Western Ideologies – Journal on Each Philosopher

Ignatius of Loyola (1491 – July 31, 1556) was a historic figure who altered the history of Spain much due to the Catholic Reformation that was basically held due to his contribution also. He was a Spanish knight. Origin – Basque noble family. He studied Latin in Spain and then moved to Paris. First, he was a hermit, afterward known as a priest (1537). In 1539 he and his friends, forced by the invasion on France, created the Society of Jesus, which was subsequently approved by Pope Paul III. He was the one to correlate the rules for universities and colleges of Jesuit as well as for future priests and missionaries. His obedience to the Catholic Church was unquestionable (after his military past). After his death, he was beatified by Pope Paul V in 1609 and canonized by Pope Gregory XV in 1622.

Theodore Beza (June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) used to be a French Protestant Christian who wrote a marvelous work called ‘Life of Calvin’ that still strikes the minds of contemporaries with its passion and truth. He was a layer and scholar who played a unique role in the Early Reformation. Also, one of important life achievements – he was a member of the monarchomaque movement, which meant he strictly opposed absolute monarchy. The work dedicated to John Calvin is dedicated to the fact that Beza was a successor of John Calvin and for the most part of his life he lived in Switzerland.

Joseph Glanvill was (1636–1680) a prominent English philosopher and writer of many outstanding works on experimental science. Also, his biography boasts of being a clergyman. Hence, not actually a scientist he carried out the most prominent works of science as per those times’ development. He was the one to be called the English natural philosopher and the propagandist of that movement in the 17th century. Being a Latitudinarian thinker, he respected the Cambridge Platonists; besides, Glanvill was mostly influenced by Henry More. He used to find the compromise within the contemporary philosophical approaches.

Nicholas Copernicus (19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a prominent historic character of the Renaissance period. He was the one to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology. These enabled people to find out that the Earth was not in the center of our galaxy. Today the book On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres is considered to be the defining start of the scientific revolution. His literary and scientific work on the latter book was outstanding since he was the first able to explain the celestial objects’ motion with the Sun in the center. Needless to say, his works stimulated the investigations in that field by other scientists, which entailed new discoveries and proofs, hence the period is remarkable in history and bares a name of Copernican Revolution. “Commentariolus” translated as ‘the little commentary’ is the forty-page outline on heliocentric theory. After he researched and worked more on the subject he prolonged to the more mature version On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543). It is important to mention that Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, physician, polyglot, and artist. Among his achievements were the occupations of cleric, military leader, and economist. However, among all the listed responsibilities, Copernicus made it best in astronomy since there are so many contributions by him in this science.