The school of critical theory or “Frankfurt School” main goal was to distinguish the traditional methods and characteristics of scientific knowledge as a presentation of the whole sphere of the objects possessing theoretical meaning from the new theory of knowledge established by the research method of the Institute for Social Research. The members of the school of “critical theory” regarded the whole teaching of Marx from the point of view of the psychoanalysis represented by Freud.
The theory of Karl Marx is based on the sources that have philosophical, economic, political, and social ideas; “elements of his philosophy go as far back as Democritus, Epicurus, and Lucretius in ancient times”. The whole economic and social system is based on the theory developed by Marx. He made an attempt to create a new social, economic, and political structure for a country using the method of socioanalysis. Thus the main aspect that connects the school of critical theory to Marxism is the fact that the members of the “Frankfurt School” were considering the teaching by Marx represented in his theory of economic and social system. One more similarity is that both the members of the “critical theory’ and Karl Marx were German philosophers.
Thereby the school of critical theory is an attempt to analyze and understand the theory developed by Karl Marx from the point of view of theories introduced by Freud, using the new method of knowing and the philosophy of science. As German philosophers, they supported some of the aspects of the Marxian theory. Moreover, the members of the “critical theory” establish the “idea of historically informed philosophy”.