This paper examines the ramifications of public administration, especially in the context of its pecuniary and fiscal aspects. Public administration associated with city funding involves several complex matters because of the heterogeneous character of the urban areas. City budgeting includes means of allocation of all the resources particularly in that region. The main aspects of Public administration are in terms of improving efficiency and effectiveness of government operations. This could be through better Social Security measures, and greater utilization of public health care measures like Medicare, Medicaid and others. Public accountability cannot but decry the lamentable state of many models of public machinery, especially with regard to law and order, safety of women and children, gender discrimination and male supremacy, sexual harassment, especially in areas of employment and off work place limits. It is indeed well within the realms and jurisdiction of public administration to secure rights, privileges and prerogatives of citizens, especially minorities, who may be clearly endangered due to partisan laws and their discriminatory application. Perhaps, it is high time that the powers, engage in more fruitful and productive mutual dialogues, not only for their own self interests, but also to safeguard the interests of right thinking citizens in a free country.
There is a need for structural and administrative reforms in the sphere of funding of public governance, especially in the areas of public accountability and responsibility and how it engenders common citizens of a free country. It is believed to be a more transparent, forward looking and progressive minded public administration systems.
Table of Contents.
|1.||Chapter 1- Introduction||4|
|2.||Chapter 2- Literature Review||11|
|3||Chapter 3- Methodology||19|
|4||Chapter 4- Results||31|
|5.||Chapter 5- Analysis||35|
|6.||Chapter 6- Conclusions & Recommendations||41|
Public administration is a diverse field with various extents. The public administration is meant to promote the new administration and strategies for an organization or a management to function their works and these administrators will be working in the government sector. There are many public administrators like cabinet secretaries, municipal or corporation managers, and police officers who were responsible for the management of the government rules and regulations with the public. These administrators will be the servants of the common people and they have to help the public in all governmental activities. “Administration provides a certain degree of organization to the chaos that is society. Administration seeks to protect peoples’ rights, regulate industry, ensure that public programs operate effectively, stabilize economic conditions, and enable a safe environment in which people can live and work” (What is the role of administration modern society? Why should public administration? 2010, para.1).
Public administration is the creation of some progressive development. There will be lot of factors and functions causative to these changing developments of the public administration. It is necessary to understand the real function of the public administration and it is a must to always have concern for the goodness of the common people. These public administrators should be there always for the issues related with the public. They have to make them understand about the role of public administrators in their problems and issues. Public management in peoples’ mentality is identified with system of government. The operational functioning of the government in contemporary world is in between many troubles and concerns. There will be always the uncertainty before the people to elect the persons who will perform their duties well to the people and will run the current government. There will be proper addition of the technical and professional persons in the administration to make the easy functioning of the government system. The public administration will be the organization to understand the general perceptions and views of the governmental dynamics as like the work distribution, harmonization, pecking order, extent of management, agreement of order, allocation and regulation, etc. There are some other thoughts which are also required to appreciate the official arrangement of the organisation and the contacts and control which make possible and give details of the effective connection of person who makes up the system of government. Departments and Corporations form the faces of each and every organization in the governmental sector.
There are some beliefs on the facts to be taken care as how these are organised, how the power and accountability are positioned in those sectors, how the economic possessions are organized and how will they distribute each and every process of the governmental activities in favour to the common people and how well these things are utilised by the public and public servants. All facts and details of the governmental activities should be explained to the common people. These are defined as the link between the public and the government, and they have to organize all the communications between the civilian and government. “On the role of public administration, it will address such areas as sustained economic growth, the promotion of social development, facilitating infrastructure development and protecting the environment, promoting public- private partnerships, managing development programmes and maintaining a legal framework for development” (Role of public administration in development to be considered at resumed general assembly session 15-19 April,1996, para.3).
The development of the public financial plan has passed many considerable modifications during the past years. This is an accurate suggestion of the economic base of the state and city budgetary procedures. The administrative, together with all the financially viable tasks of the legislative financial statement are becoming obvious with the congested examination of the applications in legislative and financial experience. Budgeting is a form of public administration in which all the governmental sectors are related. The budgeting will be in different forms. These are related with the discussion of the financial updates for each and every item in the state or country. Finance is the channel of all government and the well-organized implementation of all the co-ordinations in the administration depend upon the usefulness of economic structure as every organizational or governmental activity will have these monetary allegations. This will be associated with the public administrators.
The budgeting is in its established position, which merges a sequence of steps to put into practice about a government course of actions and the proceedings. The budgeting is covered with the improvement of acknowledged effort plans, the vigilant relation of those efforts with a prescribed, wide-ranging economic scheme, and the moving out of the whole proposal all the way through the organizational understanding which consists of a distinct work list. The budgeting represents the governmental administration’s prediction and calculation of both accomplishments and production related actions and about the financial terms. This consists of scheme implementation and also the development of the scheme. The budget will cover all the measures and a grounding of approximation of all the incomes and expenses, inflow and outflow, for a budgetary phase, and this budget estimated is submitted for official consent, and will go along with the power the rule depicts, and then finally the carrying out of the designed plan through the management preparations accessible for efficient function.
The city budgeting is included with the allocation of the resources in the concerned area. It is a democratic reflection and executive procedure, which will describe the allotment of the part of the public budget. There will be different sectors in the city and local organization. There will be different resources in the concerned budget and it should be properly distributed according to the requirement. There should be appropriate participation of the people and they will be free to recognize, talk about and make use of the unrestricted expenses and developments. These will make a good relation between the public administrators and the common people. There are certain boards in charge for implementing the city’s financial plan and for suitably arranging the assets necessary to support the city’s preparation of services and amenities. The board will analyze the financial statement and the presentation by each section, subsections, groups, the contracting groups and back up the noteworthy alterations in the particular budget.
There will be a head of the city like Mayor, who has the authority to make considerable adjustments in the financial plans. There will be certain time period to set and achieve the target goals by the local government. There will be plans like two year financial plans and five year financial plans. “The City departments, agencies and contracting organizations prepare budgets to meet strategic and immediate goals and service objectives for review and action by the City Council. Upon adoption, they manage the budgets to achieve performance targets in the most cost efficient manner possible. Departments have broad discretion to manage their budgets and to transfer money within the total appropriations authorized for them within the Two Year Budget” (Responsibilities for city budgeting, 2008, para.4).
There will be several goals set in the city budgeting. These goals are achieved through the effective participation of the public and the government. The public administrators in each department will lead the team and will be there to achieve the target. There will be plans to improve the public protection service points. It will be attained through the coordination of the police services and the police patrols and on deterrence and guidance in fire services. There will be appropriate programs to bring back the neighborhood and business district paying plans and make bigger endeavors to lessen and administer traffic overcrowding all the way through the city. There will be accurate plans to reinforce the attempts to enlarge the reasonably priced accommodation, together with traditions of enhancing accessible financial support and also toil with the public service allies to widen better on the streets sheltering and services.
These different aims and the targets will make a better governmental organization which will produce good results among the public. “Thus improvement initiatives would principally concern aspects of planning, project management and financial management, which are most closely concerned with aid. However, there may be limits to this type of intervention, when public administration itself is weak. As a sub-set of the activities of public administration, improved management of development depends upon advances in the wider, public administration system, which is often a sub-optimal environment for development and greatly in need of strengthening” (Role of public administration on the management of development programmes, 1995, p.13).
Background of the study
The background of the study underlines unequal distribution of city funds in various regions in the United States. Public administration associated with city funding involves several complex matters because of the heterogeneous character of the urban areas. City budgeting is included by means of the allocation of all the resources particularly in that region. “In a surprising turnaround, the New York City Council decided at the end of June that it would restore about $30m to the Department of Cultural Affairs to spend on the arts, lessening the blow of the $50m in cuts initially proposed by Mayor Bloomberg in May” (Stoilas & Katz, 2010, para.1).
The Art Newspaper- This news related with New York City exposes that unpredicted variations take places in the case of the distribution of the city fund. The main purpose of public administration is to lift up the efficiency of the public and nonprofit groups and to notify continuing attempts by community, nonprofit, and worldwide groups to create strategy choices that build up the lives of general public. Generally, administrative bodies of the cities are treating their public as the greatest asset and their views are given utmost importance. However, this significance can see in the form of words and ideas in addition, the people and their needs are not carefully executed. This study gives focus on the matters like health care, education, transport facilities, unlawful immigrants and the problems related to the implementation of the rules. Education is the major and careful expenses in situation and local budgets. Public policy plays a responsibility in the expansion of capability by generating the societal environment for their growth. But, the distribution of city funds often an imperfect process due to the concentration of money in some of the urban quarters. Unlawful immigrants create a number of difficulties before the local and other governmental bodies. Their low financial standard makes the need of increasing concentration over them.
Distribution of city funds has been a fundamental and vital problem that required serious attention from the part of public administration authorities and public. In United States, people from immigrant community and other backward communities suffered with the scarcity of financial support. Crucial areas such as transportation, water facilities, poverty eradication, public healthcare, protection of biodiversity and education are often kept away from the distribution of city funds. The problem is that income level and other material backgrounds are not often the criteria in distributing city funds and often it creates both political and administration issues. In case of the United States, the distribution of city funds has often followed the doctrines of previous year’s distribution.
Public Administration is apprehensive by means of the organization of public curriculums, which act together by way of the inhabitants of the society or region. Those who job in it ought to share an obligation to recommend various community services. Negative responses in the direction of the scheme and its officials will frequently employ the expression “bureaucracy” by way of suggestions of a rigid and unresponsive ladder that is unconcerned or ill- prepared in its accomplishment of public responsibilities. Local budget profits are obtained from endeavor beneath local authority, (expenditure from the income of manufacturing, building, communal, profitable, and other endeavors), lease, and local tariffs and charges. In addition, local funds take delivery of deductions from state taxes and revenues in illustrated quantities in the state of corresponding decision-making component it comprising mainly the turnover duty, the inhabitant’s income tariff, and the kolkhoz revenue tariff etc…
This lifts the encouragement of local Soviets to accomplish the arrangement for public state incomes and tariffs. The procedure of public budget has undergone a lot of momentous alteration for the period of the earlier period. Especially accurate thoughts like the financial foundations of the country and city budgetary process. Public Administration is apprehensive by means of the formulation, examination, conciliation, and accomplishment of democratically accountable combined act. By way of an interdisciplinary attention, this plan provides exacting stress to the built-up society and the extraordinary disputes of community managers who hand out in municipal areas “The Definition of Public Administration Public administration, developed in the early 1900s, is a special field of study within the academic discipline of political science. It emphasizes the structure and operation of bureaucracies and organizations, including budgeting, personnel, and formal and informal internal controls. Some public administration programs include study of the special management skills required in governmental (as distinct from private) organizations” (Ahamed, 2006, para.2).
According to Simon Lindsay in his article called Bank Owned Property Listing and Foreclosures Impact City Budget says that, the increasing amount of foreclosures and possessions beneath bank’s possessed possessions listing is presently one of the features supposed to have donated to the metropolis budget crisis of Newark, New Jersey. As the town looks an in excess of $80 million budget shortfall, bureaucrats believe selling a number of the portions of real estate possessed by the city. Along by way of the depression and the high amount of joblessness, New Jersey excluded houses for auction and also prepared their attendance considered in Newark in the appearance of a substantial budget scarcity. “We envision a U.S. transportation system that supports a wide array of accessible, affordable and interconnected transportation choices that are both healthy for the environment and for people” (Transportation + social equity: Opportunity follows mobility, n.d, p.4).
One of the suggestions accessible lately to steady the budget is to put up for sale community real estate, comprising police grounds, workplace houses and fire houses. By way of bank possessed possessions listings enduring to cultivate in the municipality and joblessness rates attainment record very elevated, Newark is required to discover not-so ordinary methods to produce as a minimum $50 million to remain the budget in equilibrium. “The proposal involves the sale of bonds by the Essex County Improvement Authority to have the money to purchase public buildings and lease them to Newark for several years. Since selling bank foreclosure homes for sale and other types of properties are not as easy as it used to be, the lease-back plan, although considered risky, is one of the few solutions that the city is looking into” (Lindsay, 2010, para.4)
On condition that bank possessed belongings listing subjects or issues and joblessness stay a trouble in the municipality, some bureaucrats think that the majority pains will merely offer a temporary explanation for the problem. Those who are unwilling to hold up the projected auction of the belongings have also affirmed that, in the long run, the table will price the municipality in excess of the quantity it can produce should the chart is set into activity. City bureaucrats who hold up the suggestion have disagreed that the chart should be accepted or the municipality is facing a duty amplify to the extent that is 30%. They also declared that the municipality cannot wait for joblessness. (Bank Owned Property Listing and Foreclosures Impact City Budget by Simon Lindsay, September 10th, 2010.)
According to Donald Hanz in his Article called, Pace of Bank Owned Property Listing in Florida to Surge says that, in recent times, the judgment of Bank of America to gather a definite quantity to close a small transaction for concerned homeowners by way of other assets may add to extra foreclosures.
“This was the statement of prominent economists who have been analyzing the housing trend in Florida over the past several years. They explained that house prices across the state are still falling, with some metro areas experiencing the sharpest declines in the country. In addition, distressed homes are not being sold off quickly because their cases are still in courts” (Hanz, 2010, para.2).
They explicated that unlike the state California, which permits non- official foreclosure actions for a number of cases, the state Florida needs that the entire foreclosure proceedings are obliged to pass in the course of the magistrates or courts. This has enlarged in Florida judicial system, stopping the resale of houses that have been obviously neglected by proprietors. There have been attempts near the beginning of this year to alter to the non-official foreclosure scheme and make possible bank possessed possessions listing and clean the country housing marketplace of foreclosures. But the suggestion decomposed for the duration of the committee procedure. “The state has been launching various schemes to contain foreclosures, but they all failed to make significant dents on volumes of repossessed houses for sale. The state has launched a compulsory court-supervised mediation program and a mortgage document verification program, in addition to the federal Home Affordable Modification and Foreclosure Alternative programs” (Hanz, 2010, para.5).
According to Anup Shah in his Article called Media Manipulation says that, the impacts of community relationships cannot be miscalculated. In the profitable world, advertising and publicity are characteristically required to create people conscious of goods. There are many subjects in that region alone. He also says that, in cases where any of the disputes is debatable, the Public Relation Organizations are not directly donating to the ultimate resolution. Media organization may also be utilized to encourage certain supporting rules and philosophies. (Media Manipulation by an up Shah, This Page Last Updated Monday, April 17, 2006.). “He also says that, although the troubles states confront are common, the magnitude varies. California and Illinois are among the worst off. In an election year and with many taxpayers they struggling financially, few states are raising taxes much. So spending cuts feature prominently in the budget plans, with New Jersey closing an $11 billion gap by reducing outlays” (Trumbull, 2010, para.5).
According to Mark Trumbull in his article called New state budget plans burdened by recession, pension costs says that, from corner to corner of the US, cities have commenced into their 2011 financial period saddled by means of a lot of similar budget troubles that they had in the year previous to: short tax proceeds, very elevated recession – associated operating cost, and ambiguity on the subject of how to compensate for long-term expenses, for instance retiree allowances. One of the most well-known cities in America is California. This particular state California entered the new-fangled economic year with no finalized financial statement in place. He also says that, various countries administered to start on into the New Year by way of balanced – financial plan tactics. “New York is still scrambling to put in place a budget for its fiscal year, which started April 1. And in Illinois, burdened by a big pension shortfall, the state budget plan relies on new borrowing as the state’s credit rating slides. Pension woes are a nationwide theme, as states struggle with either chronic under funding, the effects of recession on investment portfolios, or both. This suggests that budget pressures could persist, even once the economy moves back to higher ground” (Trumbull, 2010, para.2).
Article called Budget Process in the U.S. Department of Education says that, Budgeting for a financial period can be separated mainly into three stages. The relative importance of these three stages in the budgetary procedure is very much significant. The following are the three stags of budgetary procedure in the financial years that are budget formulation, budget arrangement and the congressional procedure, and thirdly the budget implementation. For any single financial year these three stages have effect over the span of 2-1/2 years. For the reason that of this moment, Federal groups must contract at the same time as by way of 2 to 3 financial years at any one moment. Reacting to alterations in rule or fiscal circumstances for the duration of the financial year or get-together of vital national requirements may necessitate the performance of alterations in budget influence. Extra funding is offered by assembly in further appropriations bills, and decreased financial support is achieved in rescission statements. There are also mainly two kinds of expenditure treated in the resources or budget declaration: that are obligatory and discretionary. Obligatory is also termed as mandatory. For discretionary plans, parliament and the leader or the leader of the state must do something every year to offer spending power. And at the same time for the Obligatory plans they may do something to alter the spending that present rules necessitate. (Article called Budget Process in the U.S. Department of Education.)
According to Thomas Jefferson in his article called Guide to College Majors in Public Administration says that, Public administration can be described as the accomplishment of guidelines by public servants inside a bureaucrat government’s decision-making structure. Public bureaucrats direct almost all characteristic of community service at the centralized, state and limited stages recommending the occasion to assist figure the future. A public supervision grade offers an educational background for persons following an occupation in equally administration and non-administration/non-income corporations. There are numerous regions of overlap among this pursuit, so a learning which joins equally will provide us aggressive strength and permit us to go or move into whichever region, according to your own occupation happiness. “The master of public administration (MPA) is the degree of choice for individuals with an interest in public affairs and professional management in the public and nonprofit sectors. Whether you’re seeking a first job in government or with a nonprofit organization, or are interested in advancing in an existing career, Georgia State University’s MPA program provides skills and knowledge that government and nonprofit agencies are looking for. Join us as we explore new ideas and perspectives on public and nonprofit administration, policy and governance in the 21st Century” (Master of public administration, 2010, para.2).
He also says that, similar to a usual amount in organization, a public government or public guidelines amount can give attention on managerial governance, funding, and supervision. By way of this specialty we are capable of looking into occupations in local, country, or centralized government; in community service divisions for example healthcare and wellbeing of the creature or non-profit businesses for example sculptures or global release groups. “The one item all these possible jobs share is motivation–you won’t be working for the “bottom line”. Your focus will be on intangible factors such as providing services, setting and implementing policies, or the evaluation of social programs. You may be involved in research and development, marketing, financial planning, public relations, or human resource development” (Jefferson, 2010, para.4).
Public Administration is apprehensive by means of the organization of public curriculums, which act together by way of the inhabitants of the society or region. City budgeting is comprised by means of the allocation of all the resources particularly in that region. The self-governing indication and decision-making process will clarify allocation of all these resources. The person, accountable for the city budgeting of the country is the city council, who is responsible for the allocation all the resources needed for the development of the country. In order to conduct the most effective study, first we have to identify Sources of Data for the Project analysis which will help to specify Timelines and Key Milestones for Execution and Completion of Project Activities. Once the data is gathered, next step is to analyze relevant data to find out the outcome of the study. The main goal of public administration is to improve the efficiency of community and nonprofit groups and to notify continuing attempts by community, nonprofit, and worldwide groups to create strategy choices that develop the lives of citizens all over the humanity. Community supervision plan comprises all the special capabilities needed in governmental associations. It highlights the arrangement and process of bureaucracies and business comprising budgeting, employees, official and informal inside powers.
Public Administration is apprehensive by means of the formulation, examination, conciliation, and accomplishment of democratically accountable combined act. The program is planned to build up leadership capability, thoughtful of the political, communal, and financial features of today’s urban surroundings and the capability to pertain present theories of organization and examination to complex management subjects. The plan is intended as research for those ingoing management occupations in administration for the primary time or as occupation expansion for those previously working who are looking for growing mobility in community administration.
4. The various methods in finding out the local budgets are useful in determining the local budget for the public administration, the data collected are mainly on the local administration and the various departments are involved in determining the budget which is used for the allocation.
The research adopts both qualitative study for the proposed research and it mainly consists of literature review and questionnaire analysis. The data mainly collected on local administration and various departments of public administration. The research draws its conclusion from the vast number of literature that is reviewed in this research. The research will be both quantitative and qualitative in type as the subject enquiry is absolutely debatable. It has been collecting a number of news paper articles and general literature to help gain a focus and evaluate evidence as to develop the research paper. The literature review also includes books, journals and magazine articles; both quantitative and qualitative approach is maintained for the purpose of the research as it best suits the topic under study. The issue of how the city funds are distributed according to the income level had been a controversial one among the public Medias for several years.
Some of the data to be analyzed will be qualitative as it will be used to test the various hypotheses concerning the issue of distributing city funds based on income level. The analysis of the data sets will particularly focus on a national context for the current status of the distribution of city funds in various programs and the representation of the public in these programs. Different methods such as naturalistic observation, secondary data analysis and discussion have been adopted to gather information and data for the research. The research will focus on the events occurred during the last few years and analyze the present and the future trends. The research has attempted to focus on the main issue discussed in the topic that is the issue of the distribution of city funds in the United States. It discusses the role of income level and different areas which needs financial aid.
Ethical issues in research methods
The proposed research will seek to establish the current status of city fund distribution in cities of The United States. Areas like education, healthcare, law enforcement and transportation require serious attention. All the information collected will be kept highly confidential and the original data will be destroyed once the project is complete. Researcher ensures that all questions are anonymous and no identities are revealed in the final paper. As the subject is a controversial one, the researcher should have the responsibility to solve the anxieties of participants.
Another important thing is that the participants will get the opportunity to withdraw at any time and omit questions when he/she feel problems. The study includes various methods of data collection and researcher ensures that social, religious, and ethnic background of the participants not affect the process. An official document will be prepared for the researcher. The study will ensure that the researcher is aware of his/her right to keep and maintain collected data with its significance. Researcher will promise that all information will remain highly confidential and will not turn out to be public document. The results of the survey will only be used for the project ‘The distribution of City funds’. Throughout the study, the researcher must explain the actual purpose and aims of the research and it must be explained how the information will be used and who will have access to the research paper. The proposed study will follow the Data protection Act 1998. The research paper is free from all kinds of cultural, social, political and religious influence and it will keep its serious and authenticity.
Rationale of the study
Unequal distribution of city funds for sustainable developments in cities has often created both political and administrative problems. In the United States a large number of people have been suffering from lack of healthcare facilities, education and transportation. The problem of immigrants often creates political issues and their financial background and income level are comparatively very low to other people. People have enough financial stability can satisfy their primary needs such as education, healthcare and transportation. Defective distribution of city funds paved the way for economic centralization. People from urban areas live in undeveloped conditions and they are comparatively inferior to other people. Dr. Jean-Paul Rodriguez rightly comments that; “Urban productivity is highly dependent on the efficiency of its transport system to move labor, consumers and freight between multiple origins and destinations” (Dr. Rodriguez, 2010, para.1).
Policy making and its implementation can solve the problem of unequal distribution of funds. Policy makers should give more emphasis on financial status and income level of the clients. The study underlines the need of effective organization and control from the part of local government. Unequal distribution of funds accelerates the problem of growing joblessness and low income level. Authorities should ensure the execution and consumption of city funds and other financial aids. People who have enough financial stability or a stable source of income often use the money for unnecessary activities and the primary needs of the majority remain still.
The data collection should be precise and should be from the local bodies like the spending from the government and the local bodies; information is drawn from the local expenditure incurred from the state and the public sector services. Public policy plays a responsibility in the expansion of capability by generating the societal environment for their growth. The analysis conducted on the potential constraint that includes unequal opportunity for the growth and the performance within the country, and in estimating the budgets.
The various category included in the data collection for the local budgets are the education, healthcare, law enforcement etc. “Three similar web sites from the bureau of the census provide data on the state and the local government employment, they are titled state government employment data, payroll data and the local government employment” (Sears & Moody, Marilyn 2001, p.400).
Education is the principal particular expenses in local budgets. As the state and local government put up with the most important financial and organizational accountability of supplying schooling from elementary classes to 12th standard, they acquire considerable expenditure to teach children who are not authorized immigrants. The Supreme Court has given the role that in 1982, not to prohibit children from going to schools, as they are immigrated ones. In the present situation, the approximation specifies that 2 million children who are going to school in US are illegal immigrant groups. According to the new data population, the latest data provided by the Census Board, there are 50.3 million children of schooling age in the US, thus, children who are unlawful immigrant represent roughly 4 percent on the whole school-age inhabitants. The numbers are rising rapidly in some areas and the additional stress on the increasing of the budgets too.
The various examples elucidate the educational pressure of the local body.
On the foundation of a people approximation developed by the various analysts, the new fiscal policy of the country reported that the Fiscal Policy report indicates that, for the 2003–2004 academic year for the school the overall expenditure is around $67 and total of 9200 students are ready for the school. The Kindergarten and the higher level education during the period in New Mexico totaled almost $3 billion. Of the predictable 40,000 unofficial immigrant presently existing in the country, 95 percent are thought to be current entrance, having lived in that state for more than 5 years. “The retrenchment is coming as the Obama administration seeks to overhaul education law in a way that makes schools compete for federal grants. But critics say the focus should be on expanding funding for all schools, not imposing even higher standards while redistributing less money. Resources must be adequate and equalized across schools,” Dennis Van Roekel, president of the National Education Association, said last week in congressional testimony on the plan” (Johnson, 2010, para.5).
Immigrants in the US, both official and unofficial, who are considered to be unlawful, are unlikely to provide with health insurance. As a result, they might rely on crisis rooms or public clinic for health care. The central organization necessitates health amenities that accept federal support to make available a definite point of services to inhabitants, despite their ability to pay for such medical services or their immigration category. “Avoidable health inequalities come from three broad sources: variations in (i) the quality of health services; (ii) access to health services; and (iii) factors outside the direct control of the health system, such as wealth, lifestyle, genetic and environmental considerations. There is considerable evidence that many populations suffering poor health outcomes suffer on all three counts” (Smith, 2008, para.15).
The quantity of uncompensated care provided by some state and restricted governments is mounting since an escalating number of illegal immigrants are using it. According to a description custom-built by the US boundary Counties alliance, in 2000, county government that shares a margin with Mexico acquires approximately $190 million in costs for providing uncompensated reason to unlawful migrants; the outline represent concerning each section of the uncompensated strength expenditure acquired by those government. “The health plan usually charts a 10 percent to 15 percent growth in enrollment annually, but between 2007 and 2008, enrollment grew by 40 percent, According to the report, “Shortchanging America’s Health,” states are expected to make even more cuts in the coming year, meaning public health departments’ ability to carry out critical services and maintain safety net services “(Krisberg, 2010, para.8).
Unconstitutional immigrant who entrusts illegal steps or who necessitates law enforcement services to guard them from criminal actions or performance entails a variety of costs on the local budgetary expenses. Even though the local law enforcement activities associated to unlawful immigrants comprises similar protection which the common citizens depend on.
The estimate that are at present obtainable contain only price interrelated to the examination and confinement of illegal immigrant who fall under the local governing body.
Unlawful immigrant group blamed or offended of committing crimes are not extradited very soon; despite, they go into certain processes throughout the law and local body integrity scheme in similar style that any other could possibly think of.
The central governing body can take in detention for those who have committed the crime and those who are the offenders. The local and the state government also take an active role in carrying out the investigation, prosecution and in finding out the real offenders and punishing them.
For illustration, in 2001, the United States County’s alliance reports that law enforcement actions connects unlawful migrants in four local states like California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. The cost of various county administration that split a boundary with Mexico a collective sum of more than $118 millions in 1999. Of the region integrated in the report, San Diego province incurs the chief cost, expenditure over $50 millions in the following and in the future years. The majority of country’s spending became an expense on the law enforcement and the overall estimation in the cost can also be hired from the neighboring countries and the US was the country to represent a higher amount of country’s expenditure around 9% of the total and the half of the forecasted rates in the budget planning sessions. The report recognized numerous factors that are subjective to the fiscal collision on every county, together with the number of port of entry, the residents of adjacent countries, and the boundary of the various unlawful entries.
Execution and completion of the Budget
The budget interconnects with each and every feature of government, various reformations including the monetary and fiscal policies of the administrative reforms, corruption, service issues and societal issues.
The budget is a concrete platform and the key area of discussions in public and government sector as a whole and the methods to improve the effectiveness and the efficiency of the government administration.
A very good and massive improvement is developed and functioned to persuade distributions in the budget to react superior to the various needs in the community and the country. “Simulations for the state and local government sector indicate that in the absence of policy changes, large and growing fiscal challenges for the sector will begin to emerge within the next few years. Most states have some sort of requirement for balancing their operating budgets, which do not include budgeting for longer-term investments” (State and local governments: Persistent fiscal challenges will likely emerge within the next decade, 2007, p.1),
While the hard work is comparatively modernized and quantitative assessment are to be carried out, the primary proof and specific evidence from the existence help in the increased indulgent in the budget and the increased service providers to the community. The well practiced efforts taken in the budget help in making the budget a very good service to the community which are economically backward.
Process involved in budgeting
The various examination responsibilities have been distributed among the various departments in the government administration and the capability to accumulate and organize revenues vestiges are majorly centralized and the
Governing body continues to be extremely reliant on the various grants and services offered by the ministry, the bills and the social laws being provided by the government.
For the majority of governments, including the state and the local, make use of nearly 805 of the funds to the budget and they are enough and more to compensate for the monthly salary and the operational expenses incurred, the cost contribute much less for the other extra developments in the arena. The extra services are much imperfect and are usually quite inadequate.
The local government at many instances is not informed of the quantity of this central transfer awaiting the finish of the year, after development has evidently been finished. In the majority cases, the income assumptions have the strong foundation of the previous year’s distribution.
The uppermost foundation of locally-generated fund is in the form of various aids, fee from the institution and which can be translated as levies or user fees, but performs the least relationship to examination release. The licensing of the fees is an important aspect for the local budgeting, this is a main part of the revenue for the government body and the headstrong incentive to the government.
The budgeting process of the budget has the two major components and they are the projections like the bottom up and the top to bottom approach. This kind of approach is applied in the various laws that are from the certain years resuming from the 2003 and the 2004 acts, the various acts are usually held as the strategic plan of the local government. The types of plans are much useful and they are much superior to the five year plans that are practiced in the latest trend and plan to make successful out of the same. The other variety included in the same are the kind of opinion of the public; the public is given the opportunity to express the views on the plans developed by the department. The citizens are treated as the greatest asset and the views are given utmost importance.
The budget groundwork procedure surrounded by the administrative division of management begin when methodological department arranges the outline scheme proposal. The section chief concentrates on each kind of strategic plan, the meeting and the various levels to present their project proposals for the review of the meetings and to hear the thoughts of the community. In assumption, this permits the budget preparation departments to incorporate the view of the public and the various researched proposals. All projects upcoming from all departments are synchronized and printed in a precise manner by the planning section and they are mainly referred to as the work plan after the researching of the planning department and the work plan of the local government.
As a base for all these kinds of local body policies, the universal strategy on the yearly financial plan is put together, counting main concern and budget ceiling for each procedural department. Each and every department make sure to arrange a budget approximation for their work plan and put forward to the planning and accounting department for the future reference.
The budget preparation cycle resume from the start of the year, i.e. from the January 1 to December 31.
The time plan is set for each of the budgetary operations in the year stated below and how the operations are carried out.
The Month and the activities are depicted below.
|January||Start up the frame work of strategic plan, |
List all the local government activities according to the potential output expected.
Planning for the each of the development process.
|February||The various activities at the sub district level are started.|
|March||A general survey of the middle size sub district|
|April||Research on the various departments for the preparation of the document and the work plan of including strategic plan|
|may||The written format is made and a rough draft is distributed among the members.|
|June to August||A budget is formulated for the each of the departments and the they are allotted, |
The technical report which is prepared by the department is been drafted and the priority of the work is assessed on the budget content and the work plan by the each of the department are drafted to the local govt.
|September||To compile the reports which are provided by the each of the departments to local govt.|
|October||To finalize the budget in the local body and to submit them for the approval for the governing authority, The discussion meeting are conducted by the various departments.|
|November||conversation of the budget by the DPRD, |
acting out of the budget by DPRD
|December||summary of Budget execution file to be endorsed throughout a verdict by the authority|
The city budgeting has made the objective of the improvement of the people concerned to that place. These improvements are for the people and are done by the governing bodies. There will be several developments for the well-being of the people. It is mainly related to the education, healthcare, and law enforcement. These three are the primary concerns to take care by all the governing bodies. There should be separate sections in the budget for the improvement of education, healthcare and the law enforcement.
In US, the recession has hit all roads to the development. It has made several job losses among the people and this made the people to lessen their expenses. The local government has to come for the help of the people to escape from this situation. In US, the city governments are the main form of the economy. They will constitute the basics of the development and will keep the economy stable. There will be more financial budgets which will be for the key augmentation of the city. The cities are having the major segment of the gross domestic product among the local and state governing bodies. “Consequently, the fiscal actions taken by cities affect the health of the local and regional economies that drive national economic performance. In the absence of additional federal intervention, a deepening local fiscal crisis could hobble the nation’s incipient recovery with more layoffs, furloughs, cancelled infrastructure projects, and reduced services. Estimates from Goldman-Sachs for 2010 and the Center and Budget and Policy Priorities for 2011 suggest that cuts in the state and local sector could reduce U.S.” (Hoene, 2009, para.1).
The gross domestic product of the city has risen to 0.9 percentages currently. The economic crisis is relieving from its worst days and all the divisions of the business and the economy has attaining an intensifying outcome. This made a fresh energy in all areas of the country. This made a huge rise in the economic policies of the government. The employees are on their way after the recession and cut-down salaries are hiking again.
The gross domestic product is growing at a yearly rate of 2.25% in the third quarter and in the fourth quarter it has mounted up to 5.9%. The bent down businesses are regained their strength after the local budget and this had maintained a huge sum for the improvement of the common people. The commercial property market has also affected by recession and made a decline in the property tax collections. But, recently the city budgeting has enabled a huge rise in the housing and shelter services. This made an incline in the property tax collection. There was growing demand for the properties. Income turn down and expenditure demands have combined to turn out public financial statement deficit which has to be covered all the way through the enhancement in price for services, put down employees for reducing their work times, holding up and withdrawing the investment ventures and depicting the public funds.
There was an increase in formulating the developments in the educational level. “In 2006, the California Legislature approved a US$55.1 billion budget for the state’s public schools. This represented a record increase of $5.1 billion over the previous year’s state education budget. Taxpayers in California supported the record spending increase because it promised to restore music, art, and physical education programs; hire guidance counselors; expand teacher recruitment and preschool programs; and buy new textbooks” (Urban education, 2010, para.9).
The entire budget has allotted a huge sum for the education to make the highly educated peoples which will create good citizens. There will be the same concern for the healthcare also, as it will promote the healthy living of the citizens. The city budgeting has forced the legislators to formulate an easier scheme of joining the State’s group insurance plan. This will promote a better enhancement in the health of the citizens, and will prop up the human dignity. Most of the budgets by the public administration department are meant to distribute the major parts of healthcare department.
This huge flow of the budget into the healthcare department is to build the potential age group aggressive and hardworking. These methods will ensure the status of the people working and living in their own country. The healthcare workers are given proper ranks in the society and are paid with attractive payments. This made other people to focus their work to the healthcare departments. The law enforcement is the important apprehension in the city budgeting. As for the safety and security of the common people to live, there should be adequate resources and forces. This will help the people work and live in the city without any worries and will enhance the growth of the city and thus the country. So it is very important to set a priority to keep the laws unbreakable by setting up appropriate forces. For this, there should be correct allocation of the amount in the financial plan for the benefit of those defensive forces.
Thus the city budget ensures the public interests and is keen on the improvement of their welfares. The public administrators have their own role in this budgeting. They have to educate the citizens and make them understand about the expenses and the spent money on the public interests. They have to make sure that the citizens can recognize the hard selections being made by their governing bodies to make the budget balanced with their city works. It will be threatening to take on the common people in discussion concerning the complications of the urban financial plans. On the other hand, it is always very essential as the people are conferred with the officers at the commencement of the financial plan’s resolution building process. This will create a self belief in each of the citizens that their contribution is there in the budget and will be proud of the profit of their effort. Most of the citizens are not aware of the city’s financial situation and are unknown about the taxes and expenditures. So it is vital to give them an on the whole view of city’s monetary funds and expenditures to locate the phase for conversation on the subject of the main concerns. There should be a proper budgeting with the revenues and the expenditures. There will be revenues like possession tax, intergovernmental tax, sales tax, service tax, trade permit tax, telecommunications tax, and the expenditures as road construction and repairs, police force, fire, water, drain, parks, leisure. It is important to explain these elements connecting to the city budget. This will reflect the priorities of the local governing bodies.
Analysis and Discussions
From the above deliberations, it is imminent that budgeting process is indeed an important fiscal and economic measure that needs to be formalized and instituted, perhaps once in every year and which mainly seeks to channelise Government spending into desirable and constructive lines, abjure ostentatious and wasteful spending and expenditures and make good use of resources and assets for common good of the community. If this is not done, it could be seen that budget deficits could rise exponentially and dangerously, sometimes even beyond normal limits, and could lead to budgetary issues at later stages. If there are not enough revenue generations to meet genuine expenditures for a local government, this is indeed real cause for concern, and many major ongoing and upcoming projects would then be needed to be shelved, or postponed. Besides, there are also real concerns that critical aspects of community care and development, like health, education, social welfare and even indispensable utilities like water, gas and electricity would be detrimentally affected if the local governance does not pay proper attention to these major and significant areas of business endeavors.
There are major aspects like health care, state of women, children and aged, which informs that the needs to be particularly stressed while assessing and computing budgetary requirements, especially in the present economic scenario in the United States and elsewhere. It is seen that except for certain pockets of South East Asia and Far East, especially countries like India, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, the current recessionary trends have wrought havoc to most economies of the world, with no signs of abatement. Besides, there are also real concerns about the direct and indirect impacts of recessionary trends, especially with micro and macro economic impacts on currency fluctuations, inflation, GDP growth and purchasing power parity. There is indeed truth in the belief that federal and state rules and restrictions do impact upon local commerce and industry, and in cases where the local Government are not able to run the government on their own, they would need to depend upon State and Federal funding to help get over the economic turmoil and be in a position to take good care of its citizens.
Moreover, there are reasons to believe that local governments need to draft budgets that are not only productive in nature and help solve economic anomalies, but are forward looking, progressive and inclined to provide high revenue generating potential to their citizens, despite overwhelming odds and critical fund situations. These are important since, given the kind of economic ills in society today, the care of masses and long term benefit plans are full of challenges, not really in their identification and assessment, but also in their implementation in the face of challenging economic issues continuing to plague local government. The indifference and apathy shown by Federal and State Governments in dealing with genuine fund needs for local governments is also a matter of major concern, given the fact that local bodies may not have the wherewithals to undertake major investment project in public welfare and social areas. Thus it is to a very large extent, dependent upon outside and extraneous sources for funding and implementation of projects, and is thus dependent upon Federal and State aids to get over crises, both internal and external.
Next issue that has been considered in this paper has been the relations between the Federal/State bodies and the local government which, to a very large extent, impacts upon smooth functioning and carriage of process of justice and good conscience in public administration. When there are good vibes between state and local government, it becomes easier to transact business, to the benefit of all – the government, people and the administration, and things which seemed difficult and disputed at times, could be smoothened out. But if this is not so, and the Federal and local governing bodies do not see eye to eye, there is always lurking fears that plans and programs may not work smoothly, and without hitches and glitches, since there is not much of co-operative unison between Federal governance and State Administration. Therefore, perhaps one the major factors of Public Administration could be in terms of the fact that there is need to be smooth interaction and the various powers that be, including the interrelational machinery between the governing and the governed.
Another aspect that needs to be considered In the context of Public Administration is that while the local governance needs to consider only its own aspects, the Federal and State Governments needs to consider the overall needs and financial requirements of the entire country or state, which is obviously, a gigantic task, considering the degree of complexities in governance and also the impacts of direct and indirect influences on governance at every level.
For the local level of business, it is necessary to consider factors like how the local governance budgeting works, how it could provide productive and resourceful administration and, most importantly, how these underpin and bulwark good and socially oriented pubic projects for the local populace. This could be seen not only in terms of earlier budget exercise and its impacts on business, but also in terms of what has been the revenue earning and spending statistics over the past several years, given funding and fiscal assistance provided by various agencies and institutions.
In the present economic condition, where it is believed that more than 7 million people have lost their employment and there has been heavy casualties in all spheres of business and economic activities, including closures of banks and financial institutions, the Government is now extremely parsimonious and economical in dealing with money matters and fiscal issues, except perhaps issues relating, to and including public and social welfare schemes. Moreover, with funds in scarcity, the local governments have no other options but to economize and render massive cost reduction schemes, including conspicuous cutting of public expenditures, delaying major cost involving projects and investment schemes and also adopting a need based approach to costs and expenses in as far as the local State Exchequer is concerned. Add to this, it has become necessary for local governments to seek revenue generating plans on their own, embodying known and unknown areas of revenue through direct and direct taxation, revenue supplementary aids and other cost cutting and revenue building strategies, conceived with main idea of creating revenue heads, controlling and monitoring expenditures and incomes of the business.
The main aspects of Public administration are in terms of improving efficiency and effectiveness of government operations. This could be through better Social Security measures, and greater utilization of public health care measures like Medicare, Medicaid and others. Besides, medical and social security, there are needs for stronger governing of public bodies and institutions that provide public utilities, and recurrent services provided to the local communities – both individualized and institutionalized. There is the need for greater medical benefits to all sections of the community – reduce the infant and adult mortality rates, increase longitivity and life expectancy, increase collective GDP and reduce inflationary and non-economically viable activities for common good. These are measures which cost less, in terms of quantum of investments, but which render maximum service to society. Besides, there are also real benefits in terms of greater service orientation and better capitalized investments, which incur for the public and community which need to be used as such. These are well within the scope and organization jurisdiction of planners, jurists and legislators/ politicians actively engaged in works of public interests. Nevertheless, these are critical areas that underpin resource application for state and local benefits. For instance, the setting up of a public library in the neighborhood is a public service – however, there are issues involved such as – availability of appropriate place to locate the library, revenues needed to raise an building and maintain it for public good, secure good books of all needed topics, revenues through public and private grants, donations and government funds, so on. Also operational costs for setting up, maintaining and upkeep of building are also major issues that need to be taken care of, with all good intend and purposes.
Further, there are also issues relating to safety and security of library institution and its continuing popularity and public usage over time, which would mainly account for growth in future. Again, there are fears, whether or not this is a public institution, or a
not-for-profit institution, whether the main objectives and goals of this business could be maintained for future use and also, the public impacts of critical issues, that need to be taken into account.
This has only been an example of public administration, which obviously, needs to consider other aspects- like policing, health issues, social security, employment and unemployment and a host of other economic, social and socio-economic issues that impact business enterprises. Further, there are also concerns in terms of better administration and governance that could be the fallout of good governance, especially of a better kind. Moreover, public administration also needs to consider social impacts of jurisprudence, political will and unity, and of course, the need to provide good governance to business enterprises, small and big.
All things considered, public administration could also been extended to include public welfare schemes, care for all segments of society including pregnant women, new borns, sick, infirm, diseased and dead – besides the management of sickness, the scope of public administration also includes taking pro-active, preventive and pre-emptive steps for human survival and growth.
Besides, the ambit of public administration also envisages responsibilities of socio-political, socio-economic and socio- environmental matters, identifying issues connected with these streams and finding solutions to vexed issues and problems emanating from these areas of social behaviour and conduct.
There have been major concerns with regard to how public administration should function in the present volatile, intensely unstable and unpredictable conditions, given lowered spending budgets and lowered revenue streams in all major areas of public accountability. The need for better focused and monitored regime of public administration, with greater emphasis on community services and voluntary joint action is not being felt now, which perhaps, have never been felt in the past.
There is crying need for structural reforms in the sphere of public governance, especially in the areas of public accountability and responsibility.
This paper is concerned about the broad aspects that underpin public accountability in the United States of America. There is need for more consensuses and a broader transparent system that could honor and sustain public governance in future. Thus, as mentioned earlier, there is need for major reforms in this sector, especially with regard to probity in public lives of legislators and other public administrators. This is important since, albeit this may not affect public governance, it could indirectly affect the quality of governance performance and the integrity and validity of public governance. If ethical and moral values in public governance were functioning below par, or with highly compromised values, this would not only vitiate local political standards and values, but could also create undesired areas for underperformance in the decadent system as such. This could lead to major undermining of moral and ethical standards within the jurisdiction, which, in turn, could seriously undermine and act detrimentally against public performance of such public administrative units and agencies. The need for reforms is very demanding in present circumstances, when seen against the background of severe and sustained economic crises.
- There needs to be a strong administrative body that could oversee the implementation of various aspects of PA. This body shall be wholly responsible and authorized to oversee public administration, remedy oversights and run the administration in the most effective and efficient way. Besides, it would be better for the Federal/State government to hold a particular individual, or institution accountable rather than pin accountability on the system as such. This is not only unrealistic and unpractical, but offers very little by way of solutions to vexing problems.
- There is the need for legislators to identify and pinpoint current deficiencies in the PA delivery system through well researched studies, offer practical and feasible solutions that also account for ground realities too and also take disciplinary and punitive action where deemed necessary.
- Lack of a well defined, disciplinary system could well be termed as the underlying cause for public misadministration, and this has to be avoided at all costs. Besides, this could eat into scarce resources and set undesirable precedents for other legislators and public body administrators too. The risk elements are too great to ignore, and under such circumstances, disciplinary action during suspension and even debarment should not be ruled out if need be. Only systems that are cleansed and purged clean of all evils could function properly and this is very important. Corrupt and vile practices not only rot the system but also place it directly for future corrupt practices that would then need to be ignored. No self respecting institution or public enterprise, worth its name could accept corrupt practices whatever, since it undermines and corrupts the very foundation on which such edifice of public enterprises or governance is premised. There is the need to act promptly, and to act surely, such that a speedy solution could be found before this issue does major irreparable damages, that could create major upsets not only to the local community but also have negative repercussions, all over the State and the nation.
- The most important aspect that public administration needs to consider is the common good of the community and the citizens. It is of paramount importance that this is embodied in, and also forms a major portion of its mission and vision statements, not only currently, but in future too. All activities of public administration needs to be underpin by its sine quo non, the accrual of public benefits and the preservation of rights and privileges of the community that could be endangered from time to time through individual or group actions. The need to make arrangements to safeguard public, private and governmental properties is an intrinsic and major portion of public governance and could definitely be said to create greater avenues for better administration
- Public administration is an area wherein, although agencies and units may function independently, they all form an integral part of a composite whole. For instance, the policing departments, law courts, judiciary and political process of reward and punishment, although different independent organs of bureaucratic processes, have much in common in their joint endeavor to render justice, equity and good conscience.
Again, revenue department, taxes, finance and administration and the treasury perhaps all function as different units and yet are bound together in its implementation – Therefore, it would be injudicious and unintelligent to assume or pre conclude matters, which, although seemingly autonomous, are held together through laws or its operations.
- While public administration envisages the entire gamut of public governance and even ill or non-governance, it needs to be tempered with good governance, care for members of the community and above all, a transparent and accountable system devoid of major lapses, either in terms of polices or its implementation. While good governance could emanate only from appropriate and effective implementation of laws, or formulating new ones to cancel ineffective ones, there is also the need for reinventing present systems and practices in the light of contemporary conditions. Throughout this study, the writers have laid emphasis on the need for reforms, better administrative practices and lesser elements of avoidable bureaucracy, resulting in a more sound and effective public governance system – this is necessary in view of sweeping changes that could sound the demise of the old order, and signal the genesis of a new order that needs to be in sync with contemporary governance, stripped of its indolence and ostentation, designed to solve present issues with current tools and strategies, which perhaps the old order may fail to dispense.
A final word about public accountability cannot but decry the lamentable state of many models of public machinery, especially with regard to law and order, safety of women and children, gender discrimination and male supremacy, sexual harassment, especially in areas of employment and in work place. It is indeed well within the realms and jurisdiction of public administration to secure rights, privileges and prerogatives of citizens, especially minorities, who may be clearly endangered due to partisan laws and their discriminatory application. Perhaps, it is high time that the powers that be, engage in more fruitful and productive mutual dialogues, not only in their own self interests, but also to safeguard the interests of right thinking citizens in a free country.
There is need for implementation of progressive laws that could safeguard minority, gender and children issues, which could be a shot in the arm for public governance and could render the country a safer and happier place to work and live. It is therefore incumbent on administrators and legislators in the United States and in all freedom loving countries of the world to come to the forefront for implementing more robust and effective laws that could protect citizens in future.
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