Hopkins, M., & Spillane, J. (2014). Schoolhouse teacher educators: Structuring beginning teachers’ opportunities to learn about instruction. Journal of Teacher Education, 65 (4), 327-339.
This article starts with two clearly stated research questions, viz. “Who is doing the work of beginning teacher education inside schools and how do these schoolhouse teacher educators provide beginning teachers with opportunities for learning” (Hopkins & Spillane, 2014, p. 327). The research problem is divided into different manageable sections. Each section addresses a different aspect of the research problem. For instance, one subsection explores the available literature on “school factors that support beginning teachers’ learning and development” (Hopkins & Spillane, 2014, p. 328). The research is guided by stated research questions and every section revolves around the highlighted issues. In addition, the researchers are guided by a specific plan for proceeding. They note, “First, we sinuate and support the study with literature that examines the school-related factors that support beginning teachers’ learning and development. Second, we motivate and frame our work with research advice and information interactions and subject-matter differences in elementary school teachers’ work” (Hopkins & Spillane, 2014, p. 328).
The researchers do not state the assumptions that their work rests upon. However, one can point out some assumptions in the article based on the literature review that the researchers use. Therefore, it suffices to conclude that the article’s assumptions are based on the research findings of other authors. The researchers collected qualitative data using school staff surveys and interviews. The data had already been recorded in different research works. In addition, the researchers analyzed the data using social network analysis. Finally, the research is helical as it builds on other already established works by other researchers. In essence, the researchers of this article did not go to the field to collect data, but they used archived information and this aspect makes the research helical. Therefore, the article qualifies for formal research.
D’Eloia, M., & Sibthorp, J. (2014). Relatedness for youth with disabilities: Testing a Recreation program model. Journal of Leisure Research, 46 (4), 462-482.
This article starts with a well-stated research problem. The authors posit, “The purpose of this study was to test and assess the merits of a recreation program model designed to foster a sense of relatedness among youth with disabilities” (D’Eloia & Sibthorp, 2014, p. 462). The problem is divided into several manageable subdivisions. For instance, the authors use subtopics like relatedness, relatedness outcomes for youth with disabilities, relatedness and camp for youth with disabilities, mechanisms of relatedness, challenging experiences, learning opportunities, and peer role models among other subsections. In addition, the research is guided by two specific hypotheses, viz. “Youth with disabilities experience greater increases in MOR variables than youth without disabilities and the scores on the MOR would positively and uniquely predict participant perceptions of relatedness” (D’Eloia & Sibthorp, 2014, p. 469). The article does not have an outlined specific plan for proceeding. However, the article follows a systematic approach where it starts with abstract, introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion. Therefore, it suffices to conclude that the article has a specific plan of proceeding even though it is not outlined.
The research rests on critical assumptions as highlighted in the hypotheses. In addition, the researchers base their work on the assumption that earlier works by other authors are authentic. The researchers collected quantitative data by giving questionnaires to 240 participants attending two different camps. For data analysis, the authors used two different methods, viz. ANOVA / MANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. In addition, the researchers discussed the results before giving a conclusion on the findings. Finally, the research is helical as it builds on questions arising from previous works. Therefore, the article qualifies for a formal research paper.
D’Eloia, M., & Sibthorp, J. (2014). Relatedness for youth with disabilities: Testing a Recreation program model. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(4), 462-482.
Hopkins, M., & Spillane, J. (2014). Schoolhouse teacher educators: Structuring Beginning teachers’ opportunities to learn about instruction. Journal of Teacher Education, 65(4), 327-339.