Justifing Research Methodology in Organizational Leadership

Subject: Sciences
Pages: 7
Words: 2080
Reading time:
9 min
Study level: PhD

Research Methods


The research problem arises from exploitation of the migrant workers who have moved from their respective countries to Malaysia after facing various challenges (Chai & Xiao, 2011; Kull, 2010). The government has neglected the welfare of migrants because it does not monitor the behavior of the native employees towards the migrant workers. Consequently, the employers have violated human rights of the migrants by setting low wages because the authorities have not set the payment standards (Kilanowski & Ryan-Wenger, 2010). This situation calls for quick action from relevant parties including the churches and non-governmental organizations in Malaysia.

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Previous Setting

It is necessary to focus on various items that have been stipulated in relation to this research including the research question (Callen, 2010; Chai & Xiao, 2011). This will facilitate the development of a suitable research method for the study. The research is focusing on four research questions seeking to investigate leadership models, unique approaches, possible obstacles, strengths, and weaknesses of the chosen leadership model.

Proposed Research Methodology

Based on the research problem and the research questions, the best research method is mixed research methodology. Mixed research methodology aims at integrating the aspects envisaged on both quantitative and qualitative approaches of conducting researches. Qualitative research methodology approaches research by quantifying its variables, results and analysis (Ball, McLoughlin & Darvill, 2011; Eisenacher, Martens & Barsnes, 2009).

On the other hand, qualitative research ventures into the quality of responses. For example, a qualitative approach applies phrases like “strongly agree” while the quantitative approach uses percentages to describe the intensity of agreement. This implies that the study guides the researchers when choosing the methodology to apply. In accordance to this research, it is important to incorporate the two methodologies developing a mixed methodological approach to attain a multidimensional view to this problem.

Actual Mixed Research Design

Research Questions

The research considers four research questions as stated in the following list.

  1. What are the most appropriate models of leadership that can be applied to bring hope and justice for the migrant workers following the current oppressive condition?
  2. How can the relevant parties develop a unique approach to the oppression of migrant workers in light of considering their human right and better working conditions than the current ones?
  3. What are the potential hindrances when transforming the lives of migrant works and bringing the right leadership to them?
  4. What are the possible advantages and disadvantages of the chosen leadership models in transforming the lives of the migrant workers?


From a hypothetical point of view, the most appropriate models of leadership that can transform the lives of migrant workers include transformational leadership and servant leadership. On the other hand, the null hypothesis would suggest that transformation leadership and servant leadership are not appropriate when transforming the lives of migrant workers in the republic of Malaysia (Sommers, Apfelbaum & Dukes, 2010).

For the second question, the hypothesis can suggest that the unique approach to this research problem is the one incorporating financial, social, and political autonomy of the migrant workers (Appea & Clark, 2010; Callen, 2010). The null hypothesis would argue that the research problem should not be studied from the three perspectives. In regard to the third question, the research hypothesis could suggest that there are possible hindrances against leadership transformation to the migrant workers in Malaysia. On the other hand, the null hypothesis suggests that transformation of migrants’ life does not have any possible hindrances to prevent its prosperity.

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Population and Stratification

The target population will be four groups of leaders including church leaders, leaders of non-governmental organizations, government leaders, and migrant workers subjected to oppression by the native employers from the country (Last, M., Luta & Orso, 2010; Winter & McAuley, 2011). The church and leaders of non-governmental organizations will be providing information about their intervention amidst the oppression of migrants to bring effective leadership into their lives. The government leaders will respond on the extent they have tried to control the oppression of the migrant workers. Also, they will give suggestions on the possible ways of transforming the migrants lives to ensure that the government can control their oppression.

Mixed methodology purports stratification of the population if it becomes necessary (Winter & McAuley, 2011; Last, M., Luta & Orso, 2010). In this research, the population has four groups of leaders who are relevant to the aspects raised by the research questions. Consequently, the population will be stratified into four groups because their contributions are unique and different from each other. Therefore, the data from each segment of the population will give a unique perspective implying that the data will be analyzed differently.

Sample Size and Sampling

The sample size of this research study will consider a sample size of about one thousand and two hundred people out of the entire population. This implies that there will be four hundred respondents from a single stratification providing information from their fields of leadership. From a single stratification, two hundred respondents will provide quantitative information while the rest will be approaching the questions from a qualitative perspective (Chai & Xiao, 2011; Eisenacher, Martens & Barsnes, 2009).

This sample size is conceivably sufficient to provide information that can reflect the view of the whole population. Consequently, the results that will be obtained from the sample will be analyzed and considered for the entire population. This implies that the method of sampling must be conducted in a manner preventing biasness while choosing the leaders.

Random-purposive sampling will be applied in the research. This is a combination of the random sampling and purposive sampling. The randomization ensures that the researcher does not change the sample to obtain some desired outcome. This condition ensures that the research does not give biased result. Therefore, this leads to the reliability and validity of the outcomes. The purposive aspect ensures that the sample is collected in a manner that will satisfy the objectives of the research (Meyer, 2010; Reimers & Stewart, 2009). This implies that the respondents will have the relevant information to the study. This combination will give reliable outcomes that are not biased to personal preferences of the researcher.

Data Collection

Mixed method research is time-consuming due to the integration of the two methodologies of research including quantitative and qualitative methods (Last, M., Luta & Orso, 2010; Winter & McAuley, 2011). This implies that the method of data collection should be fast, effective and satisfactory (Cuesta-Albertos & Febrero-Bande, 2010). In this light, data will be collected by two methods ensuring that the respondents are reached within considerable time (Appea & Clark, 2010).


The researcher will compose questions in accordance to the research problem and incorporate them in flexible questionnaires (Klapwijk, 2011; Knudson-Martin & Silverstein, 2009). The questionnaires will be flexible ensuring that the researcher can modify them to incorporate the issues emerging during data collection. The modification can either involve the removal of irrelevant questions and addition of emerging issues. Also, the researcher will include all the issues that are relevant to this study. This flexibility calls the researcher to analyze and collect data to allow the modification of questionnaires. ­­­The questionnaires will be administered through a physical interview with the respondent (Eisenacher, Martens & Barsnes, 2009).

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Email Survey

In this online survey, questions will be composed through email messages reflecting the components of the questionnaires (Shi & McLarty, 2009; Travers, 2010). The researcher will find contacts for the relevant leaders and send the survey. Phone calls will be used to notify the respondents about the survey to ensure that many respondents access their emails to undertake the survey (Reimers & Stewart, 2009).

Data Analysis

This study must incorporate quantitative and qualitative analysis because the data will have the two aspects.

Quantitative Analysis

This analysis will involve the computation of mean, mode, and variance of quantitative data (Last, Luta & Orso, 2010). The mean will provide the overview of respondent’s general view about the problem. The mode will seek to analyze the number of responses with the highest number of responses to determine the intensity of each view (Hallquist & Pilkonis, 2010; Klapwijk, 2011). Lastly, the variance will aim at investigating the distribution of the views in accordance to the respondents. In addition, the variance will provide the basis of computing the standard deviation that shows the deviation of view from the general overview as stipulated by the mean (Shi & McLarty, 2009; Travers, 2010).

Moreover, quantitative analysis will involve the computation of “p” test using ANOVA to determine the rejection of null hypotheses. In this case, the null hypothesis will be rejected when the “p” values are less than 0.05.

Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative analysis will be conducted in the following steps.

  1. Reading the responses carefully and coding them.
  2. ­­­ Determining the relevant themes and making a thematic summary.
  3. Interpreting the findings by analyzing the impacts of the responses.
  4. Triangulation of sources.
  5. Making conclusions and recommendations while compiling a draft report.
  6. Seeking the validation of feedback.
  7. Communicating findings to the relevant authorities for implementation (Travers, 2010).

Justification of the Mixed Research Methodology

Mixed research methodology is the most appropriate for this research study since it is relevant to the aspects envisaged in the research question (Klapwijk, 2011; Knudson-Martin & Silverstein, 2009). It is justified on the bases of multidimensionality that data collection is diversification of view as elucidated in the following discussion.


Mixed research methodology results to quantitative and qualitative outcomes (Klapwijk, 2011; Knudson-Martin & Silverstein, (2009). Therefore, the methodology approaches the research problem from a multidimensional perspective ensuring that the researcher can compare the two results (Meyer, 2010). Comparing the two outcomes enables the researcher to determine the validity of research.

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For example, if the qualitative approach leads to results similar to quantitative results, the researcher can conclude that the research outcomes were strongly valid. If the two outcomes portray disparities, the researcher will try to perform further analysis to get the reliable outcomes of the research study. In addition, multidimensionality results to holistic presentation of the results since the researcher can present the quantitative results alongside the qualitative ones. Thereafter, the interested parties can study the two results and determine the roles they will play in the process of implementing transformational process of the migrant workers.

Type of Data

The research questions will require two types of data that will include quantitative and qualitative data. This implies that the research method calls for dual analysis of data to satisfy the two data sets arising from the study. Therefore, mixed research methodology becomes crucial to the study because it will satisfy the two levels of data sets (Xiong, Du & Wang, 2011; Turgo, 2010). In addition to this, it is evident that the third question seeks to develop a unique approach incorporating the financial, economic, and political aspects of the migrants (Turgo, 2010). This implies that the research study is based on more than one level of research.

Therefore, it calls for the mixed research method. This method will tackle the four levels of research as envisaged in the third question ensuring that the researcher does not compromise one aspect of human life for another.

Weakness of Mixed Research Method

Despite its appropriateness, mixed research is time-consuming since it integrates quantitative and qualitative approaches in the process of study. This implies that the researcher has to employ more assistants who can help in data collection, sampling and analysis in order to fasten the process. Consequently, the study becomes costly leading to financial constraints that can hinder its completion.

Inappropriateness of other Methodologies

The alternative methodologies that could be applied to this study are either pure qualitative or pure quantitative research. However, the application of a single methodology would just give a unidirectional perspective to the research problem (Klapwijk, 2011; Knudson-Martin & Silverstein, 2009). In this light, it is right to argue that narrow views are inappropriate to follow and implement to the real issues of life. On the other hand, expansive views are safe and advisable to follow especially in the process of decision making since they eliminate the risks of biased lines of actions (Knudson-Martin & Silverstein, 2009).


Regarding the plight of migrant workers in Malaysia, this research methodology will provide sufficient information that is necessary for the improvement of the migrant’s lives in the country. Churches and non-governmental organizations will find a basis of intervening into the plight of the migrants by following the presented result. Hopefully, the intervention of these parties will transform the migrants’ autonomy especially with the help of this study.


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