The Different Theories of Motivation

This paper is an attempt to evaluate the different theories of motivation. The theories under consideration are Ella’s Biological Theory of Motivation, the Psychosocial Theory of Motivation by Marcelo, and the Interactionist Theory of Motivation by Masoko. It also analyses the relation between emotion and motivation in each case. Sam’s theory, which deals with combining the three approaches, assumes greater importance in this paper. The types of effort Ella, Marcelo, and Masoko would put forth are also discussed in this paper.

The psychological theory of motivation can account for Marcelo’s motivation theory. The psychological theory of motivation is based on two kinds of motivation -intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Here a person’s behavior is resolute by communication between expectations, shared beliefs, needs, and the existing environment. Marcelo gets motivation through external stimuli and from the organism himself. Her motivation is an idea derived from behavior.

On the other hand, Masoko’s motivation can be based on the interactionist theory of motivation. In this case, Masoko gains cause or the source of inspiration in his interaction with his friends and other members of society. If one can analyze the words of Jonathan H. Turner, one can find the author’s willingness to support the interactionist theory of motivation. Jonathan H. Turner remarks, “Rather, each is concerned primarily with human interaction and organization, but in approaching these broader concerns, all develop an implicit model of motivation” (Turner, 1988, page 40, para. 2).

The third person Ella acquires motivation through the biological theory of motivation principles. Here cause generates through bodily functions. Various reactions of fear, relief, love, and energy can simulate human behavior differently.

Psychological studies prove that emotional procedures are essential to motivational behavior.

In Masoko’s case, emotion and motivation are based on the relationship between organisms and various environments. Here person’s interactions constitute different feelings, which often provide sources of inspiration. Situational estimations greatly influence human actions. Analyzing the integrationist theory of motivation, one can see that an individual modifies their actions based on the reactions of others and the motivation phenomena created by the emotions. On the contrary, in Marcelo’s case, emotion plays a minor role in which the sources of motivation concentrate on both intrinsic and eccentric situations.

Here individuals modify their actions through the perception of internal and external stimuli. Source of inspiration can be classified as either outside people or inside individuals. Sometimes, the cognitive element also affects the motivation process. Emotions can be removed from various stimuli. The biological theory of motivation constitutes different bodily expressions, such as facial expressions, eye movements, and sound variation. The book entitled’ Educational Psychology’ by Prem Pasricha provides appropriate and highly informative ideas. Prem Pasricha remarks, “Instincts involve certain basic wants, needs and biological motives in a human system.” (Pasricha, 1963, p. 130).

Human frustration and conflict can provide strong constraints on persons. However, various attributes of human behavior contribute to or modify a variety of individual responses, which helps them develop specific human behaviors.

Examining the efforts of the three persons, it is clear that Ella’s attitudinal changes result from biological motivation. She makes more physical and mental efforts than the other two persons. Here, human responses are expressed through the movements of organs. In Marcelo’s case, personal action is comparatively smaller than the first one. Marcelo’s reactions and behavior changes are based on the density of intrinsic and eccentric stimuli within the individual. Therefore, the relation between emotion and motivation has less significance in Marcelo’s case. Another important fact is that Masoko develops his attitudes and behavior patterns through the interactionist theory of motivation. Here the individual is compelled to generate his emotions and behavior based on the interactionist theory of motivation.

Analyzing the emotional changes of the three persons, Ella, Marcelo, and Masoko, one can find that emotions are created based on various theories. Marcelo’s feeling is designed as a natural reaction to the psychological process. Here, emotions follow the psychological reply of eternal and external stimuli. James –Lange Theory of emotion plays a vital role. In the case of Ella, the formation and expressions of emotions are based on Cannon-Bard Theory. Michael W. Eysenck states, “As a result, this theory has no problem that our experience of emotion can occur before the relevant bodily changes have taken place.” (Eysenck, 1996, p. 83).

In Masoko’s case, it is clear that emotions originate from social cognition theory. (Social Contagion, 2009). Here the individual performs behavioral changes through the reactions of their interactions.

Finally, Sam effectively combines the theories mentioned above in the fourth person. Sam finds motivation through various sources. One can see the elements of a psychological theory of motivation, interactionist theory of inspiration, and biological theory of motivation. Sam modifies his behavior based on psychological motivation theories, principles of human interaction, and the body’s physical needs. Sam’s effort is higher than the three persons, namely, Ella, Marcelo, and Masoko. Based on the desired outcome, Sam planned and modified his behavior. The relation between emotion and motivation plays a significant role. Emotions are controlled by situations, material, and biological needs.

Various theories of motivation play a vital role in behavior formation and establishment. In the case of the psychological theory of motivation, psychological changes and needs influence the motivation sources. In the biological theory of motivation, movements of organs, the density of feelings, and motor activities control the motivation process. To conclude, analyzing the integrationist theory of motivation, behavior changes of others, and emotional variations are affecting factors.


Eysenck, M W. (1996). Simply psychology: Cannon-Bard theory. Psychology press. Web.

Pasricha, P. (1963). Educational Psychology: Biological motives and motivation. Sterling publishers Pvt. Ltd. Web.

Social Contagion. (2009). Changing Minds. Web.

Turner, J H. (1988). A theory of social interaction: Contemporary models of motivation. Stanford University press. Web.