Information and Communication Technology in Teaching

Subject: Education
Pages: 20
Words: 5529
Reading time:
23 min
Study level: PhD

Introduction

Studies have indicated that the use of computer technology in teaching improves educational opportunities. However, most teachers do not integrate or use technology in their instructional methods. This is a review of literature about factors affecting teachers’ use of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching. The study concentrates on 40 scholarly journals from past studies (from 2009 to 2012) in the field of ICT and teaching. It focuses on manipulative and non-manipulative school and teacher factors with reference to teachers’ decisions on ICT integration in teaching. Afshari et al. (2009) note:

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“non-manipulative are factors that cannot be influenced directly by the school, such as age, teaching experience, computer experience of the teacher or governmental policy and the availability of external support for schools. Manipulative factors refer to the attitude of teachers towards teaching and ICT, ICT knowledge and skills of teachers, commitment of the school towards the implementation process, and availability of ICT support” (pp. 79-80).

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework for this literature review comes from Drent, M., & Meelissen, M. (2008). Which factors obstruct or stimulate teacher educators to use ICT innovatively? Computers & Education, 51, 187-199.

This article focuses on factors, which encourage or discourage the innovative use of ICT by teacher educators. According to Drent and Meelissen, innovative use of ICT is “the use of ICT applications that aid the educational objectives based on the needs of the current knowledge society” (Drent & Meelissen, 2008). The study identified several factors on teacher and school levels. They concluded that teachers who were ‘personal entrepreneurs’ were important for the integration of ICT in teacher education while school-level factors focused on importance of innovative applications of ICT. In other words, there was partial engagement of ICT in teacher training based on the curriculum used.

Non-Manipulative Teacher Factors

Afshari et al. (2009) identified both manipulative and non-manipulative factors, which influenced teachers’ use of ICT in teaching and concluded that these factors overlapped. Further, they observed that successful implementation of ICT did not depend on the absence or availability of individual factors. Instead, many interrelated factors influenced the process.

Personal Characteristics (Non-Manipulative Teacher Factors)

Afshari et al. (2009) showed that characteristics of teachers, such as individual’s educational level, age, gender, educational experience, experience with the computer for educational purposes and financial position could influence the adoption of ICT in teaching. From their study, Afshari and other authors noted that teachers with many years of experience were least likely to adopt ICT in teaching. This was because experienced teachers did not interact with ICT systems during their training.

On age and gender, studies have shown mixed results. For instance, young men considered the use of new technology in their training. On the other hand, women, especially old ones considered norms and subjective factors in their decisions. However, some studies indicated that age was not an imperative factor in the adoption of ICT (Afshari et al, 2009). Yusuf and Balogun noted that when female and their male counterparts had the same opportunities in the use of computers, their scores and attitude were relatively the same at all levels of education (Yusuf and Balogun, 2011). This implies that gender factor is no longer a hindrance in the use of ICT in education.

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Agyei and Voogt (2011) observed that a lack of knowledge among teachers affected how teachers integrated ICT during lessons. This is similar to observation Uslu and Bümen (2012) made about negative attitudes and limited knowledge among teachers as the main barriers to ICT integration in education. Agyei and Voogt also noted that teachers who lacked training opportunities on how to integrate ICT in lessons did not apply it in their lessons (Agyei and Voogt, 2011). According to these authors, such teachers needed pre-service, professional development because ICT integration in mathematics teaching in the perspective of Ghana was important. Most teachers believed that a lack of in-service training, suitable software, materials, and hardware were the major barriers to ICT integration in pre-service teacher education programs (Goktas, Yildirim and Yildirim, 2009; Uslu and Bümen, 2012). Goktas and fellow authors noted that having a technology plan is a possible enabler in ICT integration in teaching. Thus, several strategies from the plan would be effective in enhancing ICT integration in teaching. This implies that teachers and educators must be cautious when using studies on major inhibitors of ICT integration into teaching.

A study by Jacob and Lefgren highlighted that teaching experience, and educational background provided mixed results. This implies that there is no consensus on certain observable characteristics in teachers like years of experience or education backgrounds that produce best results (Jacob and Lefgren, n.d). Some studies have indicated that diverse themes have emerged among high and low integrators of ICT in teaching. For instance, Mueller and Wood established that integration of ICT in teaching was a complex process that required clear concerns for individual and contextual factors (Mueller and Wood, 2012). According to these authors, access to technologies and other technical challenges are inhibitors of ICT integration. At the same time, advancements in ICT may also be a part of the integration challenges. However, exposure to computers has increased their usages and reduced technical challenges.

Teacher Education Programme

According to Uslu and Bümen (2012), professional development program had a positive effect on TI continuing and integration. Past studies have indicated that professional development programs have improved adoption of ICT in education among teachers. At the end of the programs, teachers started using the Internet for instructional purposes and eventually adopted the usage permanently. As a result, technological knowledge of teachers improved, and they were able to integrate ICT in their teaching.

Still, teachers who completed their professional development programs changed their attitude towards ICT adoption in a positive manner. At the same time, teachers’ knowledge in ICT improved, and they were able to integrate ICT into their environments and instruction methods (Mouza, 2011).

Conversely, some studies have indicated that professional development programs have enhanced knowledge of teachers, but applications of such skills in teaching were at low levels (Uslu and Bümen, 2012; Jacob and Lefgren, n.d).

Role of ICT in Teacher Education

It is important to integrate ICT in “the curriculum, classroom, school management, library, and any educational setting” (Goktas, Yildirim and Yildirim, 2009; Hammond, Reynolds, and Ingram, 2011). This process improves the quality of education by facilitating the role of teachers in education as students learn effectively. Thus, roles of teachers are evolving in 21st century. These changes involve applications of technologies in learning and teaching procedures. Therefore, knowledge, levels of readiness, and skills of teachers are crucial factors in determining success of ICT integration in teaching. As a result, the role of teacher education is fundamental in creating readiness among teachers for future proficiency and integration of ICT into learning. Therefore, teacher education must help teachers realize how ICT can enhance teaching in meaningful ways.

Studies have demonstrated that ICT in teaching supports many aspects of learning and teaching. Specifically, schools that have adopted ICT as a teaching aid have improved their teaching and learning processes. To achieve this high standard, a school must modernize its ICT tools and introduce new modes of instruction. Sangrà and González-Sanmamed identified these factors as “the teacher’s role, issues regarding classroom organizational, the teaching and learning processes, and the interaction mechanisms” (Sangrà and González-Sanmamed, 2010).

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Bhasin noted that incorporating ICT into teaching and research was major challenge to education systems (Bhasin, 2012). However, the field has gained momentum in the recent past. Therefore, teachers must learn how to use ICT resources for teaching. Some studies indicate that teachers believe in values of ICT integration for teaching. However, they fail on how to achieve these benefits of ICT for education. This shows the need for integrating ICT in teacher education and programs.

Need of Integration of ICT in Teacher Education Programme

We have to recognize that professional teacher development is crucial for successful incorporation of ICT in teaching and learning (Holden and Rada, 2011). Teachers have fundamental roles to play with regard to students’ exposure to ICT in learning processes. According to Bhasin, the provision of technical skills and training to a teacher is not adequate (Bhasin, 2012). Therefore, Bhasin recognizes that teachers must also incorporate pedagogical skills of ICT in order to enhance teaching. Thus, ICT integration into learning must start with the teacher. Therefore, teacher education must ensure that teachers have acquired necessary skills needed to apply technology when teaching students. This implies that traditional roles of teachers have changed in the era of technology and teaching in schools. Thus, learning management must focus on improving the learners’ potential with the aim to acquire skills and knowledge needed in a changing world.

Attitude toward the Use of ICT in Teaching and Learning

Many studies have reviewed attitude of teachers toward the use of ICT in teaching and learning (Al-Zaidiyeen et al, 2010; Awan, 2011; Beacham and McIntosh, 2012). These studies established that teachers have low levels of ICT usages in teaching. However, they have a positive attitude towards ICT usages in teaching. In addition, the level of ICT usage has increased positive attitudes among teachers. However, these studies have also recognized the need to improve ICT integration in teaching.

Awan observed that teachers’ attitudes changed with increased levels of ICT usages. She reviewed teachers’ ‘technology confidence’ and ICT lessons by encouraging teachers to adopt multimedia resources and games in teaching. The results showed a positive attitude towards ICT in teaching. Therefore, the application of game playing strategy was a suitable form of in-service training for teachers (Awan, 2011).

The application of ICT in teaching has resulted in conflict between teachers who have positive attitudes and those who have negative attitudes towards the use of ICT in teaching. Awan shows that negative attitude towards the use of ICT in teaching emanates from “a lack of confidence in using technology, inadequate pedagogically driven training, opportunities being provided and inadequate technical support” (Awan, 2011). Therefore, teachers must improve their attitude towards the use of ICT in teaching. According to Awan, the possible method of enhancing teachers’ confidence could be to let them “play with these games in order to assess their own knowledge, see facilities and options available as well as decide on formats learners like and their opinions on these games as educational resources” (Awan, 2011).

According to Hismanoglu, teachers who had negative attitudes towards ICT integration identified the nature, level, and delivery of training as inadequate (Hismanoglu, 2012). Consequently, such teachers felt insufficiently competent to apply ICT in their future teaching without proper knowledge of ICT. These results indicated that prior training was necessary for teachers to become competent in order to incorporate ICT in teaching. On the issue of gender and attitude, Lenka and Kant noted that gender did not play a significant role in developing positive attitudes and perceptions among distance learners (Lenka and Kant, 2012). Therefore, both males and females had similar positive attitudes towards learning.

On the other hand, some results have shown that even schools with computers and trained teachers also experience some forms of barriers. These barriers include inadequate ICT materials for outsized classes, a lack of ICT leadership in a school, and inadequate provisions of training and support. These challenges stop teachers and schools from effective implementation of ICT in teaching beyond the initiation stage (Plessis, and Webb, 2012). Thus, many challenges face schools with limited resources. These studies suggest that appropriate intervention measures are necessary in order to integrate ICT into teaching effectively. In this sense, Plessis and Web (2012) have proposed the adoption of heuristic approach for implementation of ICT in learning.

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Salehi and Salehi (2011) investigated the effect of high-stakes Entrance Exam of the Universities (EEU) in Iran on the use of ICT in English classes and established that the content and format of the exam prevented teachers from applying ICT in their English classes. They noted that expectations from both the parents and principals on students to perform well-discouraged teachers to apply ICT in teaching. These authors concluded that some factors that motivated teachers to incorporate ICT in teaching included ways of integrating ICT into the curriculum, the ability to use ICT for sharing information and ideas with others, and evidence of positive impacts of ICT on teaching and learning. Conversely, they attributed poor integration of ICT to insufficient technical supports, and limited access to the Internet and ICT.

Teachers’ competence is also a significant factor in the use of ICT in teaching. For instance, Vanderlinde and van Braak noted that teachers had moderate opinions about the new ICT curriculum (Vanderlinde and van Braak, 2011). However, factors within the school and teachers’ levels influenced the use of new ICT curriculum. In this sense, ICT competence among teachers is the strongest indicator of ICT integration in teaching. Therefore, educators and policymakers must take into consideration teachers’ competence when adopting ICT curriculum. Orleans noted that a complete online teacher training was insufficient in improving all aspects of the multifaceted nature of teaching subjects like science (Orleans, 2010). On the other hand, Yusuf and Balogun’s findings showed that most teachers and students had positive attitudes towards the adoption of ICT in teaching (Yusuf and Balogun, 2011). In addition, teachers and students had competency in the use of basic ICT tools in learning. However, the study established that both males and females expressed no significant differences incompetency in the use of ICT tools. It is important to note that teachers and students lack adequate competence needed for effective implementation of ICT in learning and teaching. Therefore, there is a need to develop competence of teachers through teacher development programs.

The presence of ICT in schools alone will not guarantee effective implementation and usages. This means that competence in the usage supersedes quantity and quality of technology deployed in schools. Thus, teachers must learn how to use these tools through developing the necessary competence and positive attitude towards ICT in curriculum.

Studies have established relations between the use of ICT and teachers’ attitudes (Yusuf and Balogun, 2011). Teachers who had positive attitudes in ICT their curricula also had high levels of computer usages and experience. In turn, teachers’ experience and attitude towards ICT also affected students’ attitude towards integration of ICT in learning. In this context, past studies have indicated that lack of adequate training and experiences were the main obstacles, which explained why teachers did not adopt ICT in teaching. This also resulted in negative attitudes among teachers towards computers and ICT. Still, a lack of confidence also contributed to low usages of computers among teachers. Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich (2010) noted that teachers did not use technology and computers effectively for enhancing knowledge acquisition among learners despite the increase in access to computers and technology training (Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010). Consequently, these authors focused on the teachers as an agent of change in technology adoption. They reviewed self-efficacy, knowledge, subjects, cultures of schools, and pedagogical beliefs. As a result, Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich concluded that teachers’ mindsets must change to include the idea that teaching is not effective without the appropriate use of ICT and other resources to facilitate student learning” (Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010).

Studies have identified that teachers’ confidence was a great predictor of the use of technology to achieve instructional objectives. These studies suggest the need to devote time and resources in developing confidence of teachers in adopting technology as an instructional tool. Therefore, ICT should serve as administrative and communication tool as well as a tool for achieving learners’ learning goals. In this regard, it is imperative to help teachers acquire personal experience and develop self-efficacy in technology use. Mueller and fellow authors (2012) noted:

Although computer-related variables, in general, continue to impact on teachers’ ability to integrate technology, it is positive experiences with computers in the classroom contexts that build a teacher’s belief in computer technology and confidence in its potential as an instructional tool” (p. 1533).

Integration of ICT in teacher education can help in improving teachers’ attitudes towards computers and the use of ICT in learning. Studies have also revealed strong relations between the use of computers and positive attitudes among pre-service teachers. Still, it also influenced “serving teachers in the affective attitude, general usefulness, behavioral control, and pedagogical use” (Yusuf and Balogun, 2011). Therefore, attitude is a significant predictor of ICT integration and use in education in the future.

Therefore, teacher education must respond to feelings of teachers about ICT integration and computer usages in learning because they are critical factors for defining success. Thus, teacher education and learning processes must address feelings of both teachers and students with reference to ICT integration in teaching and learning. However, attitude of teachers and students towards ICT remains positive because this motivates them to adopt ICT in learning.

Manipulative Teacher Factors

Teachers must understand the salient relations between computer usages and the existing pedagogy. According to Mueller and Wood (2012), effects of pedagogical beliefs among teachers exist, but their direct influences on technology integration are not clear. In this context, they observe that teachers are likely to “use their past experiences, beliefs, and attitudes about learning and teaching to develop their beliefs about technology as a teaching method or instructional tool, depending on how they classify computers” (Mueller, and Wood, 2012). This is because attitude and beliefs influence teachers’ thoughts about ICT integration.

Teachers must recognize ICT as a tool of instruction for knowledge development in order to be able to integrate it in teaching and learning. Some studies have claimed that it is not adequate to know how to use computers. Instead, teachers must get adequate instructions and experiences in order to incorporate the best pedagogy and practices in teaching with reference to computers. We must recognize that teachers choose how to use computers in their classrooms. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account factors that influence behaviors and decisions of such teachers when applying a computer as a mode of instruction.

Studies have identified the need to integrate both pedagogy and technology. Recent studies show that teacher training that adopts technology alongside pedagogy coupled with hands-on experience of computer usages gives best results, increased integration, confidence, and beliefs among teachers (Mueller and Wood, 2012; Mouza, 2011; Akkan, 2012). As a result, such teachers are likely to integrate computers into their lessons. Mouza (2011) investigated the potential of professional development programs and how they could assist teachers to integrate technology with content pedagogy and develop the required habits for practical learning. The author notes that professional development programs are effective ways of understanding the relationship that exists among technology, pedagogy, and content. Thus, they are useful in developing reflections, which facilitate practical learning. However, there are variations in the manner teachers approach teaching with their new knowledge. For instance, teachers considered factors like resources, curriculum, and beliefs regarding students before applying ICT in teaching (Dixon and Siragusa, 2009).

Therefore, if we consider such evidence, it is then imperative to explore teachers’ beliefs in situations where they apply ICT in teaching. Mueller and Wood argue that it is necessary to understand what factors teachers consider as contributing to their ‘good teaching’ with reference to understanding complicated relations among technology, pedagogy, and content (Mueller and Wood, 2012). This is necessary for determining whether ‘good teaching’ with technology has any difference from ‘good teaching’ in other different contexts. From recommendations of past studies, it is necessary to explore beliefs of teachers and pedagogical factors in order to comprehend and improve understanding of ‘teacher factors’ that influence the successful incorporation of ICT into teaching (Booth, 2009). Given the influences of belief systems in individuals, core beliefs remain difficult to transform because of their relations to other beliefs. This is imperative because teachers’ belief systems are complex because of various intersections, interactions, and overlaps. Such belief systems have significant impacts on how teachers use ICT in their classrooms. Teachers’ belief systems can predict the subsequent behaviors in classrooms (Mueller and Wood, 2012; Martin et al, 2011). As a result, researchers have concluded that schools with traditional belief systems tend to adopt low-levels, traditional usages of technology (teacher-centered approaches). On the other hand, teachers who have constructive belief systems tend to adopt student-centered or high-level technology applications in teaching. Studies have concluded that teacher-centered approaches to ICT integration in teaching result in negative results on ICT integration in teaching (Mueller and Wood, 2012; Friedrich and Hron, 2011).

Longitudinal studies show that teachers’ incorporation of ICT in teaching has changed pedagogy due to increased usages of ICT in teaching (Mueller and Wood, 2012; Brooks and Gibson, 2012). They note that adjustments are gradual but affect practices and thinking of teachers. This observation confirms a study by Brooks and Gibson (2012). Brooks and Gibson note that professional development is the main aim of a teaching profession. However, contemporary forms of learning have replaced traditional methods. They note that teaching and learning have shifted based on modern trends in terms of how, what, and when teachers learn. The emergence of online teacher professional development has transformed education systems. Thus, it is necessary to transform teaching and learning to reflect technological impacts on professional learning in a networked era.

Some studies posit that teachers noted changes in their students and began reflecting on their beliefs about learning and teaching (Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010). This led teachers to change their pedagogical belief systems. Apart from pedagogical beliefs, there are also beliefs in value systems, which influence how certain goals and options are important. This suggests that teachers’ values and beliefs consider whether such technologies can aid them to achieve their teaching goals. Therefore, if teachers have new pedagogical tools, they make value evaluation whether such tools are relevant to them. Therefore, if such technological tools are relevant to their goals, then they are likely to adopt them.

When teachers can improve their knowledge on the use of technology, then they can eagerly transmit such skills to their students. Stills, if learning focuses on developing technology experience, without the need to achieve best grades or content deliveries, then teachers can readily adopt technology into their teaching. Therefore, if ICT tools provide content-specific, then teachers are likely to adopt such tools. Teachers usually associate new information with their belief systems before they can adopt such new information. Therefore, the belief that a teacher has about teaching methodology, subject matter, and learning influences his or her approach in a classroom situation. Great interest in technology training programs among teachers can enhance their adoption of such tools in their teaching approaches.

A study by Uslu and Bümen indicated that successful integration of educational technologies relied on teachers’ attitudes (Uslu and Bümen, 2012). Mitra noted that Indian teachers had positive attitudes towards the use of technology in education (Mitra, 2011). The study focused on professional education institutions. He established that attitude was crucial for both implementation and improvement in technical aspects of ICT in institutions. Attitude is an important predictor of how people react to changes and objects, and how such changes can influence their behaviors. However, various institutions have different results with reference to computer access. Factors like gender, age, and different personal characteristics did not show any relation with teachers’ attitudes in computer usages.

Mintra observed many institutions were making significant investments in ICT. Therefore, teachers had to make use of such investments in order to realize their effective implementation. Contrary to this notion, Mintra observed that teachers did not use ICT as anticipated. He singled out attitude as the main factor affecting teachers’ reactions towards the use of new ICT tools. Mintra supported his argument with observations from Roger, who identified “advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability and trialability” (Mitra, 2011) as factors that affected acceptance and subsequent adoption of new technologies.

Manipulative School Factors

Context also affects the use of technology and knowledge acquisition among teachers. Teachers’ contexts within school cultures influence their use of technology in learning (Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010). Studies have shown that teachers’ belief systems influence how they use technology. However, contexts of schools shape and reinforce such beliefs. Therefore, the manner in which teachers integrate ICT in teaching depends on learner characteristics within the school environment. In addition, teachers also consider elements that constitute ‘good teaching in their school cultures and the contribution of ICT in their students’ learning processes.

Teachers can only apply or align new software into their existing knowledge structure if they understand how the software works and change their beliefs about it. In addition, teachers only value what can enable them to meet students’ needs. Thus, if the software is useful then teachers are likely to incorporate it into their mode of instruction.

Almekhlafi and Almeqdadi studied technology integration at UAE Model schools and established that teachers were eager to incorporate technology in their classroom activities (Almekhlafi and Almeqdadi, 2010). Teachers at the UAE Model schools tried various technologies in order to enhance students’ learning. However, the study revealed that male and female teachers had different methods of incorporating ICT into their teaching. In Chinese context, Guoyuan et al. (2011) noted that ICT integration depended on several factors, such as support from the government, teachers, and schools. Larose and other researchers have noted that many developed nations have incorporated training methods for pre-service teachers, which focus on guiding experienced teachers (Larose et al, 2009). The longitudinal studies have revealed contradictory effects between what goes on in classrooms and initiatives to aid the use of computers in teacher education. Such studies rely on computer skills and students’ attitudes towards ICT incorporation in teaching. On this note, Larose et al. (2009) concluded that it was necessary to support professional development of practicing teachers in areas of computer usages and ICT integration in teaching. This approach should aim to change what students observe and possibly enhance teachers’ adoption of ICT strategies in their teaching approaches (Larose et al , 2009; Malakolunthu, Siraj, and Rengasamy, 2010).

Martin and fellow researchers examined factors that were crucial for “professional staff development and how they contributed to efficacy of secondary school teachers’ use of information communication technologies in instruction” (Martin et al, 2011). The study showed that few teachers relied on ICT for managing classrooms and incorporation of ICT in contents and other areas of learning. There were also different professional development options (Santos and Pedro, 2012). In addition, they also found out that teachers used “trial and error methods learn through coursework taken at colleges or universities, and or support others or receive personal or expert support as significant methods of learning how to use ICT” (Martin et al, 2011).

Reward and incentives in schools also influence integration of ICT in teaching. Studies show that schools that have rewards and incentives have registered increased use of ICT among teachers. Martin et al. (2011) noted that schools that had an extra pay stimulated the use of computers among teachers. On the same note, incentives also came in terms of software and hardware for teachers. Such incentives compensated for teachers’ time and provided them with opportunities to familiarise themselves with new technologies. Teachers also preferred formal recognition of their efforts in their technology usages. They considered “release time, remuneration, and recognition” as the “three R’s” of staff development (Martin et al, 2011).

Teachers consider a time factor as a major barrier to ICT implementation and usages. Time factor has been among the main conditions necessary for ICT successful implementation. For instance, teachers who adopted ICT initially believed that the system increased their workloads. However, accomplished teachers who fully adopted ICT noted that lack of time was the major hindrance to successful ICT integration in teaching (Martin et al, 2011).

Therefore, it is imperative to acknowledge that effective integration of ICT needs adequate time. However, teachers use most of their time instruction and have limited time for studying or experimenting with new technologies. In addition, they also lack adequate time for planning on the use of new technology tools. This suggests that school administrators must formulate ways to provide enough time for teachers so that such teachers can use ICT (Khan et al, 2012).

Schools also lack computer hardware and software. Teachers in Kenya considered hardware issues as a serious hindrance to effective ICT implementation in schools. Schools have few computers and printers and teachers termed the situation as ‘serious or very serious concern for their efforts. Apart from limited hardware, there were also software factors. For instance, teachers mentioned lack of relevant software or software with appropriate content as an inhibitor to ICT adoption. Consequently, such teachers could not adopt ICT in their classrooms. Some of the issues that the study associated with lack of software included “relating courseware to curriculum, evaluation, quality control, acquisition, setting priorities, security, placement, and appropriate use” (Martin et al, 2011). In a similar study in Turkey, Özen found out that 72.7 % of respondents emphasized: “the existence of old versions of computer and Internet facilities in classrooms as barriers to ICT integration while 9.1 % of them reported the current education programme was the barrier thaprogramd” (Özen, 2012).

According to Anastasiades and Vitalaki, the introduction of Internet in schools brought new pedagogical challenges to educators. Such concerns result from creating awareness among learners on dangers associated with the surfing the Web (Anastasiades and Vitalaki, 2011). These authors studied how teachers ensured students’ safety by applying their technical skills while using the Internet for educational and interpersonal purposes. They noted that teachers who liked using the Internet for professional or personal purposes were effective in promoting Internet safety among learners than their counterparts who showed low levels of Internet usages. Therefore, studies have suggested the need for orderly adoption of Internet safety awareness among students. However, Anastasiades and Vitalaki noted that many Greek teachers did not have the basic pedagogical skills for searching the Internet alongside their students and providing the necessary skills needed.

In some cases, school administrators did not provide the necessary support for effective implementation of ICT programs in classrooms. Therefore, it is crucial for school administrators to provide the necessary leadership and support for successful integration of ICT in teaching (Schriever, 2011). School administrators should develop philosophies that guide the implementation of ICT in schools. In addition, school administrators can support ICT initiatives and technological professional development of teachers in many ways. First, school administrators can create flexible schedules for teachers to enable them to learn new ICT developments and improve their skills. Second, they can encourage teachers to engage in teamwork when dealing with ICT challenges in a school environment. Third, administrators should encourage collaboration among teachers during ICT integration in classrooms. Finally, school administrators should develop systems for reviewing and evaluating the effects of ICT implementation in their schools.

In Turkey, the curriculum requires teachers to integrate ICT into classroom activities (Özen, 2012). Therefore, Turkish teachers require professional development in ICT. Özen found out that Turkish teachers had positive attitudes towards computers, use of Internet knowledge and skills. In addition, teachers also expressed positive attitudes with regard to their students’ usages of technologies and achievements in academic performances. Despite such positive among students and teachers in ICT integration, there were also many barriers to such efforts (Tsai and Chai, 2012). Teachers classified such barriers under education programs, computers and Internet facilities in schools, teaching and learning conditions. Schools had limited numbers of computers. Most schools also lacked ICT programs and training opportunities for teachers and how best to integrate ICT into classroom activities. Teachers have also expressed concerns that there are poor administrative, technical, financial, teachers, and other forms of supports. Still, some schools also have poor Internet connections, limited knowledge, and skills of teachers in ICT and challenges on how to connect Internet and computer technologies in their learning environments (Tezci, 2010). Schools also have an inconsistent curriculum with the ICT course content with reference to ICT integration and application in classroom practices. Further, teachers also have heavy workloads and pressures, which have created difficulties in the effective integration of ICT in teaching. Variations in models and versions of computers and software have also acted as barriers to the effective integration of ICT in teaching.

Conclusion

ICT integration in teaching is a complex process that involves the use of technology in the education system to enhance teaching and learning. Therefore, its success depends on several factors. Both manipulative and non-manipulative teacher and school factors overlap in ICT integration in teaching. Therefore, effective integration of ICT in teaching involves shifting methods of teaching from a teacher-centered to a learner-centered approach.

It requires adequate time to change, learn innovation, develop a philosophy, provide intellectual supports, teamwork, and evaluate the effects of implementation efforts. Teachers must have a positive attitude, skills, and knowledge that can foster the effective implementation of ICT in teaching. This method ensures that teachers can facilitate changes in ICT integration.

Studies have demonstrated that various schools and teachers experience diverse challenges about the integration of ICT in teaching. These factors also overlap and interrelate. Therefore, the successful implementation of the ICT initiative requires effective control of various dynamic processes. In all, teacher professional programs have crucial roles in providing the necessary knowledge, leadership, and skills during pre-service and in-service activities.

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