List of Abbreviations
- Afghan Border Police = ABP
- Afghan National Army = ANA
- Afghan National Police = ANP
- Afghan Uniformed Police = AUP
- Afghan Counter-Narcotics Police = ACNP
- Afghan National Civil Order Police = ANCOP
- Army Forces Strategic Command = AFSC
- Army Space and Missile Defense Command = ASMDC
- Combined Security Transition Command–Afghanistan = CSTCA
- Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration = DDR
- Department of Defense = DoD
- District Governor and the District Chief of Police = DCOP
- European Union Police Mission in Afghanistan = EUPOL
- Embedded Police Mentors = EPMs
- Focused District Development = FDD
- Geographic Information Systems = GIS
- High Peace Council = HPC
- International Security Assistance Force = ISAF
- International Security Forces Assistance Team = ISFAT
- International Security Assistance Force = ISAF
- Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghan = LOFTA
- Ministry of Interior = Mol
- Ministry of Defense = MoD
- National Uniformed Police = NUP
- New Public Management = NPM
- Office of Acquisitions Management = OAM
- Operational Detachment Alpha = ODA
- People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan = PDPA
- Provincial Reconstruction Teams = PRTs
- Security Sector Reform = SSR
- U.S. Training Center = USTC
Following the terrorist attack of nine eleven, the US government expressed its strong stand to abolish Al-Qaeda and Taliban from the earth and started the Afghan war in 2001 along with its global allies from fifty nations including the EU and NATO. Afghan mission was easily capable to descend the Taliban from the state power and establishing a US-backed government, but it became part of the longest US military struggle of history without any end due to the Taliban insurgency. The US-NATO forces settled to leave Afghanistan by the end of 2014 and started reforming different governmental agencies where Afghan National Police (ANP) reform was one of their top priorities. This paper will analyze the impact of different training programs of ANP like Embedded Police Mentors (EPMs) in order to identify the future direction of ANP reform to establish it as a civil force for law enforcement.In only 3 hours we’ll deliver a custom Reformation of Afghan National Police essay written 100% from scratch Get help
NATO (2010, p.1) and ACO (2013, p.1) stated that Afghan National Police (ANP) has organized with 81,842 members of AUP, 14,494 members of ABP, 3,964 members of ANCOP, and 2,695 members of ACNP, the entire police force are going under training and capacity building to control law and order situation in absence of multinational forces. However, ANP has been striving to reach target strength of 157,000 before the combined force would be withdrawn from Afghanistan while training is the basic tool to boost its rate of literacy, dropping corruption, enhance operational capabilities, building leadership, and gaining greater survivability (NATO, 2010; and ACO, 2013). To continue ANP reformation, it required huge investment that already spent US$ 2.4 billion up to January 2012 where the US along with 23 countries provided 97% of the salaries through LOFTA and the rest 3% provided by the Afghan government (ACO, 2013, p.1).
In the post-war era, the donor agencies, UN mission, and stakeholders were much more aware to reform the Afghan National Police as part of rebuilding Afghanistan through various socioeconomic factors had created the environment worse to reform of ANP. This dissertation critically illustrates the role of ‘’Embedded Police Mentors’’ and their training programs to influence the reform process of Afghan National Police; however, this study will take into account several factors, such as, policemen’s motivation and expectations of the international actors within the ongoing reformation agenda that emerged and experienced under the jurisdiction of Afghanistan. The perception of the international actors in Afghanistan was that the ANP reform programs have been going on the right track and implementing different training schemes, but most of them were under pressure to bring remarkable shifts; there is no evidence to introduce any sustainable standard of a strategic approach for ANP that would be acceptable by the stakeholders.
Background of the problem
Wilder (2007, p.65) pointed out that it is a challenging factor to the UN mission, donors, and other actors like development agencies working in Afghanistan to assess the progress of Afghan National Police reform. At the same time, it was a vital question to what extent the actors would be able to implement any effectual strategy to improve performance and strengthen the organizational structure in the post-war era (Wilder 2007, p.65). The result of the findings of the actors is very disappointing, as the ANP has aligned with corruption, mistrust, reluctant to participate in training, self-evident attitude to religious radicalism along with deteriorating security condition, rising police casualty at an alarming rate have generated a vulnerable situation in the ANP reformation process (Wilder, 2007; and Curtis, 2003). Moreover, different studies illustrated that the inadequate outcomes of the ANP reformation have a strong accord with the reformation of MoI and Judiciary as both organs of the state are very ill-equipped to encounter the raising Taliban revolts (Wilder, 2007). Although the training program under ANP reformation has gained little progress, lack of coordination among the international communities regarding the objectives of training has destabilized the progress, for instance, while the viewpoint of Germany is to establish ANP as a civilian force, the USA aimed to engage the force for anti-Taliban campaign. Such tension among the donor agencies primarily hindered the ANP reform strategy, moreover, insufficient coordination of MoI to harmonize the police units under the ANP along with different security agencies of the country have polluted with corruption to a higher extent were combating with the Taliban rebellion turned into a complex stage (Checchia, 2012; Richard, 2009; and Dianna, 2009).
Wilbanks (2013) added that the US Company DynCorp International with combined efforts of ISAF and its embedded police mentors conducted a professional development course in order to improve the skills of Afghan police in Kandahar that provided thirty-one areas of essential police works and educated them how to be an instructor or leader for the further training program. At the beginning of the course, the EPM of DynCorp urged that they have given a military school environment in the classes and they were confident that some of the participants of this course would be successful and able to design new training programs in absence of combined force in Afghanistan (Wilbanks, 2013). EPM also explained that the benefit of this training would be evidenced by increasing professionalism of the police that assist them to formulate further training at their local groups with the greater capacity building; however, Miller (2013) presented a very frustrating scenario of the trained Afghan police. Miller (2013) reported that in the province of Ghazni, the US troops along with seventeen police were working to strengthen the security of a remote area; one of the police officers drugged all the group members and called Taliban insurgents who come first and pathetically shoot them all dead. While this shocking incident came through the media, it knocked humanity all over the world; moreover, suicide squared and boom burst upon the UN forces is not a new thing in Afghanistan, but after having EPM training a police officer could be a collaborator of Taliban to killing US troops, raised the question what motivation provided by the million’s dollar training.
BBC (2012) reported that MoD has confirmed that the members of the Afghan national police shot two members of Embedded Police Mentors who were engaged to provide training to the ANP at a security base in the district of Lashkar Gah. Both EPMs were men of immeasurable promise along with standards of talented team commander to performing a very significant role for training and mentoring ANP; in addition, they were functioning to ensure that Afghanistan would not at all back to its pastime while it was a heavenly place for global terrorists and would never capable of attacking any civilized society. The two bright officers of the police advisory team were dedicated to rebuilding Afghanistan by reforming the ANP, but they lost their lives at the hands of their trainees, although the number of military deaths was very high, but the killing of the EPMs by their trainees raised the question to the outcome of the training program.
Qayomi (2012) reported that in a press meet in Kabul, the British defense secretary was justifying the presence of multinational force in Afghanistan, but his statement has extensively condemned by the Afghan civil society and urged to stop the foreign interference that destabilize the peace talks between the government and the Taliban. Therefore, this is time for foreign nations to stop imposing their own political ideology on Afghans and should avoid pressurizing the government to break down the peace process while the continuous foreign propaganda is generating uncertainty for Afghan reconstruction and materialization. The HPC strongly argued that the foreign forces in Afghanistan have been evidencing continuous defeat at their ‘war against terrorism and they try to hide their failure by blaming the government; so, it is better to let the Afghan people make their fortune without any foreign interference.Academic experts
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Within this above scenario, the EPM, and many other trainers of police have aimed to reform ANP and continuously keep efforts to rectify the motivation and attitude of ANP, but the reformation process of ANP has been going through various unstable circumstances encountering different challenges and increasing threats Taliban insurgents. Under this background problem, this author has settled to carry out a study with the emergence and the development of the reformation process of ANP taking into account EPM impacts and considering that such a study would determine a new way out for stakeholders and would assist the Afghans to uphold their sovereignty without foreign interference by mitigating existing dilemmas.
Rationale of the research
Many global security scholars like Palmiotto and Unnithan (2010), O’Rawe (2007), Panth (2011), Smith (2003), Noble and Le Roy (2009), Murray (2007) have tried to find out the solution to the question of what would be the effectual training process to improve the skills and motivation of the Afghan National Police to cope with the shifting nature of terrorism. Others like Kratcoski and Das (2007), Flight (2010), Murray (2007), Steverson (2008), United Nations (2008), IPTACS (2009), Brown, Langer, and Stewart (2008), and Hooker (2011) have engaged their efforts to explore different police and army training process including embedded police mentors including their path, core curriculum, and direction to a particular motivation. There are also some other studies that kept particular attention to the different policing units of Afghanistan through different social and voluntary programs along with civil-military cooperation and community-based policing. Most of the studies of modern security scholars have concentrated on the standards of the Afghan National Police rectification protocols, crisis management, victim response, legislative reform along with the development of the justice system, but no overarching research agenda has not yet been proposed to investigate the impact of training like EPM on the reformation process of ANP.
Planty and Perito (2013, p.1) explored that the NATO training mission for ANP has been collaborating with the US combat forces; however, they decided to leave Afghanistan in 2014 and confessed their failure to establish the skills and capabilities of ANP to the minimum standard level required to ensure rule of law, citizens safety, crime control, and Taliban encounter. The future strategy for ANP has not yet ready, time left in hand to leave Afghanistan is less than a year, but the training programs are hampering with lack of funding and necessary resources, thus, it is emergence for the USA and its allies to address the challenges of reforming ANP as a civil force rather than militarized (NATO, 2010).
The rationale of this study is to investigate the roles of the police training programs like EPM in Afghanistan knowledgeable by observing the real-life scenario of the ANP to evaluate to what extent the existing implications of police training programs are effective in reducing the criminalization of ANP and upgrading their standards for future. Moreover, the purpose of this study is to raise the awareness of foreign powers working in Afghanistan, UN policymakers, and local regulators to assume responsibility for the unsafe attitude of the Afghan police while all of the stakeholders are very anxious to reinstate the confidence in the Afghan civil society about the foreign aggression in the country. In addition, this dissertation would assist the US policymakers, academia, legislators, and security inelegance with a better understanding of the lacking of ongoing police training that put into practice for a decade and associated fraudulent motivation of ANP that is the driving force for their non-holy alliance with the Taliban insurgents.
Research Question and Objectives
A huge number of studies have already been carried out with the nature and shape of police training in Afghanistan with the objective to rectify unethical behavior (particularly corruption and abuses of power) of ANP members and motivating them with the ideology of foreign powers (RUSI 2011, p.5; and Perito 2009, p.1). However, there was no effective research agenda to investigate the success of such training with complexities of local people’s motivation (RUSI 2011, p.5; and Perito, 2011, p.1). The legislation of Afghan police had amended in 2005 with very eagerness to upraise the capabilities of the police officers based on merit with higher pay scale and reduced number of officials committed to taking control over the terrorism and enhanced training to boost their current knowledge and prospects to cooperate with the multinational forces in the country. The objectives of the foreign forces were to establish the local police as a collaborator multinational peacekeeping force and train them with the foreign ideology that would motivate the police officers to support both the victims and foreign forces to encounter the Taliban with ethical standards directed by the US, UN and other foreign trainers under the amended legal framework. This study scrutinizes the understanding of the emergence and development of police training in Afghanistan by adopting the civil security theories along with the globalization approach of police reformation and judiciary coordination as a base of a theoretical framework to develop a sustainable police training approach that would work independently without foreign interference. This dissertation will investigate several issues, such as, does the historical perspectives of Afghan National police has developed its standards and dynamism to respond quickly to the victims support with the watchful duty provided by the legislative programs and training of EPMs and deal with the following research questions:
- What is the conceptual framework of Afghan National Police reform?
- How did police training like ‘Embedded Police Mentors’ (EPMs) influenced the ANP reform?
- What is the future direction for ANP reformation?
The answer to questions raised above would assess under careful considerations from the theoretical background along with practice evidence from the society of Afghanistan, these tasks are very significant to analyze since each of those issues is strongly interrelated with the scenario of said embedded police mentoring programs and success of ANP reformation.
Theoretical Framework of Police Reform
The second chapter of this dissertation will consider the essential theoretical framework for this study, such as, institutional theory of police reformation, globalization, and changing crime patterns, history of afghan police reformation, the importance of training program to reform ANP, and so on.15% OFF Get your very first custom-written academic paper with 15% off Get discount
Institutional Theory of Police Reformation
Meyer, Scott, and Deal (1980, p.34) stated the institutional theory of organizational structure for the educational sector, later Mastrofski (1999), Crank (2003) and Smith (2004) adopted that Institutional theory for police reformation that delivered an advancement in the performance of police; subsequently, these theories had measured and presented by Shane (2010). However, according to Crank (2003, p.1), the feature of an institute’s products and services does not voluntarily identify the approaches which are easy to comply with for conveying social progress; instead, it is crucial and rational to develop the technical capabilities of that institute in a well-structured manner in order to enhance the services to the desired level. Such organizational development has strongly accorded with the institutional environment at a level that obeys the rules of structural alignment of the organization including its program setting, the procedure of implication towards the short and long-run strategic objectives, which are extensively expected to generate right relationship among the organizational structures aimed to definite performance. It is the conceptual framework of institutionalism that the organizations would engage in a particular method that ensures an appropriate institutionalized working environment for the actors who would be rewarded for the right implication while the hypothesis is always against utilitarian structure and instrumental apprehension regarding the ends in an aggressive workplace (Reiner, 2003).
Crank (2003, p.2) and Gartenstein-Ross (2013) added that the police agency is the best instance of the institutionalized organization; moreover, different departments of police have considered organizations as they deliver valuable services at their constituents in a sovereign attitude that influence outfitted strategic decisions to generate values like public safety, protecting law and order safeguarding and upholding human rights. The organizational behavior of police would be designed in a manner where every member from top to bottom would uphold the elements of social care and display their trend to serving the society without any favor or disfavor to any particular community; however, ensuring the citizen’s safety is their fundamental value statement (Wilbanks, 2013). In the police force, the Institution has carried out a combination of some formal organizations, such as all regimes and departments have to carry out their performance under a central authority system (Wilbanks, 2013; Crank 2003, p.2; Mastrofski, 1999, Smith, 2004; Meyer, Scott, and Deal 1980; and Gartenstein-Ross, 2013). In addition, the central department predetermined these rules in accordance with the organizational culture, working conditions including the standard of service quality and the expected daily life different from the conventional lifestyle and always accountable to the society (Wilbanks, 2013; Crank 2003, p.2; Mastrofski, 1999, Smith, 2004; Meager, 2008; Shane, 2010; and Gartenstein-Ross, 2013).
Police and Public Safety
Murphy and McKenna (2007, p.25) argued that the recent socio-economic and political condition had gained tremendous demand for public safety from the third world counties to the western society; however, the rising uncertainty regarding a variety of features of the modern society have generated to enveloping logical ground of insecurity along with anxiety sustain with real risks. Both the ongoing threats and the possibility of threats arrival simultaneously increased dramatically by the contribution of raising media propaganda in the global environment and increased public anxiety from religious extremists, street violence, suicide squared pandemics (Zapf, 2004; and Meager, 2008). Natural calamities and climate change-related threats (Murphy and McKenna, 2007, p.25). The conceptual framework of public safety has a diverse approach from the traditional police directives provided by the local legislative framework, allowing for law enforcement as well as crime control while public safety is more striving, but uncertain objective around a diversity of various police along with security-related features.
Moreover, public safety is a shared responsibility of the government and public agencies where police are not exclusively liable to ensure this well-being; rather the police would engage its efforts to operate a part of the shared responsibilities interlinked with other state agencies through a strong networked and superlatively incorporated system of agencies with some degree of working relationships. Under the modern public safety configuration, the police have turned into a potential partner of health, industries, fair, army, and crisis management department, the traditional boundaries of police function has extended to the wider aspects essentially going towards the unclear direction where the new interdependency of the agencies would develop through their joint activities.
Globalization and Changing Crime Patterns
Murphy and McKenna (2007, p.25) added that the growing requirements of police service to encounter with the boosting threats and security troubles are not treated as a local crisis of a particular county, but considered a global origin, although people of a specific region has to bear the consequence; thus, substantial policing is a global challenge. Due to the quick-shifting nature of information and communication technology, the degree of crime has explored to the higher extents where the local and foreign criminals have the opportunity to strengthen their criminal network in a more organized and systematic way that producing new extended threats for peace-loving global communities (Hasbani, 2007; and Jones, 2008). All over the world, the smuggling, woman, and child trafficking, illegal arms and drugs trade, and money laundering have significantly increased with direct involvement of the global criminal and terrorist groups that caused great challenges to national and international policing. At the same time, a religious extremist is increasing their global network; in most of the cases of organized crimes, there is a direct connection with the foreign counterpart that increasingly demand enhanced cooperation among the international police and urged for legislative reforms to handover the criminal to the police of the country where the offense took place.
Police Reform Uplifting Judiciary
Bazemore and Griffiths (2004, p.1) explored that during the sixties, it has evidenced that the police had no fair and impartial role and aligned with corruption, bias, violence, harassment to the citizens by moving apart from its professional model of serving the society with honesty; thus, the civil society policymakers and legislators urged for police reform. At that time, the primary focus of the reformation pointed to the attempts to break out the inflexibility linked with the organizational structure of police provided by the legislative framework; to mitigate the crisis, the reformation programs emphasized to limit the bureaucratic structure of police with a most flexible and effectual process that enables the society to reduce criminal offense. The direction of such police reformation has presented two specific approaches to restructure the police from two basic points of view, one point is problem-oriented, and the other is community-oriented policing; later, such direction produced ‘team policing’ community policing, and so on.
The prevailing policing literature has viciously ensured that healing of policing would contribute to the criminal justice system with new tools and fresh value chain for Restorative Justice with diverse challenges to share particular values and strategies far away from the traditional practice to ensuring justice by removing the dangers of crime. The court system for criminal justice has identified some conflicting assumptions prolonged to the police that could harm any of the victim, offender, or the community by aligning with the harmful decision process corrupts the police through bribing or personal bias; meanwhile, the corruption of police could be linked with the court clerks during submission of investigation or final report. Thus, it is very critical to engage in police reformation and uplifting the criminal justice system in order to reduce the degree of a criminal offense in society.Get your customised and 100% plagiarism-free paper on any subject done for only $16.00 $11/page Let us help you
Police Reform of Public Management Paradigm
Ashby, Irving & Longley (2007, p.1) added that literature of criminology explored the practical metaphor of police service is a way to managing public perception by creating the chimera of control, but such literature does not recognize the similarity of police service with other service industry; however, it would fair to consider the sector where resources are limited for all time. The service production capacity is less efficient than any other service industry; customer’s (taxpayer) demand is very high, the process of service delivery is very illogical and uncertain; thus, there is no way to keep the police service out of accountability of role of new public management. The dynamic role of the public management paradigm could easily predict and prevent such environmental dilemmas mitigating socio-technical, and market trouble although the social course of action is far beyond the control of the police management as the police efforts always lead to a trend that they are dedicated to affirming bogus intuition that they are continuously keeping effort to controlling all crime.
NPM has aimed to implement the techniques of enterprise regulation that originated from the private sector and taken as a tool to reform the public sector in a more effective way for coordination among different governmental agencies, to establish control over diverse wings, and to reflect an intelligence of their inherent dominance over the bureaucracy. In the context of British police service, the role of NPM has been identified as a practitioner manager’ that is shifting the managerial roles into the strategic responsibilities considering the policing as a service industry with the unique challenge of new police management working under the conventional reactive policing strategies that belonged from its long historical perspectives.
History of Afghan Police Reformation
Coffey International Development (2010, p.12) pointed out that the history of Afghan police had evidenced during 1747 with a limited role in the urban areas and there was no police involvement in the rural and tribal areas. Traditionally, the governments of Afghanistan has implemented the restricted role of police in the settled areas and never and any interference over the tribal groups, in response the tribal leaders provided local security services to safeguard the highways and major infrastructures in different areas. The conventional policing system had limited to the provincial capitals, district headquarters, immigration points, and border sides, while their duty was to provide security to the governmental high officials, out of these duties there was no function of police under the Afghan state structure (Rohde, 2007). During the reign of Zahir Shah in the sixties and seventies, both German collaborated to establish modern policing in Afghanistan where the officers were only trained, but the ordinary constables were largely untrained (Murray, 2006, p.2; and Robinson, 2003).
Johnson (2010, p.5) and Katzman (2011, p.8) added that in 1979, under the Marxist leadership of Babrak Karmal, there was a communist revaluation in Afghanistan and PDPA ascended to the state power with full support and backing of the Soviet Union, the socialist government had taken massive socioeconomic reformation in the country where police reformation was at the top priority. During the rule of Karmal, the communist Democratic Republic of Afghan made it mandatory for all students before going to the college must join to the army, police, or secret service for two years excluding the religious and tribal groups, and the process continued from 1979 to 1986. The major reformation of Afghan security forces and police took place under the direct supervision of the Soviet army in order to establish the proletarian dictatorship. The presence of the Soviet army in this area made the United States and its allies afraid, the US and NATO gathered the reactionary tribal groups and religious radicals on the Pakistani border and organized different terrorist organizations like Taliban, Haqqani, and Al Qaeda, to descend the socialist government in Afghan and to fight against Soviet army. During the period of the last communist President Dr. Mohammad Najibullah, the Afghan police reformation was greatly influenced by Soviet governmental interference, 1996 by killing Dr. Najibullah Talibans came into the state power with full support and backing of the United States and NATO.
Garduce (2006) and Rollins (2011) mentioned that the saddest historical truth is that the US-NATO is the founder of the global terrorist organization Al Qaeda, Haqqani, and Taliban with Islamic extremists providing them training, arms, and strategic planning to establish a backward society based on religion darkness even they do not allow women to work and conduct violence against humanity. After ascending into power, the Taliban forgot the US cooperation for them and identified the US and its allies as an enemy of Islam terrorism against the USA, as a result, the Taliban lost international support due to suppression over the other religion and women, the prevented women to attaining education and working. During Taliban Rule (1996- 2001) in Afghanistan, the Taliban fighters were integrated into the Afghan police that seriously break down the chain of command of the police force who used to violation of human rights, harsh punishments, and even executions (Katzman, 2011, p.10).
Weitz (2012) added that following the terrorist attack the USA in 2001, the US army conducted aggression in Afghanistan, putting a puppet government of Hamid Karzai, the US-NATO and their allies continued war against terrorism for more than an ear, but there is no sign of wising, rather the USA is very eager to leave Afghan. Due to the loss of huge public money with wrong foreign policy to patronize the global terrorists in Afghanistan, the US government needed to beg excuse to its citizens for misuse of taxpayers money in the Afghan war. The terrorist that the USA had established to use against USSR, today those terrorists turned their gun to the USA; it was totally lacking far slightness of the policymakers and foreign policy, however; the US, UN, and NATO are looking to escape point and any time they could escape. Hamid Karzai is trying to communicate with the Taliban to negotiate his life rather than the reign. During the presence of multinational forces in Afghanistan, the police reformation evidenced as an ongoing process for more than a decade.
Importance of training program to reform ANP
From February 2002, Germany started to train ANP in the Kabul Police Academy and built a force of over 61000 police by 2007; the main purpose of this reformation program was to create a sophisticated, sustainable, and expert police service (NPA, 2007). The USA had funded over $4.1 billion between 2002 and 2005 as a shifting charge; however, Germany’s primary role had taken over by the EUPOL in 2007, which influenced the USA to invest an additional $2 billion to purchase equipment (International Crisis Group, 2007). At present, the US military had arranged a retraining program, and funded above $2.50 billion for the development of ANP, and enlarged the size of the police force while this organization was ineffective, ill-trained, and ill-equipped because of many external and internal factors (Virginia, 2011). Carrying on a training program for reformation was essential because the government of this country faced a severe challenging position to deal with insufficiently trained and equipped police force to control law and order situation, for instance, the ANP experienced about 1540 total casualties in 2007. At the same time, the police force was highly corrupt for which they were involved with unethical and antisocial behavior, such as, 1200 officers had collected a payment of 3300 officers along with missing or non-existent officers. However, the international institutes, Civilian Police (CIVPOL), Department of Defense, International Police Advisors, United Nations, European Union, and embedded police mentors have addressed several factors for reformation, such as questions over the quality of human resources (a large part was abusers of human rights combined with deep ethnic imbalances within the ANP), extortion by police officers, and so on. Therefore, the purpose of the training programs in the reformation project is based on the above-mentioned dilemmas to mold and shape the police.
Postwar Police Reformation in Afghanistan
International Actors in Reform
RUSI (2009, p.23) and Gross (2009, p. 1-52) explained the role of international actors who kept their different efforts to reforming the Afghan police where the USA, NATO, EUPOL, UK, Germany and Pakistan are the major players and there are some other countries remarkable endeavors in this reformation. Most of the reformation drives have aligned lack of coordination and disintegration of joint strategies among the international actors that turned the reformation efforts into a complex matter with confusing improvement (RUSI, 2009, p.23; GIZ, 2011 and Brown, Langer & Stewart, 2008). The police reformation drive of Afghanistan started in 2007 where the US and Germany were the first actors in this mission while institutional limitations were inescapable with a shortage of coordination among the instruments that are difficult to achieve and the other actors like the EU were engaged in the reformation judiciary or military. Meanwhile, the resource gap was one of the most influential factors that turned the reformation into a narrow direction of the resource contributor while different actors engaged in this action with diverse philosophies and unlike motivation (RUSI, 2011).
In fact, limited resource allocation for Afghan police reform has made the situation very worse and decoded loss of political influence for different actors in their policy and strategy level that generated huge challenges and the two major actors the US and Germany explored direct conflict with fundamentally different ideologies for the police training program (RUSI, 2012). The US mission was aimed at the materialization of the Afghan police that would be capable to encounter Taliban fighters and conduct anti-Taliban propaganda, but the German mission was aimed to establish Afghan police as a modern civilian force that would contribute to strengthening the criminal justice system.
Murray (2006, p.4) added that following the Bonn Agreement in 2002, the Afghan Interim Authority welcomed Germany to Police-building from 2002 to mid-2006 Given the earlier police associations between Afghanistan and Germany, the Afghan Interim Authority requested Germany to take delivery of show the way of police reform. The German police carried out a fact-finding assignment in Afghan and explored the report to an international cluster of 18 countries along with 11 organizations and the country promised to provide €10 million for the reconstruction of the police academy, purchasing vehicles and training materials coordination with donors. Although the US and Germany were jointly bearing all training costs, another remarkable initiative of Germany was to organize the Law and Order Trust Fund with joint efforts with UNDP with the aim to generate multilateral funding for Afghan police and train police and to reinforce the law-enforcement ability of the force all over the country. At the same time, ISAF has extended its efforts for Afghan National Police as part of their regular duty, but as a military force, it failed to put into practice appropriate measures and was largely restrained by ANP, thus, the functioning of ISAF was shifted to the PRTs in the remote areas for military-civilian mechanism (Nasreen, 2010).
Role of the United States in Reform
Murray (2006, p.6) pointed out that the United States was the main actor in the Afghan police reform, and in 2003, it provided US$ 24.6 to formulate a new training institute in Kabul and proclaimed to provide US$ 160 million to establish another training institutes with three years with the aim to train lower-level members of the police. With the aim to strengthen basic policing techniques and to uphold human rights, the US reformation drive engaged a private company DynCorp to provide training for police who provided a total of eight weeks training program where it involved four weeks literacy program and the rest is for humans rights and other in-service courses. In 2004, the Afghan Ministry of Interior expressed their dissatisfaction with such training and consequential progress arguing that the police force is losing its momentum due to lack of coordination among the donor agencies and their different programs and urged to draw attention to promote professionalism to encountering with narcotics and terrorism by improving discipline, human rights, and morals. In 2005, the DoD of the US government made its direct interference for Afghan police reform with huge funding that generated a new dimension in the reformation program by restructuring the organizational structure and shifting the working environment with tremendous budget allocation for provincial police commands.
Planty and Perito (2013, p.2) pointed out that transferring the responsibility of Afghan police to the DOD by the US government provided the opportunity to involve CSTCA that took first responsibility of reforming ANA and later extended the training program for NUP with a new approach titled as FDD and conducted the program step-by-step in different districts. In this approach, gathered the police of every single district in the regional training center and provided seven weeks of coaching for leadership, military strategies, survival strategies, and firearms application including basic police guidance and this program was conducted with the assistance of the private sector service providers of the United States organized with former police officers. In 2009, while Obama became president, the US mission in Afghanistan faced serious troubles in providing training to the police, urged for new strategy coordinating with the allied forces of NATO, and requested the partners to boost assistance for trainers, mentors, and equipment in order to defeat Al Qaeda. By this time, considering the causality and failure to reach the destiny the US and NATO have declared to withdraw training mission from Afghanistan by 2014, so they emphasized to increase the capabilities of ANP to encounter with Taliban in absence of allied forces while the size and funding is a major issue for ANP.
Background to the EPMs
DynCorp International (2013, p.1) pointed out that DynCorp International is a US-originated private company that demands to have its experience to working in the public sector especially to provide support services to the national security forces of foreign countries particularly the USA. At the same time, the company also argued that EPM has long experience in working with Foreign Service, international peacekeeping programs, and international development (DynCorp International, 2013). Embedded Police Mentor is a scheme of civil policing contractor DynCorp to provide training service to the Afghan National Police with logistics, platform support, and emergency services including training and mentoring to strengthen the security system providing rule of law and political stability to encounter with the Taliban (DynCorp International, 2013).
The Department of Defense (2011, p.12) pointed out that OAM under the US Department of states in 2004 awarded the contract of EPM to DynCorp to provide indefinite civilian police training to the ANP at eight training hubs for one year, after successful competition it would be extended for next four years, the contract value was almost US$ 1.75 billion. In 2008 and 2010, AQM also came in to contract with DynCorp to provide EPM to ANP training and mentoring for more than US$ 4.66 billion and scheduled to expire in January 2012 to conduct training to the trainers, mentoring, as well as life support to the ANP and the programs were planned to mentoring by the representatives of MoL. It evidenced that the DOS contract was modified for the second time to provide necessities of demobilization plan while DynCorp represented several proposals in these regards to which were pointed to the huge differences and DynCorp urged that they have evaluated each approach with full completeness with respect to meet the requirements and confirmed to complete every scheme within 120 days.
EPMs Implication in Afghan
Hanlin (2011, p.4) added that ODA scrutinized the lacking of ANP and identified that professionalism and urged for EPMs as a specialist of policing to educate, instruct and advise the ANP regarding its working process, attitude during policing in different regions of Afghanistan while the EPMs were recognized to trains DCOP about appropriate procedures of applying force, custody and conflict mitigation. For each district, there were only two EPMs and the number is very poor to provide police mentors in order to support the training programs by advising, equipping, and mentoring the local ANP while the EPMs established direct coordination among mentors, learners, and MOI with more accountability of ANP for weapons and ammunition, infrastructure and logistical support. The degree of corruption has indicated the dark side of policing in Afghanistan and presented the necessity to boost the number of EMPs and ANP in every district given that the regional ANP is not recognized to arrest any citizens while the DCOP enjoyed the power to arrest. The EPMs have engaged themselves to endorse high committee ANP constables and to relocate the patrol officers’ ranks to the new recruitment as a part of the ‘bottom up approach’ to promote the socio-economic progress of the country as well as good governance.
Besides EPMs, the USA explored so many programs for Afghan police reform, for instance, the Department of Defense (2011, p.13) mentioned that ASMDC and AFSC of the United States had jointly issued another work order valued US$ 262.3 million to the USTC to carry our training and mentoring for ABP, which was programmed to continue up to September 2011. At the same time, DoD came into agreement with MoI to mentor internal employees of the Ministry in order to motivate and capacity building to coup with the changing workplace environment by the contracting command of the US Army and the contract value was US$ 32 billion for one year from 2010 to 2011.
Conflict and Lack of Coordination at EPMs Implication
Bloching (2011, p.1) and GIZ (2011) stated that although Germany was the pioneer of Afghan police reform, the continuous conflict with the US and their diverse strategic difference made it difficult to work together. Thus, the European Union replaced the role of Germany where SSR as the major organ of the international community kept a vital role to stabilize and rebuild (Bloching, 2011, p.1; Robert, 2011; and GIZ, 2011). After throwing out the Taliban from the state power, in 2001, through a massive military intervention, SSR raised five pledges for reorganization such as police, military, and judiciary reformation, DDR along with anti-narcotics drive, but the most influential dilemma was that the five lead counties US, UK, Japan, Italy, and Germany were not working with the common vision of SSR. Rather, they worked on the Afghan police from their own viewpoint and conflicting strategies without any coordination, thus it has evidenced discrepancy among different nations about their strategic approach to reform police by mentoring and advising to the upper level without motivating the lower level police while there is the total absence of basic police training with insufficiency of police members.
On the other hand, in 2007 in absence of Germany to the mission, EUPOL aligned with a confrontation with the US and NATO for their extreme militarization of Afghan National Police, where local ownership looks paradoxical and rooted to the new government and rising elites with state blessing have generated an opportunist group with very unpopular political and military rackets. Theros (2012, p.1) added beside the conflicts of overseas actors, there are huge conflicts between the local and international actors working with Afghan police, due to violating the sovereignty of the state and foreign military interference, the local people consider it as imperialist aggression. Thus, the local community has no trust in the foreign powers working to reform the Afghan National Police, rather in some cases, they are eager to sacrifice their life to withdraw the foreign army and hate the existing puppet government of Hamid Karzai. The partnership framework of international actors in Afghanistan has failed to motivate the local communities; they have just motivated some collaborators who never stay with the foreign powers while the local people think that the Taliban is their freedom fighter so that they cooperate with the Taliban more than the local police (Indexmundi, 2013; OCHA, 2008; and Library of Congress, 2008). Thus, the foreign powers including the USA have to leave Afghanistan without any achievement while the local political actors, police authority, army, civil society, and religious groups are seriously fragmented with their own class interest and agenda and in some cases, they maintain a secret connection with the Taliban. Meanwhile, there is none no authority where the police reform actors like EPMs would be accountable or assess the progress of the EPMs implication, the local and international elites are jointly destroying the backbone of the police as a civil force and the private firms as if DynCorp has been making millions of dollars profit without complying with their responsibility.
Interference of International Police for EPMs Coordination
RUSI (2012, p.4) pointed out that the conflict and lack of coordination at EPMs made it essential to involve the EU in the ANP reformation process that Increased coordination of the disordered reform attempt necessitates donors obligation to the International Police Monitoring Board to simplify the chain of command and to diminish overlapping and duplicating parts of the ANP reform. At the beginning of this modification in the ANP reform process, the EU amalgamated its police mission and law mission together in a single nucleus and urged to withdraw the private contractors like DynCorp who implemented lower quality embedded police mentoring at Afghan National Police reform without considering broader skills set, cultural and linguistic imperatives.
With the experience of international police to reforming the police force of Kosovo, Sierra Leone, and East Timor; the advisory group pointed out that the police reform is quite a complex scheme for international police to reshuffle, retrain, and upgrade the Afghan police while the historical record of reform for last half an era resulted in big naught. The own assessments of the UN in 2013 illustrated that there are remarkable institutional gaps continues in the ANP reform with great weakness of management, deficiency of command and control, shortage of basic training and capabilities, and more or less total scarcity of logistics as well as insufficiency of systems maintenance facilities (RUSI 2012, p.19). Having the lead position of Afghan police reform the US efforts has totally failed to demonstrate its effectiveness in the EMPs implication and now at the ending stage while the combined foreign force has settled to go back from Afghanistan by 2014, the international police had no metrical to reform the ANP to the desired level within the rest time.
Qualification of EPMs to train ANP
Call & Barnett (1999) stated that the qualification of the mission staff was not satisfactory level since they had lack of communication skills and knowledge in a particular field to train the police force; in addition, there was a cultural gap when they treat lower rank staff like typist as police considering the rule of their own countries. This trend has continued for the last 15 years because of the lack of experience of the police mentors; therefore, the members of ANP were unwilling to take a lesson from them. At the same time, the lack of professional skills (management, project, and administrative expertise) of the embedded police mentors is one of the most alarming factors to the national police force to maintain the chain of command and remove existing problems. At the same time, the recruitment process (diverse selection criteria) to select police mentors is a controversial issue since they have no consideration to add value; on the other hand, DynCrop refused such complain and stated that this company is committed to providing high qualified individuals and all of them have at least 7 years law enforcement experience (civilian/military). The higher officials of the Afghan National Police considered that the job responsibility could be different considering rank, but all the mentors should have good communication skills particularly in English with local language; otherwise, the entire training program can be hampered due to a lack of understanding the language and the situation as well.
Future Trends of ANP Reformation
Withdrawal of Foreign Troops and ANP
Wyatt (2012) and BBC (2012) reported that the leaders of fifty countries including twenty-eight NATO nations at their Chicago meeting on May 22, 2012, endorsed that troops of NATO would be introverted from Afghanistan within 2014 and the US President Obama addresses the Afghan people to be an optimist to encounter with Taliban. The meeting also confirmed that NATO would continue its efforts to provide training to the ANP and other allied forces to grow stronger and the NATO leaders urged that the remaining time is enough to strengthen the local forces for the future combat with the Taliban (CAM, 2012). BBC (2013) also reported that the UK already started to cut its forces in Afghanistan and 9,000 to 5,200 troops would be withdrawn within December 2013, and there would not be more than 1000 troops up to the end of 2014. However, CNN (2013) reported that the US has started to withdraw its troops from Afghanistan and this year, at least 34,000 troops would back home out of 66,000 and the rest would return by the end of 2014 arguing that the Afghan local forces are ready to encounter it.
Afghanistan war ends without conclusion
Rozoff (2011, p.1) pointed out that the largest foreign military intervention of the 21st century with 154,000 troops from fifty nations under the leadership of the US-NATO command has been going to end up by the end of 2014 without any achievement which was started following the terrorist attack of nine eleven. OPJIC (2012, p.1) added that aggregate spending of US$ 2 trillion with more than US$ 283 billion U.S. taxpayers money and sacrifice of at least 10000 lives of military and civilian, the Afghan mission has failed to defeat the Taliban and Al-Qaeda and following the impact of the global financial crisis, the combined force would be withdrawn without any conclusion. The high cost of war and record-level fatalities including environmental hazards made it difficult for the US-NATO to continue the Afghan mission any longer and it indicates an unexpressed defeat to the war, which is similar to the historical evidence of Soviet aggression and withdrawal from Afghanistan in the eighties.
Lacking of ANP that Required Future Attention
The lacking ANP that US-NATO combine forces tried to overcome still exists and is required to have further attention in order to establish an allied force to work independently in absence of the UN peacekeeping force at the end of 2014. Among those factors the gender issue, illiteracy of the ANP members, counter-narcotics efforts, anti-Taliban ideology development, and institutional development, eradication of knowledge gap and corruption, information campaign, and supporting criminal justice system is most important. It would be more difficult for the ANP to encounter the Taliban in absence of foreign forces but would be wise to formulate an anti-Taliban ideology with the core thyme of Islamic peace and happiness that would easily encounter the terrorist ideology of Taliban and people would easily reject the Taliban ideology.
Future Strategy for ANP
Planty and Perito (2013, p.11) mentioned that essential to integrate some influential strategy that would assist the ANP to function well after 2014 following the US withdrawal, first of all, ANP required to restructuring to function as a civilian force to establish rule of law and to provide well protection to the city without any corruption. The funding strategy is the most vital feature to consider the future performance of the ANP, no nations yet have committed to what extent they would continue funding or after withdrawal do the US-NATO would stop funding for ANP, if there is no funding commitment, ANP reform would turn into ruin. Strengthening the MoI is another vital source for the future performance of ANP, without strong leadership in the ministry, it would be difficult to raise funds for ANP, thus, MOI is required to be equipped with a professional approach to developing ANP. Further strategic alignment with the donors’ advice and guidance would direct ANP to organize the force as a modern police institution with a dynamic recruitment process, selection, and training and make them capable of performing their duties with full strength and capabilities (Ministry of Interior Affairs, 2013).
This part mainly focused on the background to the EPM, EPMs implication in afghan, conflict, and lack of coordination at EPMs implication, interference of international police for EPMs coordination, qualification of EPMs to train ANP, future trends of ANP reformation, future strategy for ANP, and so on.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a methodological framework to discuss the impact of EPM training on the Reformation of the Afghan National Police.
The Qualitative versus the Quantitative Approach
Quantitative research is essential for statistical representation or quantity data in terms of quantity whereas qualitative research is different from the common sampling approach (Leung 2012; Saunders, Thornhill & Lewis, 2006; McNabb 2010; Boeije 2009; Keegan 2009; and McLeod 2011). Thus, quantitative research is more consistent and used to compute the problem by collecting data and to test the hypothesis, which assists in redefining the complex dilemma by limiting the number of variables (Cohen, Manion & Morrison 2007; McNabb 2010; Boeije 2009; Keegan 2009; Rajendran, 2001; and Trochim & Donnelly 2006). On the other hand, qualitative research plays a vital role to understand the problem concerned with the qualitative phenomenon, such as research on behavioral sciences or other social issues to find out the underlying motives of human behavior (Keegan, 2009; Rajendran, 2001; Boeije 2009; Leung 2012; and Saunders et al. 2006). In addition, it allows conducting a comprehensive social inquiry in order to gain in-depth insight into the character and grounds of a complex perception and to reach certain decisions connected to its aspects (Richey & Klein 2007; Trochim & Donnelly 2006; McNabb 2010; Boeije 2009; Keegan 2009; Shandra, 2007; and Leung 2012). However, the researcher would use both quantitative and qualitative research approaches to analyze the EPM’ training on the Reformation of Afghan National Police because it needs to behave in a particular manner and it permits finding the evidence of the true impact and helps in the reformation of the domestic policy in the third world country. Furthermore, the application of this research approach to this paper will assist the researcher to understand the nature of social contact, communication, mindset, and procedures that lie behind the topic; in general, the correctness of the research method and design will make sure the theoretical as well as the practical value of the study.
Primary data have been obtained directly by the researcher for a specific research project; though, it can be gathered using different methods, such as survey, interview, and observational method (McNabb 2010; Trochim & Donnelly 2006; Zikmund, 2006; Daly & Lumley 2002; Rajendran, 2001; and Trochim & Donnelly 2006). This data is fresh, specific, and up-to-date (Trochim & Donnelly 2006; Zikmund 2006; and Sekaran, 2006). In addition, Hossain (2012), McLeod (2011), and Munhall (2011) stated that it is easy to manage over the data collection process. However, the researcher would use such data to discuss the impact of EPM’ training on the reformation of Afghan National Police considering several factors, such as high-level accuracy rate, firsthand data, the scope of a new idea, time limit, reliability, significant control, and others.
The main advantage of secondary data is the economical and time-saving process for the research while it saves both efforts and costs (Malhotra 2009; Burney 2008; Yin, 2003; McNabb 2010; Boeije 2009; and Keegan 2009). The accuracy of such data is not known and it is a questionable factor (Malhotra 2009; Rajendran 2001; Yin 2003, and Burney 2008); in addition, secondary data may be outdated (McNabb 2010; Trochim & Donnelly 2006 and Saunders et al. 2006). In this case, the researcher of the present study would use this data as it assists him to make primary data collection more specific to find out research gap and meet research objectives by developing knowledge regarding research problems and gaps; in addition, it gives the opportunity to compare secondary data with collected primary data. At the same time, the researcher will try to find out data related to reformation programs of Afghan National Police, participation of EPMs in training programs, attitudes of ANP, the positive and negative results of the projects to restructuring domestic police force.
In order to select the perfect target group for directly collecting information, it is essential to understand the level of knowledge, approach, personalities, beliefs, viewpoint, values, or preferences (Leung 2012; Saunders et al. 2006; Jackson 1994 and Cohen et al. 2007). In the present study, the primary data would be collected by the mailing of questionnaires to the participants; however, the research would send a request to them to give reply to the semi-structured questions regarding the reformation of Afghan National Police through a training process where EPMs have significant participation. Primary data collection using such an instantaneous method is effective when the budget to conduct research is low, but it can create a problem due to low response rate, misinterpretation, incomplete reply for lacking knowledge, the confidentiality of the research field, and many others.
Small sample size would be considered to collect data using a qualitative research approach because it is difficult to find out target respondents to interview with the issue concerning the impact of EPM’ training on the Reformation of ANP. However, Keegan (2009), McLeod (2011), Burney (2008), and Munhall (2011) stated that small sample size is acceptable in the case of descriptive research. In this context, the sample size would consist of various members of the Afghanistan National Police; there would be no female respondents among the participants as female members of the Afghan police force were not available to interview regarding the effectiveness of training. However, the following table will provide more detail about the group of people who willingly participated in the research:
Table 1: Short Profiles of Questionnaire Respondents
|2||Age||15 – 25|
|26 – 35|
|36 – 45|
|46 – 55|
|4||Job experience||01 – 05 years||17|
|06 – 10 years||3|
|11 -15 years||0|
|15 + years||0|
Bias is a very common phenomenon in the case of qualitative research for which it is essential to concentrate on this issue (Daly & Lumley 2002; and Rajendran, 2001, p.1). At the same time, the mindset of the researcher is influenced by the own opinion or point of view (Daly & Lumley 2002; and Rajendran 2001, p.1). However, Marshall & Rossman (1999) stated that it could reflect in the interview procedure particularly to select participants. Interestingly, Daly & Lumley (2002) provided an example where the results of two studies on the same topic related with were completely different due to considering different respondent groups (in the first research target respondents were women at a menopause clinic and in the second research, a group of health professionals was target respondents). On the other hand, Daly & Lumley (2002) stated that the researcher could design a questionnaire or other instrument applying own interest and philosophy; as a result, the report can misguide a particular group of a society or the people of a nation. There is no paradigm solution to take away the research from such bias (Daly & Lumley 2002; Cohen et al. 2007; and Rajendran 2001, p.1). Therefore, the researcher of this study will apply different techniques in order to carry on survey, for instance, the participants of the target group would be selected from diversified cultures since the topic of this study is significant, but sensitive enough in terms of social and political concern.
The questionnaire, interviews, and observation are popular instruments for qualitative research; however, each instrument includes both positive and negative factors (Keegan 2009; McLeod 2011; Leung 2012; Saunders et al. 2006 and Munhall 2011). The questionnaire is the most suitable research instrument to gather data from large numbers of people because particular questions will enable the participants to give their opinion and proposal. There are two prime goals in designing a questionnaire, such as, maximize response rate and obtaining precise relevant information for this research (Malhotra 2009; Sekaran, 2006; Keegan 2009; McLeod 2011; Rubin & Babbie 2010; and Cohen et al. 2007). This instrument helps the researchers to acquire all the required information on the research topic and to concentrate on specific issues based on dependent and independent variables (Trochim & Donnelly 2006; Shandra, 2007; and Richey & Klein 2007). This questionnaire would include semi-structured questions related to the impact of training programs of EPM on the Reformation of ANP considering several factors, such as the possibility of bias, unlimited response varieties, and difficulties to codify. However, the first part of the questionnaire will focus on the demographic information, job experience of the participants, gender, and age, knowledge about the training program, motivational factors, and influence of EPMs on the Afghan National Police.
The researcher will study the transcript and pay attention to the tape records many times to go through the data; however, not all data will be quality and bias-free data in the case of qualitative research. In addition, some feedback forms will be useless, for which it is essential to identify quality data to proceed accordingly. It needs to review the purpose of the evaluation to identify the key issues from the answer of the respondents.
The primary data will be evaluated with the assist of content analysis, compare, and contrast technique, and recognition of most important themes. In addition, there will be definite variables linked to the institution’s training methods and interview respondents’ opinions about the training programs of EPM.
As the researcher has a social responsibility to deal with a sensitive issue, the personal information, which was collected through the questionnaire should be considered confidential Data, so, it followed Data Protection Acts, the Human Rights Act, copyright, and law-related with defamation to conduct research, data dissemination as well as storage, publication, and so on. At the same time, Addington-Hall, Bruera, Higginson & Payne (2007) and Moustakas (1994) stated that researchers and volunteers should strive to maintain integrity to represent the findings accurately and truthfully. The further addressed that ethical statement helps the researcher to communicate with others to deal with ethical concerns and potential dilemmas and to perform the task with independence and impartiality. Finally, the researcher of this study has decided to collect data from the people who are mentally capable of participating in the interview and the age limit of the respondents must be over 18, but less than 70.
Table 2: Ethical Consideration
|1||This dissertation will contribute of the subject of Political Sciences||xx|
|2||This paper would keep the personal data confidential |
considering data protection acts
|3||Does the researcher is ensuring quality and integrity of research||xxx|
|4||Does the dissertation will access personal, sensitive or confidential |
data, like the impact of training of EPMs on the Reformation of ANP
|5||Does the researcher will take consent from the participants||xxx|
|6||Dies this dissertation will take data from disable people||xxx|
Limitation of the research
As the researcher considered a qualitative research approach, the sample size was small, but the selection of the target group was one of the most difficult tasks for the researcher to avoid bias. Chapter four- finding and discussion would be based on the response of the target participants for which data needs to be reliable while there was a chance to get different viewpoint for the topic of this paper “the impact of training of EPMs on the reformation of ANP”. The research schedule has been designed considering eight weeks deadline though preparation of questionnaire, formation of literature review, and primary data collection from participants were lengthy procedures. Furthermore, the survey populations especially the embedded police mentor and other members of ANP were very reluctant (either they were busy or the topic was sensitive for them) to provide feedback to the researcher regarding the impact of training of EPMs on the restructuring of ANP. However, there are many research articles on Afghanistan National Police and reformation programs, but there is no fruitful research on the role of Embedded Police Mentors in the training process for which it was difficult to provide more information in this regard.
From the above discussion, it can be said that the main goal of chapter three was to design a methodological structure to serve the purpose of the present study and it has chosen qualitative methodological approach as the topic of this dissertation has dealt with the investigation of the complex social phenomenon “the impact of training on the reformation of ANP”. Moreover, both primary and secondary data sources would be used without bias to meet the research objectives; however, data would be allocated considering credibility, dependability, integrity, reliability, and validity.
Findings and Results
Question 1: Importance to have a good and clear training system for the EPMs
The researcher included this question to assess the significance of a good and clear training system for the mentors; however, it is interesting that all the respondents supported this question by selecting the first option of the question.
Question 2: Trust on way of the training process
This was an important question, which asked the respondents to know the mental position of the Afghan national police; however, trust in the training procedure is a significant factor in order to get effective results from the programs. According to the survey report, 95% of members selected the first option and 5% members selected the second option and no member provided a different opinion in this aspect; from this result, it can conclude that all the members have trust in the training process.
Question 3: The extent to which training prepared ANPs to do the best
According to the primary data, highest 80% members selected first option and 10% members selected second option and no member selected different option; therefore, it can be concluded that all the members believed that training programs make them confident and prepare as well to provide their best efforts.
Question 4: Satisfied with the training programs
Among 20 members of ANPs, 85% of members selected the first option and 10% of members selected the second option and 5% of respondents ticked on the third option that the members of ANPs were always satisfied with the training program; however, no member provided a different opinion in this aspect. However, the members of the ANP have experienced the positive influence of the training program on their own performance; in addition, the literacy rate increased and technological development observed significantly after introducing training program for which the entire police force are now well-equipped and they can work more efficiently. However, the next figure demonstrates the result graphically:
Question 5: Satisfied with salary structure
According to the view of 20 ANPs, 20% of members selected the first option and 5% of members selected the second option and 10% of respondents ticked on the third option that the members of ANPs were always satisfied with the salary structure; however, 65% members collectively dissatisfied with the salary range. The researchers of the previous research identified that the corruption level was too high in the Afghan police force because the members had received poor salaries; however, the corruption level decreased significantly because the salary level increases and they receive payment in an automatic system. From the result of the survey, it can be said that they are not happy with a salary that they receive; however, the next figure shows the result graphically:
Question 6: View of the respondents about co-workers
Among 20 members of ANPs, the highest 60% members selected the first option and 15% of members selected the second option that indicates co-workers of the respondents are well-trained; however, 25% of members provided a different opinion in this aspect; however, the next figure shows the result graphically:
Question 7: – Personal opinion regarding duration of training period
According to the view of 20 ANPs, the highest 40% of members selected the last option and 35% of members selected the fourth option and 20% of respondents ticked on the third option and 5% of respondents selected the second option that the members of ANPs will continue training for a long time; however, no member considered the first option.
Question 8: Do you agree that training will continue to reform ANP
Afghan national police faced serious problems from the very beginning of the operation, for example, high-level of corruption, and a number of illiterate police, religious radicalism, raising Taliban revolts, human rights violation, abuses of power, anti-social behavior, violence, harassment to the citizens, and so on; therefore, it should require continuous training program to reform ANP. According to the survey report, 95% of respondents (19 ANP members) strongly agreed with the statement and only 5% of respondents selected almost always an option; however, the following figure shows the result graphically:
Question 9: EPMs faced challenges in this country to train police force
According to the primary data, 90% of respondents said that EMP always faced challenges, and the rest 10% of respondents had also provided similar replies by selecting a second and third option. However, the secondary data sources support survey results as these sources mentioned why it is difficult to train the police force in this country. For example, Theros (2012, p.1) and RUSI (2012) stated that there are many problems that make the situation worse, such as foreign military interference, political instability, violation of rules and regulation, no trust in the foreigners, motivation of the local communities, secret connection with the Taliban, and so on. In addition, they had many internal problems communicating with the ANP; as a result, it became difficult for the members of EPM to stay in this country to train the police force. However, the following figure gives a graphical presentation of the result:
Question 10: The emergence to stop EPMs and replace it with combine programs
It is interesting that all the respondents of this research provided positive responses about the performance of the EPMs and they said that there is no emergence to stop the activities of embedded police mentors by replacing them with combined programs. The target respondents were highly satisfied with the training programs of EPMS; however, the reality is that the Afghan national police had requested to assess all the activities of Dyncorp or remove them if necessary as this company failed to maintain minimum standards in the training program (RUSI, 2012, p.4).
Question 11: ANP would be capable for self-governance and peacekeeping in absence of combine forces
The purpose of this question was to assess the confidence level of the ANP to introduce self-governing and peacekeeping programs. However, highest 85% of the total respondents stated that it would be never possible for them to control the situation without combine forces whereas only 5% of respondents had a different view that they can solve their national problems with internal resources.
The report of Royal United Services Institute, Foreign Policy Research Institute, and the US department of defense demonstrated that ANP faced severe challenges for which they need sufficient training, resources, and numerous external and internal problems for which it is not possible for ANP to manage the situation with self-governance and peacekeeping system without taking support of donor countries.
Question12: Ability of EPM to coordinate the tasks
It is surprising that all respondents provided positive replies about the ability of EPM to coordinate the task, for instance, 95% of respondents selected the first option, and 5% ANPs selected the second option. On the other hand, the report of Royal United Services Institute provided a different result that there are many reasons for which it was quite impossible to co-ordinate the task, particularly budget constraints, lack of interpersonal skills and language inefficiency were the main causes to carry on their tasks successfully.
However, the respondents provided positive feedback because they believed that the members of EPM were able to coordinate tasks, for example, on-the-job training, weapons, appropriate equipment for police officers, conferences, duties, officers and human rights, scene investigation, terrorism attacks, and others.
Question 13: ANP face challenges to participate in the training program with EPM
This was an essential question to get a fruitful result from the training process by limiting the challenges of the training programs. Among 20 ANPs, 75% of respondents selected always and 15% of respondents selected almost always option; however, 10% members stated that ANP faces challenges sometimes to participate in the training program with EPM. On the other hand, no respondent provided a different result in this regard, which indicates all members faced challenges; however, the following figure presents the result graphically:
The secondary data sources like the report of the Royal United Services Institute, Foreign Policy Research Institute, and department of defense match with the secondary data; however, key challenges included interpersonal skills of the EPM, lack of experience of the police mentors, qualification of the trainers, course design, and so on.
Question 14: The ANP suffered a number of problems
The aim of this question was to address the problems, which the members of ANP suffered for a long time; however, these issues will help the donor countries to design the training program to minimize the troubles of the police force. However, the ANPs had faced severe problems before training programs and after training programs though the nature of the problems was different to some extent. According to the survey report, 95% of respondents selected the first option and 5% of respondents selected the second option that the ANP always suffers a number of problems; in addition, no member suggested a different view in this regard. However, the following figure presents the result graphically:
The respondents of this study have identified several problems, for instance, Lack of effective weapons and equipment, implementation of technology like computers, cameras, videos, and others, lack of qualified trainers and funds; however, the secondary data sources also addressed a similar gap in the previous research.
From the above discussion, it can be argued that the training program of EPM was effective in some extent though there were several problems; however, the member of ANP gained confidence from this initiative.
Progress of ANP Reform
Many reform actors in this nation have addressed the issues related to capacity building by removing inefficiency and corruption from the police force; in addition, the main focus of the trainers was to consider qualitative change, not quantitative change while 10 qualified and honest police are better than hundred corrupt police. The reform process through training was a successful strategic plan to some extent since these programs wanted to rebuild the institute from the very beginning of the project; however, the quality of ANP remains in question. On the other hand, the training program of EMPs has already been criticized and widely questioned; in addition, the training curriculum was not satisfactory to the police force though it included basic issues related to ethical factors, community policing, procedural issues, and so on. However, the training program of embedded police mentors had included subjects, for instance:
Table 1: Training program
|1||General police duties:||it concentrated on the traditional policing duties though it was not a significant part of the training course;|
|2||Weapons proficiency:||The aim of this aspect was to develop the efficiency of the security forces;|
|3||Human rights:||It included theoretically in the course, but practically there was no training on this issue for police officers;|
|4||Literacy, community policing and Afghan law:||Here, it is important to mention that many police possess basic skills who were illiterate for which they could not write report, maintain criminal law procedure, take notes, and obtain witness statements. In addition, embedded police mentor team had designed the training program to fill in gaps of untrained ANP and to develop literacy rate to increase skill in Afghan law;|
|5||Other issues||Conducting searches, tactical movement and building clearance, Unarmed combat and first aid:|
Harmonizing Technology for Police Reformation
Ashby et al. (2007, p.4) pointed out that that Information Technology could play an unavoidable and critical role in the management of police reformation with an increasing number of officials along with growing community support, the allocation of power and responsibility of the staff to working in the core policing tasks and field support needed to establish strong coordination. Moreover, in the peak population density areas, the extent of crime is very high with newer types of dilemmas where police have to face special crises to encounter with them without coordination with the central command where the information Technology could provide a vital solution.
GIS is the potential outcome of the Information technology that facilitated the opportunity for the police to locate criminals successfully, the backbone of the technology could be enhanced to the local governments where they could maintain every inventory of the public service including policing. As central governments in the present era have aligned with decentralization of power, the right integration of the Information Technology would facilitate the police reformation management with enhanced scope to bring structural reform by assessing the performance and redistribution of policing service at a priority basis where providing necessary feedback to the criminal justice system is the top priority.
Challenges of Police Reform
Loh (2010, p.9) argued that the major challenges of police reformation were the people’s expectation and rising demand for service and shortage of the capacity of police never come into equilibrium while the growing level of crime and terrorism have been throwing an extended challenge to the reformation drive. According to UN standard, the essential ratio of police/population is 1:450, but the reality of third world countries that there are 1:1000 and somewhere the ratio is higher; where the UN mission urged to meet up the gap by providing training with necessary components (AIHRC, 2012; and Robinson, 2010).
Moreover, during the post-crisis environment the police management face apparently insoluble challenges from the old police configuration that composed with higher extent of corruption at every level, although they get sufficient, they serve the interest of other groups that may link with anti-state activities or partisan. Another great challenge of police reformation is the scarcity of human resources, in different countries due to police reformation has hampered for lack of interest of the local people to join the police or security forces due to raising threats and poor compensation packages. Different research works with police have demonstrated that the poor compensation packages have a serious negative impact on the moral standard of police, while undue interference of political leaders have spoiled ethical standards of the policing and it is also a challenge for police reformation.
The Changing Nature of Traditional Police Work
Murphy and McKenna (2007, p.19) mentioned that characteristically the traditional police work has engaged to control crime by enforcing the law and responding to the emergencies of the citizens, but modern policing has to be involved to perform complex functions like supporting the criminal justice system, encounter with terrorism, criminal mapping adopting GIS technology, crime investigation, VIP security and ensuring social peace. The reason of such changes have mostly interlinked with the changing norms of social and political orders carried by legislative reforms, the legal framework is the source of power allocated for police and to assisting to perform their duty, but the law also kept certain limits for their operation and made them accountable to the legislators. For the last three decades, the legal framework has radically changed its domain to ensure efficiency, transparency, and public safety while technological development provided another greatest dimension for police work for crime investigation and criminal database base generation and locating the criminals by using GIS. In every change, the police force has to go through huge training and development, while modern policing integrated with huge research works essential to improve their future strategy. On the other hand, growing public mistrust of the police due to its misconduct with citizens, human rights violation, political affiliation, and influence have seriously urged for a fair policing with the appropriate standard of ethical performance while the decentralization drive in the governmental power directed the police force to the changing regulatory responsibilities
This chapter concentrated on several factors, such as, progress of ANP reform, contribution of EPM on the training program, harmonizing technology for police reformation, challenges of police reform, political situation, the changing nature of traditional police work, and so on.
Recommendations and Conclusion
This study would make the following recommendation for the training and mentoring programs like EPMs of the Afghan National Police:
From the analysis of literature review and primary data, it can be found that the qualification of embedded police mentors was questionable to the members of Afghan National police, particularly to the high officials. However, the members of the national police addressed that lack of communication skills and other qualifications, the training program of EPM became ineffective to some extent, for which the national police force provided negative feedback and recommended private contractors, for example, Dyncorp to evaluate carefully the training programs and quality of the mentors to train the police.
At the same time, this dissertation suggests the US Department of Defense and other donors check the initiative of private contractors to send qualified mentors who have good interpersonal and communication skills considering the role of the police mentors. It will help this department to meet its target and contribute to reform ANP successfully with reputation; however, primary data showed that the members of ANP are satisfied with the training programs of EPMs.
The above study illustrates that the long struggle against the Taliban, the ANP has established as being organized as a civil-military force to support the law order situation and safeguard the citizens from Taliban insurgency. Although the ANP has huge backdrops like corruption and illiteracy, but the most important requirement for the ANP training program is to increase the capabilities of the ANP members for a political settlement in order to establish peace, and to do so it is essential to include political motivation in their training program. Without strong political motivation, the ANP could not be able to encounter the Taliban, thus, it is suggested to the trainers and mentors of ANP to set up strong political ideology for the ANP members.
There is a huge number of Taliban supporters and even agents who help the Taliban to occur massive destruction and even killing EPM training mentors and trainers; thus, it is essential to conduct a substantial rectification drive in the ANP from top to bottom to make the force-free from secret connection with Taliban. Simultaneously, the ANP is also required to establish coordination through a training institute with another department of security and military forces for future encounters.
It is suspected that the Taliban would consider the withdrawal of NATO-US forces from Afghanistan as a defeat, so the Taliban would be more inspired to increase the degree of insurgency against the existing government whom they treat as collaborator anti-Islamists, and imperialist and the puppet government of US agencies. Moreover, the Taliban are waiting to re-ascend to the state power; thus, it is difficult to fix up future strategies for ANP by any single actors, but required to have a combined direction by the government, EU, NATO, US and security intelligence
The more pessimistic direction of the current system of ANP training is that the major part of the budget has directly funded by the US government, so, ANP carries tremendous dependency for decision making on the Department of States and Defense of the United States. For future strategies of ANP training, it is suggested to reduce the dependency on the US government, but increase coordination with the EU and other actors in order to generate future funding for ANP.
This study would also recommend to the Afghan government and all foreign actors in Afghanistan to strengthen ANP and all other local forces to an extent where they would be capable to enfold the Taliban in a particular territory and making them bound to come in a peace talk. As an alternative to the long-term struggle, it recommends considering establishing a peace agreement with Taliban providing them with a particular regional autonomy under the present constitution that could reduce the ongoing conflict and assist to come out from a long-term struggle.
It has settled that the withdrawal of foreign forces under the leadership of US-NATO from Afghanistan by the end of 2014, but the withdrawal has already been started long before the deadline arrived. On the background of increasing Taliban insurgency, suicide squad attacks, and rising threats of civil war, the US military has already left it hope to revenge and control over Al-Qaeda and Taliban; in addition, they decided to leave Afghanistan without any political settlement or winning conclusion. Under such a situation, the reformation project of the ANP has aligned with huge uncertainties and challenges, and in absence of foreign forces; the Taliban would commence an aggressive attack on the ANP. Thus, further ANP training and mentoring programs including EPMs required to align with the direction of political settlement with the Taliban in order to establish peace and rule of law.
This chapter suggested several solutions and drew conclusions considering the above-mentioned chapter; however, it recommended the policymakers, leaders, ANP, members of EPM, donor countries, and others to improve the training programs to develop a skilled police force.
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Please mention region:
- Bala Boluk District
- Farah Province
|1. I know that for the EPMs it is important to have a good and clear training system||20|
|2. I trust the way I am trained to do my job||19||1|
|3. The way I am trained to do my job assures I am prepared to do my best||16||3|
|4. I am satisfied with the training I receive||17||2||1|
|5. I am happy with the salary I receive||4||1||2||4||9|
|6. I understand that my coworkers are well trained to do their job||12||3||5|
|7. I think my training will continue while I am an officer of the ANP||1||4||7||8|
|8. I agree that training will continue to reform ANP||19||1|
|9. I think EPMs faced challenges in this country to train police force||18||1||1|
|10. It is emergence to stop EPMs and replace it with combine programs||1||19|
|11. I think that ANP would be capable for self-governance and peacekeeping in absence of combine forces||1||2||17|
|12. I think that ANP would be capable for self-governance and peacekeeping in absence of combine forces||19||1|
|13. ANP face challenges to participate in the training program with EPM||15||3||2|
|14. *The Afghan National police suffered number of problems||19||1|