Human Rights for Development

Introduction

Human rights and a country’s development in the sphere of economics are sometimes claimed to be the two phenomena that can never exist together. Unfortunately, any state’s government has a power to adjust its laws to limit human rights in its territory if it is not beneficial for the Commonwealth’s financial prosperity. The following paper will discuss the topic of human rights and development because there are many debates as to the given subject that do not lose their actuality even today.

Discussion

As it is mentioned in the introduction section, human rights and development are unlikely to come to a consensus between these two terms from the legal perspective. Unfortunately, politicians of any country might use their power to violate their citizens’ human rights if they present a barrier to the national development (Crawford and Andreassen 670). However, it is estimated that there can be no development if all people’s rights are not followed accurately in the modern world.

Nevertheless, there were multiple cases in the history when people were persecuted due to their religious views, ethnic backgrounds, specific worldviews, and other factors that cannot be judged by other human beings. It would be proper to mention that the law of human rights is based rather on moral considerations because the legislation can be adjusted to particular situations without any difficulties.

Today, individuals who inhabit territories of developed states are free because both the Leagues of Nations Council and the Permanent Court of International Justice issued and agreed to sign an international act that enumerates the rights of every person living on the planet. Unfortunately, the majority of cases when this law was violated were hidden from the world’s eyes.

History of Human Rights

The first movements towards the establishment of human rights laws that are widely known today were influenced by the events that happened in Europe during the Second World War (Freeman 49). After several years of military actions among various countries, the question of human rights and discrimination became the topic discussed by the UNO (Organization of United Nations). The UN promoted its faith in the rights of every person and equality of the entire humanity, regardless of separate individuals’ skin colors, religious beliefs, ethnic backgrounds, and other similar factors (Salomon 523).

To operate various violations and events aimed at thee popularization of non-discriminative behavior, the worldwide organization first established a department called Human Rights Commission, which is currently known as the UN Human Rights Council. The workers of this department issued a codex that contained many articles as to people’s relations to one another regarding their specific characteristics (language, sex, and so on).

In 1948, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was created and popularized all over the world. From this point, all the standards regarding anyone’s attitudes towards other people became international (Salomon 524). Therefore, every inhabitant of Earth became obliged to respect different people’s worldviews, ethnic factors, and other things that could be used for discrimination before. After that, almost every country in the world included similar rules in their local laws and started to judge people who held slaves or were expressing their negative relations to people from certain minorities.

Human Rights and Development Goals

From millennium till nowadays, the problem of human discrimination has reduced almost in every part of the civilized world. Therefore, politicians and employees of the United Nations Organizations started to pay more attention to peace and human security by issuing the Millennium Declaration 55/2 (Salomon 529). Also, this document was popularizing the rights of every person to develop in any sphere he or she prefers and remain in a positive environment for one’s personal goals (Fukuda-Parr et al. 106). It is necessary to state that there are six central values presented in the release that must have a positive impact on international relationships of different significance levels. These rules will be enumerated below:

  1. According to the first rule, every person or a family of two people have a right to raise their children in freedom and dignity. Also, children must not experience hunger during their process of physical development because of financial problems (Salomon 529). Every child must not be an object or physical violence in his or her family because this can have an adverse impact on the person’s behavior and psychical health. Moreover, worldviews of children must not be limited by their parents or other adults.
  2. According to the second point, all people must remain equal. In turn, representatives of various minorities or certain races cannot be deprived of their legal rights to develop as personalities and professionals in different spheres.
  3. Solidarity must be followed in every part of the world. No individuals are allowed to benefit from their positions at work, social statuses, and other similar factors that might abuse other people or make them experience discomfort. All the appropriate laws must be imposed on every citizen of a particular country.
  4. All cultures and factors related to them (religious views, extravagant appearances, and so on) also must be respected around the world. People should not feel oppressed when they travel to other parts of the world and meet individuals with different life perceptions and values. This is considered to be intolerant in respect of other people’s beliefs and moral considerations (Salomon 526). Moreover, every person has to be able to count on other individuals’ understanding of his or her philosophy because no one has a right to judge the representatives of some minorities for being different from others.
  5. According to the fifth rule, every inhabitant of the planet must care for his or her environment and the world in general. People must support all the green programs promoted by their governments or other organizations to preserve both nature and all the wildlife on Earth. Unfortunately, many individuals violate this law and act for their financial benefits when cutting down old trees or hunting rare animals in national parks or other important areas (Tomuschat 66). It is necessary to mention that this law was established to let next generations live worthy lives with all the benefits that nature gives them. Hence, by polluting the environment or not respecting the nature, Earth inhabitants worsen living conditions for their children.
  6. Representatives of all nations that exist on the planet and people with various cultural views must all contribute to the progress and development of the modern world and every country present in it. This factor is essential for economic wealth of every state and the prosperity all regions on Earth (Tomuschat 69). Also, every human being must strive to maintain peace and prosperity in one’s society. All the values and responsibilities for them have to be allocated among people because only one individual concerned about global problems cannot change the world for a better place.

Human Rights to Development

Almost every person on Earth clearly knows his or her legal rights and dignities. Nevertheless, it is essential to refresh this information at least once a year to be aware of different updates in the law. Therefore, the following section will list the most common human rights that are valid in every country of the planet (Freeman 54). To begin with, it is necessary to state that every human being can and must contribute to the creation of new rules and rights because the lifestyles of people change every decade. Hence, not all their freedoms are enumerated in official governmental publications. Nowadays, these dignities are the following:

  1. According to the first rule, the development of any nation, governmental structure or other organizations must be centered at various needs of people who are intended to use their services in the future (Mukherjee 86). Also, people must remain in the main position during different decision-making processes in important structures because the wishes and comfort of citizens must be overall in any instance.
  2. When human rights are reconsidered or redesigned, all the possible benefits of regular people must be taken into account (Freeman 54). Moreover, humans’ desires regarding the development in a certain sphere must be considered because all their potentials must be realized.
  3. As it is mentioned above, not only regular citizens have a right to participate in the process of making their environment better and more beneficial for their lives, but they are welcome to contribute to the prosperity of areas they inhabit. Every person’s idea as to the improvement of different aspects of their living standards has to be evaluated and taken into account by individuals who are responsible for the realization of one’s suggestion (Mukherjee 89). Usually, people organize various meetings or demonstrations to address their government leaders in case of some misunderstandings or dissatisfactions. Although this form of communication is not necessary, the majority of people prefer it to other actions with similar goals.
  4. Every person or a citizen of a separate Commonwealth has a legal right to benefit from the extraction of natural resources in the territory of his or her country. All the financial means earned with the help of a particular industry based on natural resources must be allocated among people living in this area (Salomon 539). Not only it shows the government’s respect to its citizens, but it makes the population aware of the state’s politicians’ honesty and their contribution to the wealth of every person (Crawford and Andreassen 673).
  5. Although it was mentioned several times above, this factor remains one of the most important identifications of human rights in the world’s most developed countries. The absence of discrimination among the population living in one territory is important for people today due to the process of globalization (Tomuschat 26). It appears that representatives of diverse nations and races travel abroad and meet with their foreign friends or colleagues who must show their respect to the visitors, regardless of their commitments and points of view.
  6. Finally, the last statement proclaims people’s rights to develop, work, and build successful careers in any spheres that they like. No one can be limited in their education or future perspectives. It is essential to give individuals freedom to do what they have a passion for because their work then becomes more professional and offers new products or services to consumers on the market (Mukherjee 105). It would be proper to state that various developing countries that do not have beneficial conditions for their citizens’ development always have economic problems. Hence, this right is beneficial for both sides of the agreement.

One of the most important missions that human rights must always adhere to is the reduction of poverty in some developing countries (Freeman 135). It appears that not all the laws discussed above can be realized without prosperity in a Commonwealth’s territory. If people do not have any possibilities to be involved in the development of modern technologies or do not have enough money to buy and experience innovative products, they do not gain any knowledge or experience what is necessary for contemporary individuals (Mukherjee 99).

To increase the rate of human development, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers were established to make politicians and other citizens follow certain standards that would not let them have the lack of finances.

As it is mentioned in previous paragraphs, all people have a right to benefit from the extraction of Earth’s natural resources. Nevertheless, some politicians in developing states do not let their people receive any bonuses for different fossil materials that belong to them (Crawford and Andreassen 674). Therefore, one of the main rules of human rights is disregarded by people on the highest positions in these countries (Freeman 133). To reduce the rate of such situations and enrich people who are illegally deprived of their money, the International Monetary Fund promised to impose particular punishments on unfair politicians.

Education

Education is the most essential part of any person’s development. Therefore, all people are allowed to participate in various academic processes in their countries. Nevertheless, the quality of education is different all over the world. Hence, this aspect might be considered abstract as well as there are no international standards that would regulate every institution on the planet (Fukuda-Parr et al. 106). Although every person has a right to study, gain knowledge, and develop in a certain sphere, one cannot be guaranteed that his or her college diploma is worth something in more developed countries.

It is also necessary to remember that high-quality education provided to citizens of one country leads to its inevitable economic growth (Salomon 538). Human rights to develop are not present in the sphere of education because not all individuals have a chance to enter a prestigious university due to their previous grades, places of birth, and other factors that are not supposed to isolate these students from the highest societies.

Indeed, every child can go to school and gain all the primary knowledge there. However, one might not understand the importance of receiving high grades, which will make an adverse impact on this person’s future (Mukherjee 168). It appears that people are not given a second chance in the sphere of education if they cannot develop in particular industries.

Gender Equality

Human rights for development are now related to the existence of mass feminism in the majority of developed countries. Women think that they are discriminated by people who prefer to hire men because they are more responsible and professional than their peers of another gender (Salomon 523). Although the discrimination of women in the society was not obvious, females started to protest against rules that made them look less independent than men (Tomuschat 48). This factor is also related to the cultural shift all over the world. Some women experienced challenged in building successful careers because their male colleagues’ labor was more appreciated by their superiors (Fukuda-Parr et al. 108). Hence, men were promoted much faster and earned more financial means that women did.

Right to Life

The right to life is the most valuable law that people have because international organizations and governments of different states want every inhabitant of our planet to be able to grow and develop. However, this right is not followed in many poor countries where children or even infants die due to unsatisfactory living conditions (Salomon 533). Nowadays, the main goal of people who are responsible for the rights of children is to reduce the rate of mortality as it has increased tremendously in recent years. Almost seventeen thousand people under the age of five die on a daily basis (Fukuda-Parr et al. 109).

In 2012, approximately six million children could not survive because of various diseases that could be prevented. It is necessary to mention that individuals who were born in African regions make almost the half of the world’s mortality rate.

Maternal Health

All people born on Earth have a right to life, health, and medical treatment, regardless of their citizenship or other factors that may be used for unfair discrimination. Unfortunately, many mothers cannot cope with the strain that they happen to experience while giving births to their children (Tomuschat 93). The death rate among pregnant females increases rapidly due to the world’s polluted environment and ecology in general.

Professional gynecologists claim that the problem might be influenced by the pollution of the planet’s atmosphere (Salomon 540). Therefore, another goal of international organizations responsible for human rights is to prevent multiple deaths among pregnant women in different parts of the world. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to consult teenagers and future parents as to their health during pregnancy.

Unfortunately, some of them do not know the basic rules of maintaining a healthy lifestyle while carrying a child. Also, it is essential to popularize the method of Caesarian operation among mothers that are likely to be adversely affected by the process of birth (Fukuda-Parr et al. 109). It would be proper to mention that the majority of modern women do not want to carry their children because they understand all the possible risks.

Preventing and Combating Diseases

Another Millennium Development Goal is to reduce the populations infected with such viruses as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and a plethora of different dangerous microorganisms. Individuals who live in African countries have more chances to face these fatal diseases (Salomon 525). However, the international organization developed a plan that will be implemented to protect local people rights for health and development:

  1. Preventing individuals from being infected with HIV/AIDS. To achieve these goals, it is essential to popularize different means of contraception and follow all the rules of safety during such medical operations as blood transfusion, injections, and so on.
  2. Acquiring a unique method of treatment that would allow infected people to maintain regular lifestyles and be independent of their health conditions. Nowadays, such medicaments are available in the majority of countries all over the world (Fukuda-Parr et al. 111). Moreover, the entire course is covered by the government in case of positive diagnoses.
  3. Prevent people from becoming ill with Malaria and other inflectional diseases that might lead to death.

It is necessary to state that the rate of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria deaths decreased by approximately forty percent in recent years (comparing to the situation in the previous century). The human right to health has to be protected by every politician, regardless of their personal interests or benefits (Crawford and Andreassen 670). Therefore, governmental medical institutions will cover local citizens’ medical expenses if it is necessary for saving the lives of these ill individuals.

Environmental Sustainability

As it is mentioned in the previous parts of the paper, every person has a right to development. Unfortunately, environmental conditions in some countries do not make this possible for local inhabitants (Salomon 534). Therefore, the next Millennium Development Goal is to provide every person on Earth with an adequate environment that would be beneficial for his or her development in personal life, career, and other spheres. Today, the increased problem of climate change affects many regions in the world and makes them vulnerable (Fukuda-Parr et al. 107). Therefore, more developed countries must assist them regarding this natural issue. There are four goals that must be addressed to eliminate the discussed problem:

  1. As every human being has a legal right to environmental health, the primary principles of constant development must be integrated into the vulnerable states’ policies (Tomuschat 66). Also, various natural resources should be preserved as they have a tremendous impact on the health of people that inhabit a certain region.
  2. The reduction of biodiversity loss will also be helpful for local nature and environment as it will enrich the flora and fauna that is necessary for the maintenance of appropriate lifestyle.
  3. According to the right to water and sanitation, people from such countries as Bangladesh, Congo, and other vulnerable states must have access to clean drinking water (Fukuda-Parr et al. 108). Unfortunately, all the sources of this liquid are polluted by the factories of transnational corporations. Therefore, all the water must be filtered before people drink it.
  4. According to the right to adequate housing, people from developing countries must be provided with basic living facilities and conditions (Fukuda-Parr et al. 110). Unfortunately, the populations of African states are obliged to live in slums due to the lack of money for their own dwelling.

Conclusion

Human rights to development are followed and addressed predominately in the wealthiest countries in the world. Unfortunately, individuals who live in poor regions do not have appropriate access to the services that would fulfill all of their human rights. It is essential to stress that every person on Earth has to be equal, regardless of his or her skin color, age, ethnic background, religion, and other factors that are usually used to discriminate representatives of some minorities.

Nowadays, various international organizations (UNO, WHO, and so on) contribute to the promotion of human rights in every region of the world. Moreover, they develop strategies that are intended to reduce people’s unsatisfactory living conditions and risks to their lives. The campaign of Millennium Development Goals is currently working on providing people with all the necessary help that is stated in the codex of human rights.

Works Cited

Crawford, Gordon, and Bård Andreassen. “Human Rights and Development: Putting Power and Politics at the Center.” Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 37, no. 3, 2015, pp. 662–690.

Freeman, Michael. Human Rights. 3rd ed., Polity Press, 2017.

Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko, et al. “The Power of Numbers: A Critical Review of Millennium Development Goal Targets for Human Development and Human Rights.” Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, vol. 15, no. 2-3, 2014, pp. 105–117.

Mukherjee, Joia. An Introduction to Global Health Delivery: Practice, Equity, Human Rights. Oxford University Press, 2018.

Salomon, Margot. “Of Austerity, Human Rights and International Institutions.” European Law Journal, vol. 21, no. 4, 2015, pp. 521–545.

Tomuschat, Christian. Human Rights: Between Idealism and Realism. 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, 2014.