Artificial intelligence technologies are used to make decisions by the top-level management. Basically, AI is a field of science that is based on many disciplines such as computer science, biology, psychology, linguistics, mathematics, and engineering. With AI, computers can be developed to simulate the human thinking process and perform human functions such as seeing, hearing, walking, talking, feeling, reasoning, learning, and problem-solving. But it is widely believed that it is not possible for computers to reach the level of human beings in the realm of creative thinking. Today artificial intelligence is finding new applications in the context of decision support systems. The new systems are easier to create and manage than earlier ones. Decision-making capabilities are embedded into the normal flow of work, and they are typically triggered without human intervention.
There are three major areas in the domain of AI research and development: cognitive science, robotics, and natural interfaces. These three areas overlap each other.
Cognitive science involves the study of the thinking process in a biological context. This area of artificial intelligence is based on research in biology, neurology, psychology, mathematics, and many related subjects. It focuses on studying how the human brain works and how humans think and learn. The results of such human information processing are the basis for the development of a variety of computer-based applications in artificial intelligence. Applications in the cognitive science area include the development of expert systems and other knowledge-based systems. These applications have a knowledge base at their center. Adaptive learning systems are another kind of cognitive science-based application where behavior is modified on a continuous basis through acquired information. Chess-playing systems are an example.
Fuzzy logic systems solve semi-structured problems with incomplete knowledge by developing approximate inferences and answers as humans do. Neural network software recognizes patterns in problem-solving and learns to solve such problems on its own. Generic algorithm software is based on the Darwinian theory of survival of the fittest and generates better solutions to problems.
AI, engineering, and physiology are the basic disciplines of robotics. AI is based on cognitive science, and hence robotics can be said to be partly an application of AI along with engineering and physiology. Robotics deals with the production of robot machines with computer intelligence and computer-controlled human-like physical capabilities. Thus, robots can have powers of sight, touch, and responding to sound. They may have skills in handling, manipulation, locomotion, and navigation.
The development of natural interfaces is considered a major area of AI applications. For example, the development of natural languages and speech recognition are major developments in this area. Being able to communicate with robots using ordinary human language is the aim of the development of natural interfaces. This is also related to linguistics, psychology, computer science, and other disciplines. Other applications in this area include the development of multisensory devices to operate computers and virtual reality in which multisensory human-computer interfaces enable human users to experience computer-simulated objects, spaces, activities, and worlds as if they really exist.
Thus, we find that cognitive science, robotics, and natural interfaces are all related to the area of artificial intelligence. Cognitive science provides the software for the development of robots. They provide decision-making software that is vital for robots. On the other hand, robots make use of both cognitive science and natural interfaces in order to be made user-friendly. Cognitive science endows the robots with human-like capabilities, whereas natural interfaces help robots to communicate with humans and handle requests and follow instructions. Natural interfaces are an application based on cognitive science that is used in robotics. Thus, all three aspects of artificial intelligence overlap at various levels.