaster management, and injury management are some of the duties of fire departments. With fire departments playing these crucial roles in Yorkshire, several matters related to the running and services of Yorkshire Fire & Rescue Service departments have been litigated upon. Most of them have been judicial precedents, which have influenced the management, service delivery, and set up of fire departments. A few might not have had an impact, but generally, court decisions being binding to states have forced new legislation as a way of protecting the public (Kreimer & Arnold 2003).

Results

The results obtained from this research indicate that United Kingdom adopts an integrated risk and management planning approach towards firefighting in their jurisdiction. In all the stations visited in the Fire and rescue services regions, an integrated risk and management planning in done as a constituent of their commercial or business planning process. The guidance transcriptions intended for integrated risk and management planning are clearly written and quite easy to apprehend. However, these guidelines are not openly linked to the content and the scope of the plans that takes place in the actual ground. In addition, it was sensed that these guidelines lacks lucidity in comparison to the earlier guidance documents. There have been key modifications in the manner of fire and rescue services plan for delivery of their services, particularly subsequent to the introduction of the integrated risk management planning. The scope of planning progressed from a perspective based, which was subjugated by the operational subjects, to planned approach that focuses at the safety of the community. This concept results into change of outlook within various stations at all ranks creating some pressures associated with allocation of budget for the security of the community and operating charges. It was debated that it is challenging to measure the actual benefits of prevention processes that have been embraced.

There is a disparity in a manner in which the integrated risk management planning is perceived by the community and local government as well as the various fire and rescue services in the regions. The community and local government is in quest for a broadly described impending plan for the fire risk services. However, fire risk services comprise of a comprehensive planning and precise operational consequences. Fire risk services need to preserve some sovereignty and thus assent to the trade-off between the community and local government providing clear guidelines and being too authoritarian. Furthermore, planning for adjacent establishments can be intricate particularly when boundaries overlap and thus risking some regions. Generally, even though fire risk services in the United Kingdom enjoy the autonomy of creating their integrated risk management plans individually, there is some deficiency in the lucidity in the integrated risk management planning process. Therefore it is necessary to adopt appropriate practices in the development of guidelines in the management of fire risk (Kreimer & Arnold 2003, p. 147).

One of the major factors that facilitate fire risk management planning in the United Kingdom is fire safety audit. During fire safety audit, there are audit forms that are used by various stations visited. Station 1 and station 2 used the most current version of the chief fire officer association fire safety audit forms. On the other hand, station 3 used the Scottish Fire safety audit forms. The major variation is that the risk assessment section that exists at the bottom of the audit form is not included in the Scottish Fire safety Audit Form. Station 1 and station 2 employed a GIS based approach for the evaluation of risks and resource planning, while station 3 used a Fire Service Emergency Cover for the same purpose. Equally, staff of station 1 and station 2 interviewed indicated that this approach is very easy to use and was very effective in providing accurate data required. The system could be configured to meet their requirements for any kind of project they need to work on. These systems were very helpful in the planning of adequate resources to be used in management of fire services risk (Barr & Eversole 2003, p. 82).

In Iran, the three stations in Shiraz municipality visited included station 1 which was founded in 1972 in the Horr Square, station 2 in 1977 in Khold-e-Barin Park and finally station 3 founded in station 3 founded in 1979 in Khatoon Square. Shiraz firefighting institute was founded by the firefighting division in the organization of Shiraz municipality. Currently, the organization has a total of thirteen stations located in different areas in Iran. Accordingly, the visit revealed that they have 44 light and heavy duty gadgets, well equipped with wireless communication systems. One of the major strategy that they have put in place at the moment to reduce the risk of fire is the employment of rescue unit. This is to help in combating the firefighting challenges in both ancient urban structures, present buildings and to prevent losses associated with fire risk.

The use of motor vehicles in providing fire services have proved very effective to them with regard to decreasing the responding time during such emergencies. Training is offered by the pertinent personnel (Russell & Purcell 2009). Further interview with the staff from the three stations revealed that nearly 360 qualified and trained personnel have been employed in various sectors. As part of their fire risk management planning, the staff has been grouped into six different categories. These teams include; the firefighting team, the rescue team, the motor-cycle rescue team, the water diver rescue team, the mountain rescue team, and finally the well rover rescue team. Categorizing of the staff is very significant in planning for resources to be used for firefighting risk management (Cote 1988, p. 142).

By examination of pertinent document used for this research, firefighting started in Iran from very early times. It was started by Russian troops that colonized Iran. They did not provide services for individuals in the society but for their own political benefits. They started a firefighting station in Tabriz, which historically became the first fire-fighting station in Iran. Owing to the formation of different economic infrastructure all though Iran, start of fire service units began in various locations. Much of these stations were located in economic and industrial regions of the nation. The major planning strategy was to ensure protection of the major investment centers and the amenities established. This was to serve a prevention and protection role for the incidences of the fire outbreak that could result into destruction of properties.

The effective response to fire emergencies is a matter that the public is keen on and the water rescue department has to be well prepared for such emergencies. Addition of equipment in the fire brigade companies is a strategy that would be used as the head of department in the fire rescue team. The rescue team must be well equipped so that they perform highly. Flocculation devices, foams, and CO2 gases are also other equipment that the team must have other than the medical supplies. However, it is important would complement this strategy with others so as to improve the efficiency of the firefighting departments. The combination of high quality knowledge, experienced professionals, and field trainings are other strategies to be adopted. The staff in the fire rescue department must know basic defensive swimming tactics to assist them avoid injuries improve their safety when paddling. The staff must also know some of the basic strategies of swimming in floods that are calm and those that are violent (Collins, 2004). The fire rescue team members must always wear a personal floatation device when going into the fires. During crisis, reasonable decisions can be compromised if things are not done promptly and appropriately. Burning under fire is likely to occur if the firefighting devices are not used.

The department can also buy throw-rope bags. Officials in the department should learn how to use them. Consequently, the rescue officials can utilize them during rescue missions by throwing them to the burning victims. The foam must never be thrown to the rescuer as the fire currents may pull him/her in the fire and worsen situation. The department can also secure tragedy scenes as another strategy to ensure that no burning takes place. Securing the scene ensures that untrained people in the area do not get in the fire as they are likely to suffer. Concurrently, it will be easy for the ambulance services to operate. During this process, the team will also assess factors such as the speed of the fire, debris, and even contamination (Collins, 2004). This is done to consider how the fire can affect the victims and the rescuers.

Finally, it is important to ensure that the department responds quickly to emergencies through on-site command centers. This enables the team to quickly and accurately examine the situation. Firstly, the command center has to know the number of victims, their conditions, and then plan on how to help (Rhea & Rousseau, 2010). The plan should start with the victim facing the lowest risk and move to the one in the most risky position. The options usually are to reach the victim or throw him a rope if you cannot reach him. If the rescuer is in a boat, he can row and move towards the victim. The command center must always check the factors that can affect the rescue mission for example the fire level. The medical personnel must also be ready at the command center to give attention to people who have been saved.

It is important to work as a life guard. The job involved being at hazardous areas beach watching swimmers. I had to be keen and assist any of the swimmers who had difficulty getting out of the fire. This job relates to the work of the fire rescue team as they both involve assisting or removing victims from the fire to avoid death. Life guards and rescue team members must be trained in basic swimming and boat rowing (Smith & Smith, 1994). These will help them be able to reach the victims of drowning with ease. They also have to be trained on how to use equipment such as personal floater device and rope throw bags so that they may work efficiently.

However, there are other trainings that they should undergo even though they do not fall under their area of specialization. One such training is on how to administer first aid to victims. The rescuers are the first to be in contact with the victims and should therefore be able to offer care to the victim before the medical experts arrive. The other training that may be necessary is in communication and negotiation. The rescue workers must be able to effectively communicate with the victims and be able to persuade them to stay calm. Panicking is likely to make the situation worse and victims who panic are likely to drag the rescuer. Leadership is also a training that is necessary for the team members as they must have a leader when they go to a mission. Finally, they have to be cross-trained in disaster management to enable them know how to handle a crisis beginning with assessment, planning, and execution.

As a fire rescue team director, it is important to develop a training plan that includes topics in rescue tactics, identification of potential dangers, safety use of equipment, and site survey. With regard to fire management requirements, these trainings help the rescuer be safe and able to assist the victim. Additionally, the training program would include firefighting tactics, leadership, communication skills, and first aid administration. The course will target the rescue team members for their professional development. However, it may be offered to other professionals such as the fire service workers and people in law enforcement. The people to be admitted to the course must be physically and medically fit and at least 18 years old.

It is a course that would not take more than a week as it is simply a development program. The overall objective of the training will be to make the individual an all round professional capable of tackling all situations effectively. Additionally, manipulating the objectives of the concerned project might help in evading the risks involved. This occurs in accordance to the demands of UK. Another response strategy is mitigation, a process where the project’s management crew tries to diminish the probability and impacts of the suspected risks. This move will reduce the credible losses when the risk occurs. This response strategy is best done by verifying the stipulated processes for the concerned project. Lastly, the UK can transfer the responsibility of the probable risk to another organization that it outsources to execute the project. This response strategy evades the liability over risks. Conversely, risks fronting opportunities will necessitate exploitation, sharing, acceptance, and enhancement as their response strategies.

A comparison between the risk management planning in the fire services in the United Kingdom and Iran can be drawn from the research in both the interviews as well as the information obtained from different publications in the library and on the internet. Even though there is no substantial research that has been conducted to clarify the major differences between fire service risk management planning in U.K and Iran, available information indicates that the government of the United Kingdom has largely embraced an integrated approach towards firefighting unlike Iran. Most of the Iranian fire services are located in the major economic and industrial regions to protect the great destruction of property in these locations (Grant & Hoover 1994). In addition, there are different teams established by the fire service providing organizations to help in proper planning of sufficient resources in the management of fire risk. In contrary, United Kingdom embraces the application of technology based GIS system to effectively monitor and plan their fire services. However, even though there are differences in terms of fire service delivery between the UK and Iran, the major similarity in both countries is the focus on prevention and protection of fire incidences.

Risk appraisal (in the context of fire outbreaks) entails the quantitative and qualitative impacts of possible risks depending on their probability. This provision is an integral part of the management plan. It is crucial to study the impacts and effects of probable risks. The move helps in curbing any eventualities that might emerge when the project is in progress. Establishing corrective measure in such context might help in managing the prospective risks. While considering the mentioned risks, escalating budgets and probable misuse of resources can affect the corporation significantly. This risk will deter the growth of UK and Iran since the funds that could have been used in developing other sectors will disappear in a futile infernos. Additionally, assessing the project on how it might interfere with the market response and demands is of intensive impact to fire management. When the countries invest on the products that do not sell in the market or do not meet the fire management requirements, then it might lose its safety focus despite the efforts to empower its employees to adapt and embrace fresh technologies. In fact, the move (empowerment) might harm both countries grievously compared to when other entities were resistant to changes and continued with their previous operational technologies.

Another evident consideration is the reduced productivity emerging from the dormant phases when adapting to new fire management technologies. The time and revenue that will be lost during this period are remarkable. Upon assessment, this translates to diminished productivity and reduced revenues. The UK and Iran’s fire management companies have potential employees striving to achieve their objectives despite the challenges. The mentioned project might risk this determination following the duration needed to establish, ratify, and evaluate its progress. Additionally, it is crucial to recognize that some risks within the project might influence the operational cultures of both countries. The company has its operational norms, which it hardly intends to lose.

Enacting new technologies might interfere with is stand despite their viability to the organization. When the country compromises its business cultures, resources, and market relevancy to favor the empowerment of employees, it is risking its market survival. Hence, the fire project has massive risks necessitating the provisions of proper risk management. Reducing the productivity and consuming times meant for other activities are noteworthy risks evident in the project. Additionally, the risk of allocating limited funds to the fire control provisions might hinder its establishment, execution, and evaluation. Personnel resistance to the proposed empowerment might hinder the accomplishment of the proposed project. It is the mandate of both the UK and Iran to identify the reactions of their staff towards the introduction of novel fire technologies.

Conclusion

In conclusion, fire occurrences remain the most disastrous events throughout the world. Measures to prevent, protect and mitigate the harmful effect of fire have been developed in most countries. All countries have their strategies for fire service risk management planning. This research focused on the risk management in the fire service in both UK and Iran. Results indicated that there are similarities and differences in the strategies used by these nations. One of the major differences is heavy reliance of technology in the management of fire services in UK as compared to Iran. However both countries focus on prevention and protection of fire incidences. Risk monitoring will involve a continuous process of assessing the systems to ensure that the fire management processes are congruent in both countries. This process must be conducted through the company’s independent monitoring and disaster management control unit in order to enhance continuity in the adjustment procedure.

There also have to be scheduled periods in which major monitoring operations are conducted within all departments in charge of data processes. Fire/disaster management tools have to be collectively developed. This will ensure a proper understanding of the tools applied in monitoring fire outbreaks as well as security issues within both countries. In order to comply with other global bench marking requirements, the UK and Iran might also be obligated to outsource for external monitoring experts to conduct critical fire system evaluations and compile necessary reports. Analysis of progress reports from the monitoring unit by the management would help in forecasting future challenges or limitations that might accrue from the present data systems. The experts within the IT department have to institutionalize skilled approaches to data security monitoring so as to avoid accidental or intentional data breaches.

As mentioned earlier, the fire service available in the UK operate under distinct jurisdictive and organizational structures in wales, Northern Ireland, England and Scotland. Fire service sector have undergone through substantial modifications since the start of the 21st century. This has been impelled by the decentralization of the federal governemnt powers, new set of legislations as well as a transformation to effective measures with regard to terrorism attcks and fears (Rasbash, D 2004). One of the facilitator for the transformation arose from the 2002 write-up of an evaluation of the fire service in the UK, which was conducted by Professor Sir George Bain. His review was entitled ‘independent review of the Fire service’, and it resulted into fast modifications to the fire and rescue services in the UK. It is vital to agree that the laws concerning fire services in both England and Wales started operating in 1865 when an act reffered to as Fire Brigade Act was enacted. This is also relevant in the Iran’s context. It took the obligation of providing fire services from insurance to corporations. During that time, there were approxiamtely 1,600 brigades all over the united kingdom.

It is notable that in Iran, the 3 stations in Shiraz municipality included; station 1 founded in 1972 in the Horr Square, station 2 founded in 1977 in Khold-e-Barin Park, and finally station 3 founded in station 3 founded in 1979 in Khatoon Square. Shiraz firefighting institute was founded by the firefighting division in the organization of Shiraz municipality as indicated earlier. Currently, the organization has a total of thirteen stations located in different areas in Iran. According to the discussion that was conducted with the staff of the organization during the visit, it was evident that they have both light and heavy duty gadgets, well equipped with wireless communication systems to help in combating fire incidences. One of the major strategy that they have put in place at the moment to reduce the risk of fire is the employment of rescue unit.

This is to help in combating the firefighting challenges in both ancient urban structures, present buildings and to prevent losses associated with fire risk. The use of motor vehicles in providing fire services have proved very effective to them with regard to decreasing the responding time during such emergencies. In other contexts, training is offered by the pertinent personnel. The amalgamation of high quality knowledge, experienced professionals, and field education are other strategies to be adopted. The staff in the fire rescue department must know basic defensive firefighting tactics to assist them avoid injuries improve their safety when controlling fire. The staff must also know some of the basic strategies of managing fire floods that are calm and those that are violent (Collins, 2004). The fire rescue team members must always wear a personal floatation device when going into the fires. During crisis, reasonable decisions can be compromised if things are not done promptly and appropriately. Burning under fire is likely to occur if the firefighting devices are hardly utilized (Louis 2007).

The fire service available in the UK operates under distinct teritorial provisions and organizational structures in wales, Northern Ireland, England and Scotland. In this context, fire service sector have experienced substantial modifications since the start of the 21st century. This has been impelled by the decentralization of the federal governemnt powers, new set of legislations as well as a transformation to effective measures with regard to terrosism attcks and fears. Importantly, one of the facilitator for the transformation arose from the 2002 write-up of an evaluation of the fire service in the UK, which was conducted by Professor Sir George Bain. His review was entitled ‘independent review of the Fire service’, and it resulted into fast modifications to the fire and rescue services in the UK. Laws concerning fire services in both England and Wales started operating in 1865 when an act reffered to as Fire Brigade Act was enacted.

It took the obligation of providing fire services from insurance to corporations. During that time, there were approxiamtely 1,600 brigades all over the united kingdom. This is also considerable in the Iran’s context. Most risks occur as threats to the survival of the project hence stringent response strategies are necessary. Firstly, the organization can avoid such risks through various means before they strike on the project. Some projects are very sensitive to risks hence such remedial approach might enhance their progress. Avoidance is the best course to follow; nonetheless, it might compromise the realization of the concerned objectives. Contextually, empowering employees to embrace new technologies has bountiful risks as mentioned earlier; hence, avoiding its ratification is unworthy. It is crucial to avoid the probable risks as one of the response approaches for the threatening risks. The mentioned avoidance can be achieved by altering the project’s processes and allocating resources in a suitable manner. This might help in responding to the mentioned risks.

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