The present examination focused on the hypothetical and methodological challenges of language skill development. The study focuses on the social aspect of Vygotsky theory. The dynamic assessment facilitates language improvement because it assumes that mental instruments intercede psychological exercises. Although dynamic assessment (DA) has gotten extensive consideration from analysts, few studies have investigated its impact on listening comprehension in the language classroom. The investigation intends to fill the research gap in listening comprehension using dynamic assessment as a mediation tool. As a result, the researcher selected fifty-six students to take part in the present examination.
The selected students were mandated to take a proficiency test to ensure the homogeneity of the participants. The researcher recorded the pre-test and post-test results of the participants. The values were coded using statistical language. The results were analysed using one-way ANOVA to test its reliability and validity. The study findings recommend that language educators must utilise meditation techniques to enhance students’ listening skills. Educators are advised to apply more DA approaches to mitigate the student’s resistance to classroom instructions. The discoveries underscore the efficacy of dynamic assessment and suggest its inclusion in the language-learning curriculum.
Listening is the least expressed language abilities, which makes it the hardest skill in education. Listening facilitates understanding and the capacity of speaking. When students prepare to ask questions, it means that pupils’ listening command is effective, and it is an inclination to measure the listening skill. There has been a lengthy record of identical testing as an effective means to assess the students’ language competence for unique goals of diagnostic, engagement and choice (Abdolrezapour 2017). Dynamic assessment (DA) presents assumptions of mediation and interaction as crucial components of evaluation and techniques to research students’ capacities (Ahmadi, Donyaei & Malek 2016). DA is an alternative procedure to conventional measurement, which originates from the social-cultural theory.
Dynamic assessment focus on a cognitive-oriented feature of reading skill. Social-cultural theory (SCT) is a mental concept developed by Vygotsky and its principles function as the foundation of dynamic assessment, relying on the reunification of evaluation and learning. Dynamic assessment maintains that the mediation phase enhances learner’s development in assessment (Ahmadi, Donyaei & Malek 2016). DA is a method to comprehend learner differences and consequences of the understanding of education. By implication, dynamic assessment is a test that attaches intervention in the testing processes. As a result, DA focuses on learning (Ahmadi & Jafari 2017). With the dependence on constructivism, Vygotsky centred on the significance of social interaction in the learning process (Ahmadi & Jafari 2017).
According to SCT, human understanding is a mediated process. Learner’s cognition is developed by an intervention that contributes to self-regulation (Ahmadi & Rozati 2017). Thus, dynamic assessment is a collaborative model of evaluation and learning, which induces an emerging future. The current study will investigate the effect of DA on listening abilities in the language classroom. The analysis is also an effort to check the applicability of dynamic assessment in discovering the students’ skills in conversant and unfamiliar activities. The findings of this research will fill the gap in the literature on listening comprehension because of the assessment process, which focuses on the appraisal and instruction as a coordinated process.
Justification for the Study
The capacity to influence learning has been a challenge in many works of literature. The aim of adopting different strategies hinges on positive learning performance. As a result, various strategic tools have been created to enhance reading, listening, speaking, and writing skills. Ahmadi and Rozati (2017) assessed GDA as a mediational strategy for learning comprehension. The authors tested the impact of dynamic assessment of selected students. The findings showed that dynamic evaluation enhances cooperation, interaction and development among learners. Based on this assumption, the current study will discuss the effects of DA on students’ listening capability.
Hidri (2014) researched the impact of DA on EFL learners. The author adopted static and DA techniques. In the static method, the researcher provided audio texts and questions. The researcher introduced negotiation and mediation in the DA strategy. The findings showed a significant comprehension of cognitive practices in learning and improved development. Shabani (2014) argued that SCT developed the learning curve of L2 student’s listening skills. The students’ ability to comprehend the unrecognised term transcends the pre-test activity and task repetition exercise, a development signalling the innovative trajectories of ZPD.
The qualitative evaluation of dynamic assessment protocols associated with meditation approaches contains different implicit to explicit opinions. The DA-based strategy may have encouraged developmental adjustments in listening comprehension. Language instructors have suggested the inclusion of meditation approaches in classroom activities. Hashemi, Ketabi, and Barati (2015) examined the influence of SCT in measuring the student’s pragmatic comprehension using mediational strategies. The authors selected fifty EFL students to take part in the ten-week experiment. The participants were divided into two groups of experimental and control populations. Based on the goal of the research, the experimental group was examined with mediational support, while the control team adopted a non-dynamic strategy.
The research findings showed that mediation supports enhanced significant changes in the student’s listening capacity by improving their pragmatic comprehension of conversational text. A comprehensive examination of dynamic assessment shows that studies on listening comprehension in the language classroom have been limited. Therefore, the researcher justifies the need to investigate the impact of dynamic assessment on listening ability of students in the language classroom.
Purpose of the Study
Since studies on listening comprehension in the language classroom are limited, this study seeks to fill the gap in the literature. The findings of this study will be beneficial to educators, policymakers, teachers and curriculum designers.
Based on the assumptions of dynamic assessment in many works of literature, the current research will answer the following questions.
1. What is the impact of dynamic assessment on the student’s listening comprehension in the language classroom?
2. Is there a significant relationship between dynamic assessment and listening performance?
- English as a foreign language: EFL
- Dynamic assessment: DA
- Group dynamic assessment: GDA
- The first language of the speaker or learner: L1
- The second language of the speaker or learner: L2
- Sociocultural theory: SCT
- Mediated learning experience: MLE
- Zone of proximal development: ZPD
- Second language acquisition: SLA
- Listening comprehension: LC
- Task familiarity: TF
- Task participation: TP
Dynamic assessment is an educational tool, as suggested by Vygotsky’s theory. Vygotsky believed that classroom instruction facilitates the learner’s cognitive reasoning and development. This concept provides the springboard on which researchers can measure and test cognition while considering its value from a social perspective (Abdolrezapour 2017). According to Alavi and Taghizadeh (2014), the term sociocultural is not a concept of human presence, but the philosophy of the mind that acknowledges the role of sociocultural relationships in coordinating human forms of learning.
The zone of proximal development is a method of measuring performance, learning and correlation. The author suggested continuous mediation of social activities and development by societal practices, actions and ethnic artefacts. Under this context, learners can adopt what they experience to stimulate a new cognitive function. As a result, students can self-mediate to form a new opinion on learning. Therefore, a student’s independent operation shows the level of internalisation. By comparison, the learner’s inability to work independently reveals the language skills that form the proximal development (Alavi & Taghizadeh 2014).
With the DA tool, the evaluator assists learners through intervention to achieve the desired result. It is a procedure where the assessor measures the impact of the intervention. In non-formal approaches, the teacher administers classroom tasks individually or in groups without providing help, mediation or feedback. Students receive results of their performance after completing the task assignments (Farangi & Kheradmand 2017).
DA proponents contest this course of action based on its significance to learning outcomes. However, teachers prefer psychometric fundamentals because a shift in performance during the evaluation procedure is a risk to score consistency (Farangi & Kheradmand 2017). In contrast, NDA critics argue that the learning tool could alter the learning curve and performance. By implication, a learning tool is incomplete when it cannot change learner’s performance in writing, speaking, listening and reading.
Researchers claimed that providing help through evaluation shows a comprehensive image of the student’s cognitive function. In contrast, psychometric evaluations do not solve learning issues, and it reveals the learner’s inadequacies (Farangi & Kheradmand 2017). Although some studies revealed the importance of dynamic assessment of L2 students, there have been few studies on its impact on the learner’s listening comprehension (Ahmadi & Jafari 2017; Ellis, Li & Zhu 2019; Hsu 2019; Phung 2017; Qiu & Lo 2017).
Shabani (2014) researched the ramifications of dynamic assessment on L2 learners and analysed its contributions to listening comprehension and evaluation. The author selected six college students for the experiment. The selected students completed a survey questionnaire about their L2 learning history. Participants completed the pre-test, intervention procedure, and task repetition exercises. The research findings showed that dynamic assessment enhanced and eased college L2 students’ listening comprehension. The findings also suggested that the DA strategy of listening might help educators determine comprehension issues in the language classroom.
Hidri (2014) compared the impact of the NDA and DA on sixty Tunisian L2 college students. The author assigned eleven qualified assessors to report the coded values. The evaluators and participants were interviewed to explore their perceptions regarding the test experiment, strategies and intervention process. The sample data scores were examined with the Rasch measurement. The findings showed that the dynamic assessment approach enhanced the student’s cognitive development. Based on the research findings, the authors concluded that the DA tool showed significant changes in learning comprehension than other conventional assessment techniques.
The study on dynamic assessment has led to strategic recommendations in curriculum development. Wang (2015) analysed the contributions of DA on Chinese learners. The researcher selected five participants for the experiment. Based on the research goal, the author adopted the cake DA strategy to measure students listening performance. The researcher administered audio text during the pre-test sessions and provided mediations after identifying the student’s challenge.
The learning session was repeated to test the level of assimilation. The investigations showed that dynamic evaluation could provide a deeper comprehension of the issues connected to the students’ listening skill. In another investigation, Farangi, and Kheradmand (2017) analysed the efficacy of the schema principle on the student’s listening skill. The researchers selected two classes of learners, each containing 42 participants. The DA group participated in the pre-test and post-test design, while the schema principle team used the listening layout. The findings revealed that both teams developed and improved their listening skills.
The investigation revealed no substantial difference between the classes within their listening skills. Ebadi and Vakili (2015) analysed the effectiveness of the electronic theory mapping in the development of the listening skill of students through exploring the associated developments within their zonal proximal development (ZPD). The participants were given ten dynamic assessment sessions and asked to make concept maps after each session. The outcome showed that the students shifted from feedback intervention to self-regulated learning, meaning they could achieve a higher level of zonal proximal development in the language classroom.
Dynamic Assessment and Intervention
Dynamic mediation describes the role played by other folks in the students’ learning process. The term also describes individuals who develop their understanding by choosing and forming learning experiences. Ebadi and Saeedian (2016) mentioned that the program of signs and representational tools facilitates intervention with different people. The authors asserted that mediators could be human and emblematic. According to the study, individual intervention tests what type of participation of the assessor will increase the student’s learning comprehension, whereas object intervention investigates the changes in the student’s performance when exposed to symbolic resources.
Philp and Duchesne (2016) noted that the assessors attempt to delineate behaviours that might affect the learner’s performance. The evaluator observes how learners respond to teaching directives. The assessor also tests the limitations of the learner’s cognitive capabilities to recognise factors that impede the learning curve. The authors identified some factors that affect the learner’s comprehension as illiteracy, and cultural modifications in studying customs, poor language and insufficient development of mental structures and approaches. Thus, an effective learning strategy should be adaptable in the evaluation procedure.
Listening and Speaking Skills
Listening and speaking are part of the four language skills that require mediation strategy. Barabadi, Khajavy, and Kamrood (2018) researched the application of DA approaches in talking sessions. The analysis used special applications of the strategy to test the learning performance of college students. The authors created the mediated help that described the collaboration between learners and evaluators to show issues in spoken functionality. The researchers also created another strategy to examine the learners’ capacity to convert internalised knowledge to innovative learning. The results showed that DA special applications could assess the performance of L2 learners.
Kamali, Abbasi, and Sadighi (2018) analysed the use of interactive DA tools for kindergartens in the L2 classroom. This interactive strategy has been established in the mediation design for EFL learners. The research findings showed that interactive DA provided better response than non-formal learning tools. In addition, it showed the efficacy of interactive evaluation in boosting learning through mediation strategies. Hidri (2014) investigate the need to test and improve current strategies of listening the author conducted the research to test learning methods using the EFL perspective. The study outcome revealed that DA mediation improved the student’s reading and listening abilities.
The Dimensions of Listening Comprehension
The individualised measure allows teachers to become sensitive to students’ demands. As stated by Tayşi (2019), the core procedures of learning comprehension affect the manner messages are received and processed. Teachers should categorise learnings based on the individualised content. Intermediary learners will be assisted to develop bottom-up abilities while advanced students may focus on developing top-down abilities. Under the cross-cultural measurement, instructors can emulate the gaps in cultural requirements of texts comprehension. Students’ schemata and history knowledge got in the language classroom might cause corresponding interpretations and expectations of a certain text. Social measurement describes the language classroom as social interaction.
Under this dimension, teachers present text-processing units as a psych-perceptual procedure because it excludes interactive dialogues among interlocutors. Language researchers like Hidri (2014), proposed the inclusion of conversation models in L2 learning and classified a two-way discussion as a paradigm example of the societal measurement of listening. Tayşi (2019) suggested that contextualised measurement permits classroom activities that facilitate understanding.
For example, within the educational settings, learners listen to the teacher and visualise the current topic. These learners may be delegated to examine some materials linked to the subject or answer questions after each teaching session. Tayşi (2019) highlighted the significance of contextualised measurement in the language classroom to prevent circumstances where non-contextualised learning hinders the student’s listening comprehension.
The affective measurement model describes the factors that alter the process of language learning. The affective factors include approach attitude, motivation, affect and temperament. The approach attitude describes the learner’s attitude towards the teaching strategy and listening comprehension. The motivation factor involves students’ interest, ability, accomplishment, aesthetic admiration, respect and desire to learn.
The affective factors describe the learner’s willingness to learn, mood and feelings to comport themselves during the learning period. The temperament factor can be classified under two groups, which include unfavourable circumstances and text stimulation. The unfavourable group describes elements such as classroom settings, background sounds and climate conditions. The text stimulation groups include teaching organisation or text storyline, which evokes pleasure or sad feelings.
Task familiarity is described as the information associated with the content domain and applied to the reading discourse. The impact of task familiarity has not been explored, and some studies argue that TF plays a significant role in the language classroom (Ahmadian, Tavakoli & Dastjerdi 2015; Ellis, Li & Zhu 2019; Hsu 2019; Phung 2017; Qiu & Lo 2017). A study conducted on Iranian students tested the influence of task familiarity on classroom activities (Michel & Sample 2014). The study investigated the impact of TF on text reading and language. The findings showed that text familiarity influenced the student’s listening pattern. A study on TF recommended the need to integrate the design of the classroom curriculum to enhance the student’s development.
Task participation has been discussed in many works of literature studies, and its impact recommended for classroom design. Philp and Duchesne (2016) emphasised that task participation stimulates the student’s learning curve. Despite its function in enhancing the learner’s performance, TP studies have been unexplored in many tasks-based language teachings. Teachers should design different classroom activities to engage and improve cognitive learning development. Student classroom engagement is a multidimensional construct that enhances performance.
The current study will examine some notable evaluation methods used in many classrooms. The discrete-point method of listening evaluation have been effective in the language-learning classroom. Under this listening method, the assessor tests the speech components of learners. The most frequent kinds of hearing evaluations are phonemic judgement, paraphrase comprehension and response analysis. The teachers require students to hear a collection of phrases and signify what they heard (Shabani 2018). The communication strategy asserts that language learning depends on communication demand. This learning strategy provides the written and spoken forms of language. Authenticity and purpose are the characteristics of the communicative method of measurement.
This investigation exists in an interdisciplinary system, which incorporates language learning skills and Vygotsky’s sociocultural hypothesis. The fundamental reason for the examination is to explore the effects of dynamic assessment strategies on listening comprehension in the language classroom. The investigation applies the DA approach and depends on a longitudinal research configuration empowering the perception of listening improvement within a timeline.
The study will conduct a mixed research design to collect data for the selected participants. The mixed approach will include a sociocultural strategy, propositional examination, and a valuable scientific technique. Based on these assumptions, the researcher adopted the quantitative and qualitative technique to test the educational investigation and report its outcomes. The utilisation of various strategies was important to accomplish a comprehensive perspective on the study discoveries. The statistical method of data analysis was used to ensure the validity and reliability of the research findings.
The researcher selected 56 students studying to participate in the current study. The study location was randomly selected based on the standards of research validity and reliability. The inclusion criterion was based on the cut-off marks of 25-30. Each student was acquainted with the teaching session and experiment procedure. There were 38 male and 18 female language learners in this study. The researcher divided the students into two groups, which include the experimental team and control class.
The assessor used several texts during the experiment. Each group was treated to different learning sessions based on the category. The assessment group utilised DA tools to test its impact on the sample population. The control group were given text narratives from non-dynamic modes of learning. The books used for this experiment include ‘Basic Tactics for Listening and Top Notch Fundamentals’.
Since the level of language understanding varied among participants, the researcher conducted a placement and English proficiency test as the selection criterion. According to the principles of this evaluation, students who obtained a rating between 25 and 3 were allowed to partake in the experiment. The students were given seven queries that asked them to pick the best image that would suit the posed picture. The next test also contained seven questions that asked the students to decide on the best response. The final set of questions comprised five queries asking the students to hear short discussions and answer the posed questions. The queries required that participants adopted DA listening approaches to test their learning comprehension. Each learning session was timed to allow time for repeated examinations. The researcher scored each correct answer as one point.
Data Collection Method
The researcher adopted Ableeva’s framework for this experiment. Under this framework, assessor began the learning sessions with a recap on the reason for the experiment. The recap strategy motivates students to remain attentive throughout the learning process. The teacher acted as the mediator during the listening experiment. The participants were stimulated to follow each earning sessions to the end. This practice enhanced the affective factors of each participant, as they were receptive during each task. The instructor replayed the audio conversations and asked students to repeat what they heard. While each learner attempted to replicate and create similar sounds and actions from the audio text, the teacher supplied feedback based on the learner’s response. As found in table 1, the author adopted Ableeva’s approach to mediation for this study.
|Mediating Strategy Model|
|Structure of the text|
|Replay the text|
|Ask the words|
|Identify the problem|
|Provide the correct pattern|
The study investigated the effect of dynamic assessment on listening comprehension of students in the language classroom. The researcher selected 50 students based on the proficiency test scores. To ensure the validity of the sampled values, the author conducted the ANOVA analysis. As found in Table 2, the analysis represented the mean values of the sample population.
|One-way Analysis Test|
|Proficiency Test||Category||N||Mean||Std. Dev.||Std. error|
The analysis was conducted to test the homogeneity of the sample population. As found in Table 2, the mean score for the DA group was 12.62, while the control group had 14.56. The result showed no differences among the selected learners prior to the experiment. The researcher investigated the impact of mediation strategies on a group of students in the language classroom. The research findings will answer the questions concerning the impact of DA on listening comprehension. Table 3 shows the gain values of the experiment. The researcher conducted a statistical analysis of the impact of DA using the pre-test and post-test scores. The proficiency test was coded as the pre-test value. The DA group was treated to corrective feedback before they completed the post-test.
|Pre-test and Post-test Analysis|
|Group||N||Mean||Std. Dev.||Std. error||Gain score|
As found in Table 3, one-way analysis shows the impact of DA on the student’s listening comprehension. The researchers computed the gain score of each group to identify the significant effect of dynamic assessment. The gain value was computed from the pre-test and post-test scores of each group.
Gain value = mean score of post-test – Mean score of the pre-test.
The gain score for the DA group was 25.7, while the control group was 1.36. The findings showed that dynamic assessment had a positive impact on the student’s listening ability. The control group was not given corrective feedback, and it explains the gain score of 1.36. Based on the research findings, corrective strategies such as DA tool influenced the student’s listening comprehension.
To answer the second question, the author conducted the ANOVA on the pre-test and post-test intervention. As found in Table 4, there was no significant difference in the F value between groups in the pre-test analysis. The pre-test F-value of 0.17 proves the homogeneity of both groups. However, the F value differed significantly in the post-test analysis. The results showed the relevance of mediational strategy and interventions on learners listening ability. Based on the ANOVA test, the post-test F-value between groups was 18.45. The score showed that dynamic assessment significantly influenced the students listening comprehension.
The outcome of the listening test showed that DA group outperformed the control group. Concerning the students’ listening skill, the findings were consistent with Vygotsky’s SCT because dynamic assessment sessions via mediational strategies played a crucial part in students’ listening comprehension. Thus, leaners cognition is conducive through interaction and interventions. By implication, the human anatomy is designed to reveal the social adjustments, which was revealed in this study. This assumption concurs with the findings in many works of literature on the impact of meditational techniques of cognitive development.
Under the DA strategy, a student’s skill could be partially developed or internalised based on the mediation strategy. The findings of this investigation are justified because the DA group in the experiment received several interventions. As found in Table 1, the DA group was given nine training approaches to boost the learning curve Shabani (2014) conducted a test on the impact of teaching interventions on listening comprehension. The results showed that DA has a beneficial influence on the students’ listening skill and the result concurs with the findings of this study. Hidri (2014) emphasised that the mediational strategy for listening has a beneficial impact on the development of student learning outcome. The author believed that the level of intervention facilitates knowledge. Hidri adopted two strategies for hearing interventions, which include static and dynamic assessment.
The results of the analysis are consistent with this investigation, which affirms the significance of dynamic assessment on learning abilities. In the current analysis, the students in the DA group received additional feedback and classroom discussions before the post-test. This accounts for the improved test values and a higher gain score of 18.45. Teaching instructors argue that the learner’s capability to identify the unrecognised term goes beyond the post-test activity into the treatment sessions (Shabani, 2014). The author recommended the adoption of dynamic assessment as an oriented process to test the students’ skills.
This investigation gives support to the effects of implementing dynamic evaluation to enhance listening comprehension. Emadi (2015) investigated the impact of implicit and explicit mediational strategies on learning comprehension. The author focused on mediation impact on EFL learners. Based on the findings, the author asserted that dynamic assessment tool triggered positive change and changes in EFL learners.
The findings hypothesised that dynamic assessment could have a significant influence on the students’ listening abilities. The author’s recommendations are consistent with the findings of this investigation, which advocates effective interventions and feedback strategy. In line with several works of literature, Hashemi, Ketabi, and Barati (2015) conducted a study on the applicability GDA on EFL students’ listening comprehension. The outcomes were like the current study, which showed significant changes in the learning curve via mediational strategies. The potency of implementing pragmatic understanding in this research is consistent with previous efforts, suggesting the advantages of mediation in comprehension and learning.
Conclusion and Recommendation
The study adopted a dynamic assessment tool to test listening abilities in the language classroom. The outcomes reinforced the assumption that dynamic assessment is an effective diagnostic tool for language learning skills. Although exploitation of listening procedure is challenging in the language classroom, educators must concentrate on the listening process to assist students with the right response. The consciousness of the procedure will trigger the evolution of other language abilities.
The ability to influence learning has been a challenge in many language classrooms. The aim of adopting different strategy hinges on positive learning performance. As a result, different strategic tools have been created to enhance reading, listening, speaking, and writing skills. Based on this assumption, the current study discussed the effects of DA on students’ listening capability. The findings of this research will fill the gap in the literature on listening comprehension because of the assessment process, which focuses on the appraisal and instruction as a coordinated process.
Teachers can assist learners through intervention to achieve the desired result. In non-formal approaches, the teacher administers classroom tasks without providing help, mediation or feedback. Students receive results of their performance after completing the task assignments. However, under the mediation approach, students receive corrective actions during class activities. The strategy improves cognitive development and enhances learning.
Contributions to Existing Knowledge
This study contributes to the knowledge data based on a dynamic assessment. The findings of this research could be used as a reference source, a referral note and study guide. The study outcome will contribute to teaching knowledge as it motivates instructors to teach and test the level of awareness in the language classroom. The findings provide a springboard for enhancing the decision-making process in curriculum development. Material developers can choose from a variety of activities based on the findings of this research to improve the student’s listening comprehension. Given the originality of this investigation of dynamic assessment, class activity designers and developers may integrate such actions into the syllabus.
Dynamic assessment can induce teachers to look at education and evaluation as a unified action because accurate assessment integrates both contexts. Teachers should execute DA in listening courses of L2 learners and EFL students to maximise their learning curve. Language teachers will adopt the findings because of its direction, recommendation and intervention. Test instructors can adopt the assessment guide, forecast the students’ behaviour, and assemble activities to enhance learning. SLA assistants could integrate the outcome of this research as it reveals certain ambiguities on mediational approaches and intervention.
The meditational approaches provide details for instructors to use DA strategy in the language classroom. Based on the study outcomes, it is recommended that meditational approaches improve the student’s zonal proximal development of students. The study discovered that effective utilisation of dynamic assessment interventions stimulates positive outcomes in students listening abilities. However, further studies could be conducted to test the student’s physical emotions during DA interventions. Student’s perception, attitude, motivation, affective behaviours and physical feelings contribute to language skill development. Thus, researchers can test the impact of these variables as it affects the language classroom.
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