Report on Sample One Results
The abuse of drugs and other substances, as well as alcohol, is usually measured with the help of certain screening tools. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the CAGE questionnaire, and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) are typically applied for detecting individuals’ risky behaviors. The purpose of this report is to present and interpret the results of tests that are related to the client’s substance and alcohol consumption.
The AUDIT is used for identifying persons’ excessive drinking and possible alcohol dependence. Its advantages include high levels of reliability and sensitivity, as well as simplicity in use. Disadvantages are associated with the variability of results depending on the period of testing. The DAST is a test used for evaluating clients’ behaviors related to drug consumption. It is effective to be applied in different settings and with reference to various types of substances. Limitations of the tool are the focus on the lifetime assessment and the obvious intent of proposed questions. The CAGE questionnaire is applicable for identifying alcohol abuse, and its advantage is in accentuating whether a client has a problem with drinking (Perkinson, 2017). Nevertheless, the test does not indicate whether a person is an active or inactive drinker.
Each of the discussed tests plays a particular role in determining clients’ problems. The AUDIT is appropriate for identifying possible risky behaviors in relation to drinking, the CAGE test allows for identifying hidden drinkers, and the DAST allows for determining whether a client has a drug-related problem. To present a full picture regarding the client’s state, it is necessary to start with applying the CAGE questionnaire supported by the AUDIT and followed by the DAST.
The client’s score for the AUDIT is 6, it is 2 for the CAGE questionnaire, and it is 4 for the DAST. The AUDIT score is associated with low-risk drinking, and the CAGE test score is regarded as clinically significant. The DAST score is below 5, and there is no likelihood of drug abuse. While discussing these results in combination, it is important to note that the client’s consumption and dependence scores are also low, and the CAGE results indicate that the client feels guilty because of rare alcohol consumption. In addition, the client has no significant problems with consuming drugs according to the DAST results.
In order to eliminate any ambiguities regarding the findings, it is possible to recommend assessing the client with the help of interviewing in order to resolve questions regarding the CAGE questionnaire results. Administering specific alcohol and narcotics withdrawal scales is not appropriate in this case because the client seems not to have current problems with consuming alcohol and drugs (Perkinson, 2017). In this case, the client should be provided with education on alcohol and substance consumption in order to minimize risks for health.
An additional test that can be used to measure the client’s drinking behavior is the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). This test has high reliability in terms of screening different stages of alcoholism (Knightly et al., 2016). It is appropriate for this case because it is necessary to prove or disprove the CAGE questionnaire results with the focus on collecting information on the client’s lifetime alcohol-related problems. Another test to administer is an online drug screening tool developed by Join Together to help the client evaluate his or her drug-related problems (Nomura et al., 2018). This tool allows for the client to understand when he or she needs advice and help regarding the problem if there are some signs of it.
The scores related to the conducted tests indicate that the client has no clearly identified problems with consuming alcohol and drugs. However, the results accentuate the past history of substance consumption and a low risk for the client’s health because of drinking behavior. In order to receive a full picture regarding the client’s problem, it is recommended to conduct the MAST in addition to the AUDIT. Furthermore, the use of confidential online drug screening tools is also required for the client to control his or her drug consumption.
Report on Sample Two Results
In order to determine alcohol and drug-related problems in individuals, it is necessary to apply screening tools. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the CAGE tool are the most popular and actively used ones among them. The report is aimed at providing and analyzing the results of tests indicating the client’s state in relation to alcohol consumption and drug abuse.
The AUDIT is a widely used screening tool for determining drinking behaviors, and its strengths are in standardization, easiness, and possibilities to detect harmful alcohol consumption. Still, weaknesses are associated with the low stability of test results. The DAST is an effective tool to measure the risky behaviors of patients in relation to different types of drugs in both clinical and non-clinical settings. Moreover, this test requires easy administration and takes only a few minutes to complete (Perkinson, 2017). However, its disadvantages are associated with the impossibility to assess the current status of drug consumption, the number of used substances, and the frequency of using them. The CAGE screening tool is effective to focus on the problem of drinking when clients are not asked any preliminary questions, which allows for identifying the presence of the problem. However, the disadvantage of this test is in the absence of any information on quantity and frequency related to drinking.
The analyzed tests are used for addiction assessment separately and in combination. The CAGE questionnaire and the AUDIT support each other, and they are used for identifying problems with alcohol consumption. The DAST allows for identifying possible drug-related problems. In order to receive a full picture, clients should be proposed to answer the CAGE questionnaire and the AUDIT questions and then refer to the DAST.
The AUDIT score related to the client is 10, the CAGE questionnaire score is 2, and the DAST score is 10. The AUDIT score indicates a risky level for the client associated with a moderate risk of harming health. The CAGE results should be viewed as clinically significant. The DAST score indicates that the client had or has a substance use disorder. Analyzing these results in their combination, it is possible to note that the client has problems related to alcohol and drug consumption that require assistance and interventions.
To overcome ambiguities in interpreting test results, it is necessary to conduct additional assessments using other detailed tools and communicate with the client regarding the current situation with drinking and consuming substances. The purpose is to determine whether the drug-related problem is current and learn about the frequency of consuming alcohol and drugs. If during the conversation the client reports being in the withdrawal stage regarding the alcohol or narcotics use, the application of the relevant withdrawal scales should be considered (Perkinson, 2017). This step is important to control the client’s progress in coping with his or her disease.
The client has problems with drugs and alcohol, and the use of additional addiction-related assessments is required. It is important to apply the NIDA ASSIST Drug Use Screening Tool in order to conclude regarding the client’s risk level of being involved in drug abuse (Harris, Louis-Jacques, & Knight, 2014). The results regarding alcohol consumption should also be checked, and the TAPS (Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription Medication, Substance) assessment should be applied (McNeely et al., 2016). This tool is helpful to demonstrate whether the client has a severe problem regarding substance consumption, it is appropriate to support the AUDIT results, and it allows for receiving a complex picture of the disease.
The results indicate that the client has problems with consuming drugs and alcohol. In order to receive more detailed findings regarding the observed problem, it is recommended for the client to be assessed with the help of the NIDA ASSIST Drug Use Screening Tool and the TAPS measurement tool. The received scores will be important to indicate the level of risks related to the client’s health and the nature of his or her substance use in order to determine appropriate interventions. The reason for further assessments is in the fact that the client is at risk of developing a severe level of substance abuse, as it is determined with reference to the recently administered test results.
Harris, S. K., Louis-Jacques, J., & Knight, J. R. (2014). Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse. Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 25(1), 126-156.
Knightly, R., Tadros, G., Sharma, J., Duffield, P., Carnall, E., Fisher, J., & Salman, S. (2016). Alcohol screening for older adults in an acute general hospital: FAST v. MAST-G assessments. BJPsych Bulletin, 40(2), 72-76.
McNeely, J., Wu, L. T., Subramaniam, G., Sharma, G., Cathers, L. A., Svikis, D.,… O’Grady, K. E. (2016). Performance of the tobacco, alcohol, prescription medication, and other substance use (TAPS) tool for substance use screening in primary care patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 165(10), 690-699.
Nomura, K., Kojima, T., Ishii, S., Yonekawa, T., Akishita, M., & Akazawa, M. (2018). Identifying drug substances of screening tool for older persons’ appropriate prescriptions for Japanese. BMC Geriatrics, 18(1), 154-162.
Perkinson, R. R. (2017). Chemical dependency counseling: A practical guide (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.