Racial Struggles in Detroit During Riots of 1967

Subject: History
Pages: 20
Words: 5505
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Study level: Undergraduate


The 1967 Detroit Riot was one of the myriad civil riots experienced in the United States before the close of the century. Racial struggles dominated most of these riots. For instance, in the case of the 1967 Detroit Riots, it all began when the anti-vice police division masterminded an impromptu attack on the black neighborhood in one of the streets of Detroit. These were normal police patrols which culminated in a four day long riots with massive casualties. About forty three people lost their lives with hundreds sustaining serious injuries. Before the outbreak of the riots, there persisted quite a number of grievances ranging from police brutality to harassment by white merchants. The most basic concern was that of racial segregation which consequently led to economic deprivation of the minority blacks. This face off between the afro Americans and majority whites led to lifelong bitterness which remained embedded in the history of Detroit city to date. This paper gives an in-depth analysis of the genesis, cause, and effects of the 1967 Detroit riots and how sports may have played a crucial role in healing the city and its residents’ years later.

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The Genesis of the Riots

The origin of the riots had deeper underlying concerns prior to its outbreak. What began as an ordinary evening police patrol ended up into a massacre. Some eighty two people who were in a partying mood celebrating the successful return of two soldiers from Vietnam. The police officers made a grievous mistake to arrest all those who were in the gathering1. Consequently, a disorganized crowd which was nearby staged a protest. They rudely attacked business premises amid claims of rampant looting. The whole situation grew chaotic when anti riot police officers drew in to calm the rioters. The northwest of Detroit became a no go zone as police engaged the rioters in fierce battle. The violence escalated and spread to the eastern side of the city. Many blacks were shot with live bullets as police strived to have full control of the city in place. Apart from the forty three people who died, about two thousand were seriously injured and more than seven thousand put under police custody2.

As highlighted earlier, there was more than meets the eye in regard to the actual cause of the 1967 Detroit Riots. It is understood the main trigger of the violence was racial imbalance inequity which prevailed both in the north and south of United States of America before, during, and even after the post war era. This generated myriad socio-economic and political challenges which swept across the mainly black poor masses. As a ripple effect, these marginalized minority blacks sought ways to address this racial factor. Indeed, the riots came at the nick of time and they took advantage of it. Some of the causes of the Detroit riots are discussed in the next section.

Brutality of the Police Unit

The 1960s marked the period when police intensified their street patrols. They could arrest virtually any black on such scenes like bars and other entertainment joints especially during evening hours. The area around the 12th street was particularity zones of police brutality3. In most instances, black residents would be harassed beyond measure. For example, those who were unable to confirm their “right identification” would be apprehended and face the uncouth treatment of the police. At times, the worst could happen to those under police custody in the sense that some death cases were reported. Besides, inhuman beating of the so called black offenders featured a lot in police brutality records. As police continued to deploy excess force in the administration of their duties, they became less and less popular among the minority blacks. There was general resentment coupled with an attitude of rebellion towards the police force. In one of the surveys carried out by the Detroit press, the black residents cited police harassment as the bitterest concern4. As a result, when the riot broke out, black Detroit residents extended their vengeance against the police unit.


Before the riots, serious housing problem was a thorn in the flesh among the Afro-Americans. After some survey was conducted on the actual causes of the 1967 riots, the response was almost unanimous. After police harassment, poor housing or lack of it was the second grievance surrounding the blacks5. The main challenge which had been facing Detroit for a considerable length of time was the discriminatory manner in which houses were allocated to residents; it was purely on the merit of race. The African Americans had a lower probability of securing basic housing let alone decent ones. The better part of Detroit was dominated by white Americans who secured houses in posh neighborhoods. Moreover, due to fear of black dominating Detroit city, the indigenous white Americans attempted to physically segregate themselves from surging population of afro-Americans. Some whites even constructed concrete parameter walls to clearly demarcate the boundaries between them and the blacks. In addition, most of the white residents crusaded against the alleged plans of incorporating the housing program to include the welfare of the minority blacks6. In spite of the fact that the minority blacks eventually found their way into housing units which were formerly owned by the whites, they could not avoid paying higher rates than the whites alongside a myriad of restrictions which limited them from enjoying some residential benefits. This aggravated the degree of bitterness among the Afro Americans who later had to retaliate by directing their anger during the 1967 Detroit Riots.

Urban Upgrading Program

Following the Detroit city and suburban renewal program which sought to create more routes linking the city and its environs, most of the black owned residents were brought down by bulldozers to pave way for the reconstruction process. This aggravated the housing challenge which had hitherto been an issue of concern. The old problem of housing surfaced again, making the black Americans more gullible to the daily challenges that accompanied accommodation. This devastating destruction of black American residential sites left an indelible mark of fury which had to be manifested during the riots.

Economic imbalance

Detroit was initially a leading centre of automobile industry where major car manufacturing companies like General Motors had their plants well established. In fact, the city was highly regarded as a centre for industrial growth. However, the notable car companies later decided to decentralize their operations and relocate to other cities. The assembly of motor vehicle parts was not only done in Detroit but in other locations as well7. This aspect led to deindustrialization of the city and consequently, many young blacks who were earlier workers for these automobile companies faced the full wrath of hard economic times. They were poorly paid and overworked, a phenomenon that greatly deprived afro Americans of their economical well being. They were mainly employed as junior semi skilled workers characterized with low wages. This situation eventually demoralized the black Americans and created an atmosphere of hopelessness and dejection. An aura of anger built up with time which was evident during the 1967 riots.

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Black Supremacy

The afro Americans continued to feel a sense of discontent and betrayal even after some of them were appointed to prominent positions. Jerome Cavanaugh, who was a mayor in Detroit city by that time, had a cordial working environment with other community groups. However, this did not impress most African Americans who thought that they had not been adequately represented in matters of administration. According to them, the rate at which racial reforms was taking place was too slow. Besides, they claimed that there was incessant racial imbalance which hindered blacks from enjoying similar civil benefits as their counterpart whites. Some Afro American leaders called for an urgent need for Black Militancy which would counteract any negative influence emanating from the whites. Quite a number of black meetings held in Detroit city prepared the black Americans for any eventuality. The campaign messages were clear; there was desperate need for afro Americans to redeem themselves from the chains of racism and subversive rule. This, by no doubt, psychologically prepared African Americans ready to fight for their rights.

Population Dynamics

The period before the 1967 Detroit Riots witnessed large numbers of white Americans shifting away from the city. There was a drastic decline in the population of the whites during the 1950s. Conversely, the black population went on the rise to about thirty per cent down from sixteen per cent8. By the beginning of 1967, Afro Americans constituted about forty per cent of the total Detroit city population9. This demographic change which was characterized by white flight culminated into the upsurge of illegal social groupings which accentuated crime rate. Besides, the population change created a holistic ground where racism would be exercised to the latter with the absence of most whites and Black dominance. The repercussion of the phenomenon was explicitly observed and experienced in the 12th street. Fine notes that the transformation from White to Black dominance in Detroit took place within the twinkle of an eye. The city became packed with the Black population and as a result, housing problem resurfaced. This densely populated zone comprising of mainly marginalized Blacks would later act as the epicenter of the skirmishes10.

After the 1967 Detroit Riots, the aspect of anger and bitterness prevailed between the Blacks and Whites. Each had a strong feeling that the other counterpart did not deserve this or that. However, as can be observed, racial practices which led to the discrimination of African Americans was the real thorn in the flesh and the main point of contention prior to the outbreak of the devastating riots which left forty three dead and several others injured. This hatred between the Blacks and Whites persisted for long despite racial reform strategies which aimed at debunking racism and embracing civil rights and social justice. In addition, the appointment of Afro American elites into senior and influential positions initiated the healing process though in a limited scale.

However, as prescribed earlier in the thesis statement, the paper will critically explore the healing process brought about by sports as the Tigers made it to the World Series in 1968.

Educational Facilities

Before the riots broke out, most of the government owned schools lacked basic infrastructure due to inadequate funding and racial segregation. Bearing in mind that most whites had shifted from Detroit, there were less taxes being remitted to the local authorities. At the same time, there were surging numbers of students who sought admission places where resources were already overstretched. As the standards of education declined especially in the rural areas, children from the affluent whites sought admission elsewhere especially in district urban schools. The acceptable class numbers as prescribed by Michigan laws was thirty five. However, this number was exceeded by far. Besides, the low number of teachers which characterized this challenge aggravated the situation. Although the Detroit school Board enacted a law which would prohibit racial segregation in schools when it comes to allocation of resources, the situation did not change much. A myriad of afro American organizations still pushed for fair and equitable treatment of school going children regardless of their racial status. This added up to some of the grievances by non-whites.

Harassment by the Business Elite

Businessmen in Detroit who were mainly whites prevailed against the blacks in terms of how they were treated and generally served by these merchants. The non-whites were generally discontented by the way the white merchants handled them. Unconfirmed cases reported that some storekeepers verbally assaulted the blacks upon being served. They equally lacked courtesy towards the black customers. This kind of consistent bitter relationship between the blacks and whites was a key ingredient even as the riot broke out in 1967. These concerns were indeed expressed through running battles with the police amid destruction of property and loss of lives.

The Detroit Tigers and the World Series

This is a remarkable baseball team located in Detroit. The team has had sterling performance in the World Series for a considerable number of times. For instance, it has recorded four victories between 1935 and 1984. As a leading baseball team, it has been a champion in American League pennant for more than eight times. The earliest play ground for the Tigers was initiated way back in 1896 at Bennet Park. Later, the team shifted to Navin field. The field was re-branded in 1961 and named after the Tigers. Currently, the team dominates a park at Commerica. Although the Tigers had had a history of exemplary performance in the World series, the 1968 and all the other subsequent championships has provided Detroit city with a healing platform from the devastating effects of the 1967 riots.

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The Tigers baseball team had much moral support from its fans which were drawn from both the black and white Americans. In fact, the first eve match played by the team when it first became a national league was graced by over ten thousand fans11. This dramatic support for the Tigers greatly contributed to its success as evidenced in the numerous scores it had in the World Series.

After Tiger won in the 1945 World Series, they did not do much in following decade mainly due to the race struggles which had sunk deep in Detroit. The healing process was not in place at all and players were equally affected by this phenomenon.

After the dull decade during the 1950s, the Tigers slowly recuperated back and in 1961, they had a splendid record of winning over one hundred games. In fact, two Blacks were prominently featured during the Series. Later matches saw black players contributing significantly towards the prominence of the team.

The year that was marked by Detroit Riots coincided with a very important season for the Tigers. They were to contest against California Angels. Although some black Americans had started featuring in baseball game, it was still a preserve of the whites. Racial discrimination was rife in sports arena. How could a black American face off in the same team as a white? In essence, these were some of the underlying grievances which the Blacks had to deal with amid racism. Although the Tigers team was mainly dominated by the affluent whites, Detroit victory was a celebration shared by both the blacks and whites. Hence, even after the 1967 Detroit Riots, the resounding victory of the Tigers in the 1968 World Series struck Detroit with song and dance of jubilation. This was worth it having missed out in the World Series for three decades. They snatched the championship title from Baltimore Orioles. The black American starters in the Tiger team were notable as they played pretty well leading to the team’s success. One black American who was a pitcher for the first time made a record win of more than thirty games in a single season.

This breaking was last hit down by a white way back in 1934. He definitely replenished the image and status of team despite his racial background. Indeed, racial stereotypes began to slowly fade away with this astounding performance from a young black American. Due to this, he was voted as the most precious player of the team. Consequently, he was accorded the Cy Young Award for his fruitful efforts. At this point, what was necessary in the team was to defend its championship title irrespective of the race factor. The team worked as a unit and there was simmering support from both the blacks and whites. For its reason, the Tigers had to strategize well on how to encounter the former victors, St Louis Cardinals. The game was equally played but the Mickey Lolich made the Tigers to raise a step higher to play the seventh game. The fans rallied their support for the Tigers against St. Louis Cardinals and eventually, the Tigers won. This was greatly attributed to the fact that the black American had demonstrated his enduring ability and competence during the game which facilitated the Tigers to win the game four to one while securing a four to three win in the series. By the end of the game and series, Lolich was awarded with the title of the Most Valuable Player of the World Series. This brought jubilation not only to him but to the entire baseball fraternity comprising of both Blacks and Whites.

A lot was transforming in the minds of many during this World Series. In the first place, this was the first time a black American could be appreciated for splendid performance in sports. Earlier before that, it was not uncommon for a black American to be discriminated in every societal development. Social justice was a preserve of the whites while the blacks were perceived in bad light.

If sporting activities in Detroit was anything to go by as far as the healing process after the 1967 riots was concerned, then the Tigers baseball team flaring well in the World Series indeed acted as a unifying factor between the blacks and whites.

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In 1969, there were some changes that were carried out in the team to make it more vibrant and result oriented. Both afro Americans and the Whites in the baseball portfolio participated in the realignment process. Although Detroit did not manage to defend its World championship title, it emerged the second best team amidst a very strong opponent, the team from Baltimore. The contesting team was considered a baseball giant having secured the top position one hundred and nine times. There was more cohesion being built up on a daily basis as the Tigers spearheaded their plans to remain top in the league. Furthermore, the 1967 bruises began to slowly heal especially among the blacks who had serious causalities during the four day life threatening riots12.

Also happening at this time when the Tigers were excelling in the World Series was the racial reform agenda which aimed at achieving equity and uniform justice process for all races. Some blacks with sound educational backgrounds were appointed to senior managerial positions debunking the myth that an afro American would never be suitable to lead. This transformed the labor market a great deal. Besides, there was increasing need to incorporate labor laws as part of work ethics.

In 1972, the Tigers made yet another breakthrough by winning the AL East trophy. This came as a surprise to the entire baseball fraternity (both the whites and blacks included). In fact, the victory took the Tigers less than a full match. One of the reasons why this victory was not expected that soon was because the last time the Tigers stroke the record was way back in 1908 when racism was at the core of practice. It was also unimaginable for the team to take such a short time to leave an indelible mark of championship. In deed, the blacks who were part of the Tigers baseball team made tangible contribution towards the success of the team. Sports in baseball had become such a unifying factor which brought all races together. In the case of the Tigers, a common enemy now was the opponent in the game but not fellow players or other races in Detroit.

Still in 1972, the Tigers contested against the American League West. This team had earlier been a real threat to Detroit Tigers especially since the Tigers went through re-adjustment process. On the initial game, the 1968 valuable player by the name Lolich demonstrated his eminence in baseball and managed to penetrate through nine entries.

After the 1972 season, the Tigers started to encounter gradual drop in their performance. The years between 1973 and 1978 were characterized with poor performance both in the local and regional contests. As the Tigers overall manager, Martin did not make it during the beginning of 1970s. As a result, Tigers ranked between normal to below normal positions throughout that decade. One of the reasons for the slow drop in Tigers sterling performance was due to the aging heroes of the 1960s whom could not cope with the emerging dynamics of baseball not only because of age but also due to changing skills and competences. Besides, one of the worst blows to the Tigers was the quitting of Kaline who had contributed remarkably to the success of Detroit baseball. As the decade drew to a close, some ray of hope shone through the Tigers when Mark Fidrych made advances to uplift the spirit and fame of baseball. Tiger fans from either black or white origins greatly wished that baseball recovers. It was a type of sport which meant so much both to the players and fans. Tracing black the Detroit Riots of 1967, the encounters were slowly fading away. Most Detroit’s, and especially the youthful fans, discussed and deliberated in the fate of baseball not on the basis of race but rather with the focus to capture lost championships to World Series.

The management of the Tigers changed hands from the end of the 1970s up until 1995. George Anderson who managed the team for that long was one of the outstanding baseball architects. He was highly optimistic that the Tigers would secure victory in pennant games in the next five yeas13. In the early 1960s and before the close of that decade, Detroit stood high in terms of people’s perception in the United States. Most U.S citizens regarded Detroit as the centre of harmonized race relations. The black Detroit mayor by the name Cavanagh Jerome was a good symbol of racial harmony which existed. During the Mayorship of Jerome, several reform agendas were carried out in the police unit. In reality, Detroit was doing much better in terms of race relations bearing in mind it was situated in the north where most whites dominated. In spite of the positive efforts made by the administration to improve the social status of the blacks, there was a lot of dissatisfaction among the blacks. Seemingly, nothing would really bring them closer at that time. However, with the Tigers dominating the World Series a sense of unity finally set in to not only heal the 1967 riot wounds but to enhance cohesiveness in the society irrespective of racial background.

Furthermore, the Detroit education sector especially in public schools suffered a lot due to discrimination associated with racism. This was specifically rampant before the 1967 riots. Since most of the whites’ population shifted from Detroit, it led to low tax collection because they were the main tax remitters in the North. Consequently, public schools in the rural area lacked proper funding. This culminated into poor or no physical facilities to support the running of these institutions. While this was taking place, the black population continued to grow steadily putting more strain to the limited resources. This was a major grievance prior to the outbreak of the riots. Some of these challenges were later diffused with the pre-eminence of the Tigers to the World Series. More attention was on maintaining the championship title and not merely concentrating on race stereotypes.

Judging from the aftermath of the 1967 riots in Detroit, there were mixed reactions emanating from both the afro Americans and the whites on the events before and during the riots. One aspect that appalled many was the extent of damage. There are those who believed that these riots brought about the sense of recognition to the existence of Black supremacy. In addition, the sporting activities which acted as a bridge between the whites and blacks created a firm base through which both races would share a common platform. When the Tigers proved their superiority to baseball coupled with fanatic support from both blacks and whites, other ingredients of peace and harmony chipped in within the subconscious knowledge of the Detroit residents. For example, the church leadership witnessed African-Americans being incorporated in the leadership structure. The white Americans who had been church leaders for long saw no need of integrating race factor and social segregation as a tool for running their affairs.

After the 1967 Detroit riots, several surveys conducted revealed that there was less liking and appeal for total separation among races. Even the whites who had hitherto been pro separation had now relinquished their tough stance on this matter.

The Detroit Tigers also surfaced as champions during the 1984 World Series a process which started earlier than expected14. The team faced off with Chicago with notable players like Jack Morris and Chet Lemo in the team. By this team, the Tigers were very coherent as a team that the concern about racism was neither a headache nor a splitting factor in the team. Judging from the composition of the players, there were black and white participants who were accorded equal rights irrespective of skin color or social and economic background. In any case, the healing process which began soon after the 1967 Detroit Roots had already impacted positively in the lives and attitude of the team members and the general population as a whole. As the Tigers fought for the victory against Kansas City Royals, it was evident that the former would win the game due to spirited effort from players who explicitly demonstrated a high level of cohesiveness as they faced a common foe, the Kansas City Royals.

The Tigers were not playing in their home ground and so they had no home pitch advantage. Nevertheless, this yet another bout of victory courtesy of a long term healing of people who had been devastated by hatred and bitterness. The Tigers equally dominated when the series was taken to Motor City. A popular culture called “sounds of the Game” was coined out after the end of the series. It became a common tune to every baseball lover. Its popularity went up when it was played both on radio and TV channels. As this became common, many celebrated the Tigers and attempted to forget the old wounds of racism. The use of the mass media to relay some of the jubilation messages associated with the Tigers victory was a big boost towards healing Detroit City and its occupants despite the grievous losses they incurred before the end of the 1960s. It should also be noted that the success story of the Tigers as an integrative and cohesive team stretched beyond the boarders of Detroit. This was inevitable because baseball was not only a preserve of the Detroit Tigers; it was a popular game the world over. Therefore, as the Detroit residents were up in jubilation, other baseball fans elsewhere equally felt the spirit and jubilation.

The return of the Tigers

After going through a long season of declined performance, the Tigers eventually rose to their foot in 1984 to recapture the lost glory. The winning team for this season started on a low note. The team garnered one hundred and four victories. The composition of this time was one that did not spread the bad message of racial struggles; there was equity in the total proportion of the team. During this Series, the Tigers played with the Kansas City royals. The Tigers continued to lead even when the team moved to Motor City. During all these games, Detroit was gaining popularity and fame much more than any city in the north.

The Pop Culture

Much of the influence brought forth by the Tiger teams is on the popular culture adopted by its fans. Since the 1967 riots, there has been a growing tendency towards the adoption of a particular way of relating among the Tiger fans which cuts across both the black and white race. To begin with, the Tigers have unified the fans through media outreach. For example, the CBS TYV channel hosted a series in 1980 in which one of the main actors in the play had put on a hat with Detroit Tiger’s label.

Another pop culture courtesy of the Tigers was evidenced in the group nicknamed D12. The grouped composed of rappers while their fans equally put on Detroit Tiger hats when paying casual visits to entertainment points. Through these pop culture associated with music, plays and films, the Detroit Tigers became like household names. The healing phenomenon brought about by the pop culture was fundamental. For example, rap music engaged both the black and white inhabitants of Detroit city therefore offering a viable form of entertainment. This entertaining atmosphere from pop music dissipated the bitter feelings and racial exchanges which had dominated Detroit before and immediately after the 1967 riots. In addition, the film industry boasted of the Tigers and one of his commentators was clad in a Tigers hat when documenting a film. Such exposures did not only draw the Detroit population closer to appreciate their identity but also inculcated love for the Tigers. Another notable film where the Tigers identity appeared was when Clarence Boddicker pointed out in the RoboCop film that the Tigers were to have a match later during the day and he would watch the game without fail.

As pop culture sets in through the Detroit Tigers, many people and especially the Detroit residents got a real healing as they more or less did not dwell on the atrocities of racial segregation but rather the value they got from the new entertainment culture in music, acting as well as video industry. In any case, the race factor has gradually lost meaning and there is little importance attached to it.

Another area of importance in the healing process of the Detroit black and white population is on the various landmarks and developments which have been put in place by the Tigers for over one hundred years. The legacy of the team is great and worth noting. To begin with, the fallen heroes have been remembered in a remarkable manner. For instance, Ty Cobb has his name engraved on Comerica Park. Besides this, other legendary baseball players, whether white or black have been recognized in a variety of ways15.

In embracing the pop culture and maintaining popularity status of the Detroit Tigers, the team had well established broadcast studios both for television and radio. The significance of these media stations is to air the Detroit Tigers games. In so doing, the Tigers have managed to bring the populace close together through the power of the media. Furthermore, the media houses do not only target sports news but other popular pieces of entertainment as well.

The Detroit Tigers’ TV station Fox Sports Detroit also actively participates in airing Tiger news and commentaries. The television station has thousands of funs who pay tribute to it through listening and watching programs. Again, it should be realized that the content aired to tea public is not targeted towards a particular race but is consumed by all and sundry. By so doing, both the radio and television stations have acted as unifying factors through positive messages and entertainment value.


The racial struggles of which was characterized by the 1967 riots in Detroit city had its roots in the underlying grievances of discrimination on the basis of skin color. The riots broke out between the black residents and the police force that were termed to be keeping peace. Prior to the outbreak of the skirmishes, there were serious allegations of police brutality specifically towards the black residents of the northern city of Detroit. The police officers were categorically singled out as the number one source of discontent among the black Americans. For instance, there were several reported cases of reckless police shooting of the non-whites without clear reasons. In some instances, the non whites could be seriously beaten and maimed.

Apart from the police concern, economic imbalance which was brought about by rampant discrimination towards labor was a thorn in flesh for the deprived blacks. They could only secure junior positions which were mainly meant for semi skilled workers. As a result, they were economically marginalized to an extent that they could not afford basic amenities like housing and education.

These, among other reasons, created bitter feelings which only needed to be provoked before it could erupt to violence. For this reason, when the police slightly shaken this weak balance, the riots broke out and escalated to alarming levels in a span of four days, claiming forty three lives and wounding tens of others. Even as this was going on, the Detroit Tigers were up in arms preparing themselves for the 1968 season. This was going to be great news to the whole of Detroit as the team emerged the 1968 World Series champions, a title they had failed to defend for thirty three good years. As it was expected, this victory brought significant jubilation to both the players and baseball fraternity at large. In fact, the issue of race was not important at this point. Later, the emergence of the pop culture associated with the Detroit Tigers illuminated the minds of many through entertainment and other royalties. Indeed, the rising of the Tigers to the World Series crated a healing platform for wounded Detroit residents who went through hard moments after the 1968 riots.


Bak, Richard. 1991. Cobb Would Have Caught It: The Golden Age of Baseball in Detroit, Wayne State University Press.

Detroit Free Press. 1968. Return to 12th Street: A Follow-Up Survey of Attitudes of Detroit Negroes. Detroit Free Press

Eldridge, Grant. 2001. Willie Horton: Detroit’s Own Willie the Wonder, Wayne State University Press.

Farley, Reynolds, Sheldon Danziger, and Harry J. Holzer. 2000. Detroit Divided. New York: Russell Sage Foundation

Fine, Sidney.1989. Violence in the Model City. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press,

National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. 1968. Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. New York: Bantam Books

Pattison, Mark. 2002. Detroit Tigers Lists and More Runs, Hits and Eras. Wayne State University Press

Sugrue, Thomas. 1996. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Post- War Detroit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press

Thomas, June Manning. 1997. Redevelopment and Race: Planning a Finer City in Postwar Detroit. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press


  1. None of those in the gathering was a criminal.
  2. Prostitutes and youths could be arrested as well as verbally abused (Fine 1989:98).
  3. Detroit Free Press 1968, Fine 1989, Thomas 1967.
  4. Thomas 1997:130-131.
  5. Farley et al. 2000:154-161.
  6. Sugrue 1996:128.
  7. Fine 1989:4.
  8. National Advisory Committee on Civil Disorders 1968:89-90.
  9. Fine 1989:4.
  10. Richard Bak, A Place for Summer: A Narrative History of Tiger Stadium, 1998, pp. 73–74.
  11. Detroit Tigers Lists and More Runs.
  12. Detroit’s Own Willie the Wonder.
  13. Richard Bak, A Place for Summer, 1998, p. 332.
  14. The Golden Age of Baseball in Detroit.