Research Methodology Methods and Techniques


There are different approaches to research including theories and methods. There two well-documented general approaches that are use mostly in academic researches. These approaches are quantitative research and qualitative research methods (Cresswell, 1994). Before choosing a research method one needs to understand how these two approaches to research work and how they differently influence the questions asked, the approaches employed and the summaries, conclusions drawn and recommendations made. In our case, we are interested in Quantitative technique (Kantari, 2003). Then what is quantitative technique of research?

Quantitative technique of research is an investigation of identified or known problem, based on a theory, measured in numbers. The analysis will done using statistical techniques like tables, graphs, pie charts, gnat charts and other statistical tools. The main aim of quantitative approaches is to find out whether some assumptions of a specific theory held so are factual. the assumptions of quantitative techniques include : (1) the objective is real and can be studied (2) the researcher is independent of the researched that is his values held does not interfere with or be part of the research.(3) research valuable to research alone if not released conclusions and recommendations (4) the research should be in form of conclusions. (5) The aim is generalize contributions to the theory that helps the research to explain, predict and understand the issues understudy (Mason, 1996).

There are three general known quantitative methods they include surveys, experiments and quasi- experiment. I am going to explore experiment and survey methods (Mutai, 2000).

1. Experiment method: This is where true experiments are done which is characterized by random assignment of subjects to experimental conditions with an assumption that subjects have equal chance. There should be also use of f experimental controls and there should be a procedure to be used to ensure that experimental conditions do not differ greatly.

2. Surveys: This involves cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, which uses interview questionnaires or interviews for data collection. The main aim of these is to estimate the characteristics of a population of interest with a small sample taken from it. This helps in the generalization of the population. (Ngenchu, 2006)

Research question of interest

What are attitudes of Regular Teachers towards Learners with Hearing Impairment?

The objectives of the study will be: (1) to establish the prevalence of learners with hearing impairment. (2) To determine the educational provision of the learners with hearing impairment. (3) To find out the attitudes of teachers towards the learners with hearing impairment. (4) To find out factors that should be put in place for effective inclusion of children with hearing impairment in regular schools ( Hoeman, 1981)

Research Questions will be: (1) what was the prevalence of learners with having impairment. (2) Was there an education provision for learners with hearing impairment? (3) What are the attitudes of teachers towards learners with hearing impairment? (4) What were the factors to consider before implementing inclusive education in regular schools?

The significance of the study: The findings of the study were to help identify the attitudes teachers have towards learners with hearing impairment in regular schools. The study was also help teachers into knowing and varying the teaching methods according to the learners in class considering the child with hearing impairment, place them appropriately where they can be able to lip read the teacher, face the teacher during the learning process. Another significance was that the study was help teachers to know how to advice the parents of these children with hearing impairments as to which hearing aid was appropriate for the child, how to maintain and take care of it, and to remind them how to replace the hearing aid at different stages. The study was also to help the parents understand and accept their children and be able to place their children with hearing impairment in a nearby school so that they can be close to them and support them whenever necessary. It will to enable them engage themselves with the groups that support the persons with hearing impairment.

The findings of the study will assist the government to identify the factors affecting teachers who may have negative attitudes towards learners with hearing impairment (Wolfe, 1981).

The main of the research question is determined how surveys and experimental methods are being used for research. I will begin highlighting the limitations of quantitative methods for research on attitudes. Can we measure attitude quantitatively? Therefore, is it appropriate to use it?

How surveys are used in the research above

I have decided to use questionnaires for the purpose of illustration not face interviews.the Sample questionnaires are as follows:

1(a) in your school, are there learners with hearing impairment?

Yes       No  

(b) If yes, please explain.

2. In your experience as a teacher, have you ever come across a child with hearing impairment?

Yes       No  

(b) If your answer is yes, how did you know that the child had hearing problem?

(c) What did you do if you found out that the child had a hearing problem?

3. Do you think learners with hearing problems have a right to learn in the same classroom set as other non-hearing learners?

Yes       No  

Give reasons for your answer.

4. Do you understand the meaning of inclusion?

Yes       No  

(b) If the answer is yes, please explain.

(c) To your opinion, would you be willing to accept these learners with hearing problems into your class? Give reasons to your answer.

5. In your opinion, what do you think could be considered first before starting inclusion programs in regular schools for learners with hearing problems? Explain…

(b) It the learners will be included in the regular classes, do you think the workload will be too much?

Yes       No  

Results and discussion

I have designed survey research to investigate the attitudes and perceptions of teachers towards learners with hearing impairment. The questionnaires are for showing survey method of quantitative techniques. I found that survey research could make important contributions to the study. Unfortunately, such research does not settle the issues outlined above, it serves as a context for further reflection and discussion. Knowing how different groups view and perceive these issues may also help reduce tensions, fears, and misunderstandings. Research that has been done to date shows, that surveys cannot penetrate values and value-related issues including their attitudes in all their richness and complexity.

In brief, research will found out from respondents that there were more female teachers in xxx area as compared to male counterparts. From the information obtained, we realized that a few teachers were not willing to disclose their attitudes towards children with hearing impairments. The researcher found out that most schools in xxx area where 60% of the teachers were teachers were teaching had children with impairment. However, the degree of impairment was not disclosed.

The researcher also discovered that most teachers had encountered with children with hearing impairments however, a few of them had had direct contact with the learners. The research showed that the number of years a teacher had taught was correlated with the contact with children with hearing impairment. Most teachers believed that children with hearing impairment had a right like any other child to education but they were not willing to teach them in regular classes.

The researcher also found out that most teachers had knowledge of children with hearing impairment but they had little knowledge of the inclusion policy in the free primary education.

Most teachers believed that should children with hearing impairment be included in regular classes then workload will increase drastically and in that essence they thought it will be a pattern the inclusive program was adapted in the direct instruction.

From the respondents it was clear that most schools had no facilities to handle children with hearing impairment and most teachers believe that if proper facilities were provided in schools, they would be able to teach the children.

Several findings emerged after conducting the study. One of the popular views expressed by respondents was insufficient or inadequate specially trained teacher in regular schools. That was also reviewed as one of the barriers that hinder inclusion (Kurt, Christensen, 2002). The researcher’s opinion is that government should train many teachers to handle these children with hearing impairments.

According to the respondents, most parents think that hearing impairments is caused by disease. According to the researcher’s literature review different tribes believe that ‘deafness was a punishment from God, a curse or witchcraft. The researcher’s opinion is that there are many causes for hearing impairments; for example, it is caused by diseases such as meningitis, heredity and prolonged labor.


Based on our findings about the attitudes of regular teachers towards children with hearing impairments I recommend:

  1. The Government should use situation analysis on children with hearing impairment in order to train teachers to be able to handle children in regular classes.
  2. Most teachers should be exposed to children with hearing impairments in order for them to be able to relate well with them.
  3. Schools should be equipped with facilities capable of handling children with hearing impairment to reduce the negative attitude of the teachers.
  4. Free primary education should have a syllabus that caters for children with hearing impairment.
  5. Parents should be encouraged to take their children to school whether they have hearing impairment.
  6. Posting of teachers to schools should be balanced especially those who are trained in special education.
  7. The Government in conjunction with village administration should cancel and sensitize the citizens on the importance of training children with hearing impairments.
  8. Peer groups with relatives who have children with impairments should be encouraged to assist them.


The research covered the attitude of teachers towards hearing impairment during this period of free primary education in xxx. As it was, emphasized learners with hearing impairment were segregated and treated badly by the community and the teachers.

There should be a shift from traditional beliefs to the current right-based system in administering the education system in schools. A vast task needs to be done to introduce an effective system of administration in schools during this era of free primary education in order to change the attitudes of teachers. The free primary education was implemented, but the needs of hearing with impairment were not taken care of.

We should have a definite scope through which research should be carried out on the attitude of teachers towards children with hearing impairment throughout the country.

The benefits of this method

  1. it is widely recommended for academic researches
  2. It is cheap as compared to other approaches.
  3. it is not time consuming to both the researcher and respondent


  1. It may ignored by many or respondents responds vaguely.
  2. It requires the employment of an extra person to distribute the questionnaires.

Experimental techniques for research question.

‘’This is where true experiments are carried out and are characterized by random assignment of subjects to experimental conditions with an assumption that subjects have equal chance. There should be also use of f experimental controls and there should be a procedure to be used to ensure that experimental conditions don’t differ greatly.’’ From this quote, we realize that the researcher chooses schools randomly but he goes class to observe the teachers themselves. Unlike laboratory instances this approach will be had to use in this research question. The results obtained can also be expressed in the form of tables. This technique has many costs and setbacks including

  1. It may be viewed with suspicion and many teachers will not like to participate.
  2. The attitude cannot be measured from observation as teachers may pretend.
  3. It will be costly, as the research will be required to go physically to learning institutions.

Benefits of these methods in relation to this research question include

  1. It will give an accurate result.
  2. it measures the hypothesis

Research on human feelings and insights cannot be measured by quantitative techniques. Researchers, however, must begin to consider other possibilities apart from surveys and experimental designs. Surveys’ quantitative instruments can show only the external face of values, not the richness, depth and complexity of real living values.

Experimental research reduces attitude of teachers towards learners with hearing Impairment to an object measurable using some predetermined and reduces valuing to hypothetical perceptions of value clarity. Having adopted the goals and procedures of a science that deals with non-human objects and material phenomena, experimental research obscures the ways in which persons imbue their sexuality and valuing with meaning.

Both surveys and experimental designs demean and decontextualize an area of human experience organically linked to meaning making and irreducibly context dependent.


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  2. Hoeman, H.W. and Bariga, J.J (1981) Hearing Impairment.
  3. Mason, J. (1996). Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  4. Mutai, B (2000) – How to write quality research proposal: a complete and simplified recipe. The Uey publications.
  5. Ngechu, M. –Understanding the Research Process and Methods. Mary Ngechu, University of Nairobi
  6. Kathari, C.R. (2003)- Research Methodology Methods and Techniques- WISHwa Prakashan, New DeJhi.
  7. Wolfe M.G (1998) Fashion South Holland, the good heart –Wilcox Company, Inc.