Wireless Systems: Generations and Types

Introduction

The main objective of this research paper is to explore the various fundamental aspects regarding the topic Wireless Systems. The paper begins with a short description on the background trends, history and various generations of wireless systems and then goes on to explain the different types of components required in the wireless system network. In addition, this research paper also gives a comprehensive insight into the different types of applications, characteristics of wireless systems, different types of wireless transmission systems and provides detailed and in-depth explanations on wireless system designing methodologies and certain security issues while using and deploying wireless systems.

The modern world is witnessing a rapid revolution in wireless technology, with the wide-spread use of different kinds of wireless applications. Even if it is a home, business or an organization, wireless technology, undoubtedly, plays a highly significant and influential role. In other words, “wireless technology is rapidly evolving, and is playing an increasing role in the lives of people throughout the world. In addition, ever-larger numbers of people are relying on the technology directly or indirectly” (Wireless system, 2003, para.4).

The common examples of wireless system or equipment includes cellular phones and pagers which provides constant connectivity for mobile and portable applications, global positioning system (GPS) which enables pilots, captains and drivers to precisely track specific locations, cordless computer peripherals that includes mouse, keyboards and printers which are all connected to the computer via wireless, home entertainment system control boxes i.e. TV controls and VCR controls, hi-fi sound systems and frequency modulation (FM) broadcast receivers. Some other examples include remote garage door openers, two way radios, baby monitors and satellite television. Wireless systems have experienced an astonishing breakthrough during the last few years. They have got massive potential to change the way people communicate. It is certain that in future, wireless communication systems would transcend technological boundaries and open up new avenues. “There are many technical challenges that must be met in order to make this vision a reality. These challenges transcend all levels of the overall system design, including hardware, communication link design, wireless networking, distributed sensing, communication, and control, and cross-layer design” (Welcome, n.d., para.2).

History of wireless systems

The history of wireless system could be traced back to 1896 when Marconi traveled from Italy to England to demonstrate a wireless telegraph apparatus. (The basics (and the history) of wireless microphones, 2007, para.14). It was “Guglielmo Marconi develops the first wireless telegraph system” (A history of wireless technologies, n.d., p.2). This is based on radiotelegraphy, which is otherwise, known as Morse code.

Generations of wireless systems

First generation

The first generation of wireless systems are completely based on analogue systems. Analogue type modulation was used in the first generation of wireless systems. Examples include cordless telephones, packet radio networks.

Second generation

The second generation of wireless systems includes transmission of both voice and data in digital format. Wireless LANs are typical examples.

Third generation

Third generation of wireless systems were capable of high-speed data transfer and was used in multimedia applications.

Fourth generation

“The fourth generation Wireless Systems will provide an end-to-end IP solution where voice, data and streamed Multimedia will be accessed by the user seamlessly” (Matharasi, n.d., p.1).

Types of wireless systems

There are mainly four types of wireless systems. Wireless systems could be classified into: fixed wireless, mobile wireless, portable wireless and IR wireless.

Fixed wireless system

Fixed wireless systems could be defined as the operation of wireless systems or devices, which are placed in fixed locations, either in office or home. These types of devices gain electrical power from utility mains. A major advantage of the fixed wireless system is that it can provide internet access hundred times faster than a wired connection or mobile phone modems. The fixed wireless system makes it extremely convenient and easy for remote area subscribers to quickly access the network without deploying the cables.

Mobile wireless system

Unlike the fixed wireless systems, Mobile wireless systems can be used in moving vehicles, from outside offices or homes. Some of the examples include automotive cell phones.

Portable wireless system

Portable wireless systems are battery-powered and can be used outside office or homes or even from vehicles. Examples include handled cell phone devices.

IR devices

IR wireless systems convey data with the help of infra-red radiations. They are always used for extremely short and medium range communications. Some of these devices operate or work in sight mode i.e. there should be no obstructions between the transmitter and the receiver. Example for this is television remote control.

Classification of wireless systems

Wireless systems could be classified into three types. The first type of classification is based on the type of modulation, i.e. whether it is analog or digital.

The second type of classification is based on transmission and reception of signals while the third and last type is based on application.

First type of classification

Analog modulation

A most, widely used technique employed in wireless systems is based on frequency modulation (FM). “In FM the carrier frequency is varied linearly with the baseband message signals” (Ingram, n.d., p.1). The Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), introduced in 1983, used the technique of frequency modulation. The Advanced Mobile Phone Service is being used even these days. The thermal noise generated in the receiver cannot be completely eliminated.

Digital modulation

In this case, time is segregated into symbol periods. Each of these symbol periods represents the symbol waveform, which is selected from a finite set. “If there are 2m the set, each symbol waveform carries m bits if information” (Ingram, n.d., p.1). In digital modulation, thermal noise generated in the receiver can be removed completely. However, this can happen only when the receiver identifies symbol waveforms accurately. GSM (Global System Mobile), introduced in the year 1990, makes use of digital modulation.

Second type of classification

By transmission and reception

Wireless systems can be categorized based on three scenarios in the transmission and reception of signals. They are simplex, full duplex and half-duplex. In simplex mode, communication between two wireless systems is unidirectional. Example for this is pagers. Full-duplex facilitates real-time transmission and communications i.e. communication can take place in both directions. Frequency-division duplex is used in this case. In half-duplex it is “bi-directional over the same frequency-unidirectional for the duration of a message” (Ingram, n.d., p.1). Time division duplex is used here.

Third type of classification

By application

Wireless systems could be classified based on application. The different types of applications constitute radiophones, mobile radio which is private and cellular, paging systems, cordless telephones and satellites.

Types of wireless communication and control

Wireless devices use different types of technologies for communications and control. Each of those technologies is explained below.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)

It is a digital mobile telephony system, which is widely used almost all over the world. This is based on time division multiple access. “GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot” (GSM, 2003, para.1). It operates in the frequency band of 900MHZ or 1800MHZ.

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)

This is a packet-based communication which has the capability to enhance data rates, at speeds ranging from 56 to 114 Kbps. Moreover, it can also provide continuous connection. As data rates increase, multimedia services also get enhanced.

EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Environment)

A faster and advanced version of GSM wireless service, Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) can provide data rates up to 384 Kbps. It provides outstanding features including multimedia delivery and broadband applications to users of mobile phones. It uses the same standard as GSM, which employs time division, multiple accesses.

WAP (Wireless application protocol)

These are a set of protocols or specifications that could be standardized for mobile phones that can access the internet as well as to resolve other related issues. The famous companies like Nokia, Ericson, Motorola and Unwired planet use the WAP for providing their services.

Wireless system architecture

The architecture of a wireless system is shown below

Matharasi

The architecture of a wireless system includes protocols and different types of components, which are prerequisites for satisfying the application requirements. All the functionalities are based on Open System Interconnect (OSI) reference model which is developed by the International Standard Organization. The OSI reference model has got varied layers, which are very much important for transmission and communication between wireless systems.. “A wireless network consists of several components that support communications” (Geier, 2004, para.2). Interconnection of wireless users and end systems together constitute the infrastructure of a wireless network. The infrastructure, as a whole, integrates base stations, distribution system, software for application connectivity and access controllers. All these factors play a significant role in enhancing the capabilities of wireless communication as well as fulfils the functions of different applications incorporated in it.

Base stations

A base station is one of the most important and common infrastructure components that act as an intermediary for wireless communication by traveling through the medium of air to the wired network. It is sometimes described as ‘Distribution System.’ A wireless NIC is often placed in the base station. Depending on the purpose, a base station is given different names. A generic base station could be called ‘access point.’ This represents a single point where different devices are connected, to facilitate proper communication with the system that is embedded in the wireless infrastructure. The most advanced type of base stations are ‘residential gateways’ and ‘routers’. Both these have the capability to handle additional network functions. These base stations support two types of communications namely; ‘point to point’ and ‘point to multipoint.’

Access controllers

Access controllers play an important part in strengthening the wireless system. Access controllers typically reside on the wired portion. They are exactly located is in the middle of the access points and cosseted part of the network. “Access controllers provide centralized intelligence behind the access points to regulate traffic between the open wireless network and important resources” (Matharasi, n.d., p.3)

Application connectivity software

This software is necessary as it acts as an intermediary between the various computer devices, used by the user, and the end system, which comprises the applications software. “Application connectivity software is important in addition to access points and controllers to enable communications between the user’s computer device and the application software or databases located on a centralized server” (Geier, 2004, para.4). There are different types of application software. Some of the commonly used application software is terminal emulation and wireless middleware.

Distribution system

Distribution system refers to a wireless system which is often independent of wiring. “The distribution system, which often includes wiring, is generally necessary to tie together the access points, access controllers, and servers. In most cases, the common Ethernet comprises the distribution system” (Geier, 2004, para.55). The IEEE 802.3 is used as a standard for Ethernet. The CSMA (Carrier Sense Medium Access) protocol offers access to different types of shared medium. Shared medium can be optical fiber, coaxial cable or any related ones. It is said that CSMA is used as “predominant medium access standard in use today by both wired and wireless networks” (Geier, 2004, para.56).

Different types of transmission used in wireless systems

Concise description on transmission

Wireless transmission refers to the process of transmission of information in the absence of wires. “Wireless is a very generic term that refers to numerous forms of transmission that do not use metal wires or optical fibers. They include AM and FM radio, TV, cell phones, portable phones and wireless LANs. Various techniques are used to provide wireless transmission, including infrared line of sight, cellular, microwave, satellite, packet radio and spread spectrum” (Wireless, 2010, para.1). Wireless transmission enables the transmission of information over long distances. In this technology, the signal may be in the form of electromagnetic waves. Wireless transmission offers considerable advantages such as high bandwidth, efficient communication, data transmission, cost-effectiveness and so on.

The transmission or communication between two locations is referred to as ‘point-to-point wireless transmission’. In point-to-point wireless transmission, the host computers on both sides format the information that is passed between them. In the case of ‘point to multi-point wireless transmission’, data is transmitted from a single sender to many receivers. Here the data in the form of multi frames is send out from the local location to the main location. The local station, which transmits the frames, contains sub-frames. Every local station transmits one or more sub frames. The ‘point to multi-point transmission’ provides high-speed data transmission.

The different types of transmission used in wireless systems are explained below.

Electromagnetic spectrum

Wireless systems use electromagnetic spectrum for transmission purposes. Electromagnetic spectrum includes “the entire range of radiation extending in frequency from approximately 1023 hertz to 0 hertz or, in corresponding wavelengths, from 10-13 centimeter to infinity and including, in order of decreasing frequency, cosmic-ray photons, gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, and radio waves” (Electromagnetic spectrum, 2010, para.1).

Electromagnetic spectrum constitutes a broad range of photon energies and wavelengths. To view any object, the wavelength of light should either be smaller or equal to the size of the object. Electromagnetic spectrum comprises the entire range of electromagnetic radiations. Gamma rays have the largest frequency while its wavelengths are the shortest. Radio waves have the longest wavelengths and the shortest frequencies. The center of the spectrum contains visible light. Electromagnetic spectrum utilizes the AM and FM radio waves, light colors, electronic devices etc. In the United States, frequencies used in wireless communication have proved to be indispensable resources. Different ranges of frequencies are used for different purposes. Wireless communication systems use electromagnetic spectrum between the frequency ranges of 9 kHz and 300 GHz. For wireless communication, the spectrum utilized is in the range of electromagnetic radiation, quite similar to the antennas of radios, telephones etc used for the transmission and reception of information. The electromagnetic spectrum contains a broad range of frequencies or waves of varying lengths. The spectrum does not contain gaps and can be extremely long or rather short. The part of the spectrum that is used for communication purposes is referred to as the ‘radio spectrum’. The electromagnetic spectrum has, indeed, played a role of great importance in wireless communication systems.

Radio Transmission

Radio transmission could be defined as the process of transmitting signals at radiofrequencies using radiated electromagnetic waves through space. A transmitter and receiver are required for the transmission and interception of the radio waves. The transmitter transmits the radio signals and the receiver receives the radio signals. The radio waves are the transporters of the signals that bear data. The data can be encoded directly by the process of modulation. Radio waves can be transmitted in two ways. They can be transmitted either as ground waves or as sky waves. The waves which travel close to the ground are the ground waves. The waves, which reflect from the ionosphere to the earth, are the sky waves. Radio signals have longer ranges and are used in numerous applications. For example, astronauts use radio signals to establish data communication between the moon and the earth.

Infrared transmission

Infrared transmission uses the frequency range below the visible light frequency for the transmission of information. Infrared radiations have a wavelength, which is larger than the visible light and smaller than the radio waves. Their frequencies are greater than microwaves and lesser than the visible light. A number of wireless communication systems use infrared radiation for the transmission of information. The computers, local area networks, fire sensors, cordless modems, night vision systems etc make use of infrared transmission. The infrared signals in wireless systems are grouped on the basis of whether the receivers and transmitters used are directional or non-directional. It also depends on the path of line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver. Infrared transmission has become important in wireless systems due to the increase in the use of digital cameras, laptops, mobile phones etc.

Microwave transmission

One of the unique features of microwave transmission is that it can move in direct lines. A sender can directly pay attention to the receiver without getting meddled with the neighboring broadcast. Microwave transmission integrates several tools. It send outs the data in microwave frequencies and operates on the process of transferring and receiving signals over a microwave connection. In some of the microwaves, the microwave links are placed at the tower’s top point. For the proper performance of microwave transmission, there should not be any blockage between the towers. Clear air space is necessary for the transmission of signals. Therefore in regions, where it is too difficult to access LAN, microwaves transmission is employed. It can transfer any kind of data in an efficient manner. Due to smaller wavelengths in microwave transmission, this technology serves best in the television and radio broadcasting field. Microwave tools are utilized for sending digital and analog microwave signals. When compared to digital transmission, the analog microwave transmission is cost-effective and profitable. Digital microwave transmission is the latest technology, which can execute faster exchange of data. Microwave information is transmitted from one location to another in consecutive phases. Moreover it enables data to be transferred back and forth from different regions. This method is very useful for long distance data transmission.

Light wave transmission

In light wave transmission, laser is utilized for the transmission process. In this method, the digital signal from the source to the destination is transferred through the light wave-guide. “To enable to transmit a digital signal having a DC component, a constant light beam is switched over to one of two parallel light wave conductors by an optical directional coupling switch in response to the digital signal so that the parallel light wave conductors form a balanced light wave guide to transmit the digital information signal as balanced optical signals” (Balanced light wave transmission system, 2004, para.1). In order to generate unbiased electric signals at the end part of the two light wave conductors, two photo sensors are arranged. This method is extremely cost-effective.

Applications of wireless systems

In today’s world, wireless systems could be applied to numerous uses. Wireless systems provide easy, fast and instant accessibility to information. Most of the companies use wireless systems for their business purposes because they can be accessed from anywhere in the world. This, in turn, helps in speeding up and improving business practices. Wireless systems are deployed in security systems as replacement for hard-wired implementations. New television systems use wireless systems to operate remote controls. In the latest and most advanced versions of these systems, radio waves are also used. Wireless technology is widely used in cellular telephones. Phones and modems operate using wireless technology, by utilizing radio waves to make phone calls from anywhere around the world. Wireless systems have lead to the widespread use of cell phones across the world. They enable users to send and receive voice or data from any location. WiFi uses wireless technology to implement its operations. WiFi, which helps to connect laptops, PCs and PDAs to the Internet, is comparatively cheap and has remarkable internet speed that almost equals those of Ethernet and other wired LAN systems. WiFi is becoming increasingly popular in the present world. In wireless energy transfer, electrical energy from a source of power is transferred to an electrical load which do not have a source of power. Wireless systems are also being commonly used in computer interface devices. The computer peripherals are converted to wireless systems in order to attract the customers. Initially, these systems made use of bulky transceivers. But with the advent of wireless systems, small and high quality devices came into the scene. Bluetooth technology also came to be integrated in these systems. Blue tooth has gained immense popularity as the latest, cutting-edge wireless technology in the modern era. Blue tooth technology is put to use in several fields. Wireless networks are also being used in home automation systems. The process of home automation is effective in terms of energy conservation. Wireless technology is used in home automation systems in numerous ways such as air conditioning, wireless detectors, ventilation etc. “For video surveillance applications, wireless technology offers a flexible, cost-efficient and quick way to deploy cameras, particularly over a large area as in a parking lot or a city center surveillance application. In older, protected buildings, wireless technology may be the only alternative if standard Ethernet cables may not be installed” (Wireless technologies, n.d., para.1).

Characteristics and benefits of wireless systems

In today’s world, wireless systems play a prominent role in the economic, social and commercial aspect of the society. A wireless system offers several incredible advantages to the user. Owing to the inherent simplicity of the wireless system, high technological support is not required. As wires are not used in the system, it is very secure. Moreover, it is quite easy to integrate the stations as well. In a wireless system, the signals can easily pass through the walls, buildings and other such structures. The implementation and deployment of the wireless system does not require much time. It is very simple as there is no need to set wires through the walls. Moreover, the total cost of installing the wireless system is relatively less when compared to a wired system. The wireless system has higher flexibility than the wired system network and is more accessible. One of the main advantages of the wireless system is that it is portable i.e. the user can carry the system anywhere. In a wireless communication system, “It is a simple matter to relocate a communicating device, and no additional cost of rewiring and excessive downtime is associated with such a move. It is also a simple matter to add in a communication device to the system or remove one from the system without any disruption to the remainder of the system” (Wireless advantages and disadvantages, n.d., para.5).The wireless system offers rapid accessibility to concurrent information to the users. Today, most of the business organizations are utilizing this system to receive real time information. It also provides raised network coverage and various services to the users at low cost. Wireless systems can also share the resources with the users of the system. It helps business organizations to increase their efficiency and profit by providing instant access to Internet resources. Wireless systems are highly beneficial for business people who are constantly travelling and have to stay away from the main office site for various commercial purposes. In order to meet the requirement of particular functions and mechanisms, a wireless system is organized into an assortment of topologies. A wireless remote control system includes an encoder in its transmitter part. The encoder mechanically produces data which consists of data bits, address bits as well as an RF transmitter module, which transmits data through wireless transmission method. There is an RF receiver module in the destination part and the received data is desterilized by the decoder. The address bit identifies the sender and the receiver. The data, in turn, gets processed by automatically assuming and configuring the matching address. The wireless system, thus, provides an entire horde of benefits for the user, making it the most widely-used technology in all economic, industrial and commercial sectors.

Implementations and methodology

The major objective of this section is to familiarize readers with the various issues associated with the implementation of wireless systems. The wireless technology has made an unparalleled development during the last few years. “The implementation issues have recently gained more attention not only because of the innovations in design process but also because the optimization of a wireless system has to rely on interdependence between signal processing algorithms and their realizations. The goal of this special series is to familiarize readers with various issues associated with the implementation of wireless systems” (Zovonar & Benteat, 1998, p.131).

The important implementations in wireless technology are:

Radio communication system: A Radio communication system is used to send radio signals. The various Radio transmission devices include the transmitter, the communication system and the receiver. Antennas are also an integral part of the radio system.

The Cordless Telephone: Cordless telephones are used to communicate using a wireless hand set that is connected to a fixed telephone kept in affixed range. Every handset differs in its signals that are sent to their base devices. As a result, interlinking of other devices does not occur.

Cellular Devices: These phones constitute particular kinds of cells, with each of them individually positioned in specific areas. These regions come under the control of specific radio coverage. Cellular devices are used to communicate with others who are in another fixed radio coverage area. If the radio serving base station is set at a specific location which has sufficient range, then the coverage for the device also increases. Thus, the device is portable throughout its network area. The main characteristic of wireless technology is that it is ‘wire’ less. This means, it sends data without using any other medium such as electrical conductors especially, the wire. There are many instruments, ranging from small pocket radios to massive space satellites. It is quite obvious that the sent packets could include those with entertainment and those with serious applications. Wireless systems could be either one-way transmission systems such as a broadcasting system (radio, Bluetooth, land mobile radio like TETRA, P25, Open sky) or two-way systems used in communication (telephone as in cordless telephone and cellular networks like 0g,1G, 2G, 3G, 4G). Most of the wireless systems vary in the technology used. The design of the wireless system is always domain specific.

Designing a wireless system may involve:

  • Hardware designing: This includes the chip-level designing and the standards to which the manufacture adhere.
  • The characteristics of the wireless system. Mobility, Portability
  • The technology used for transmission. RF, MW,IR
  • Application specification. Whether the system is for entertainment or very serious projects.”

Many generic designing models have been developed for wireless systems. All of them contain the same basic components as the hardware, the software and the architectural design. Serial flow is insisted in all the models.

Matharasi

A good part of the architecture was designed or created only after the project began and the functional and non-functional requirements of the system had been introduced. So, the actual requirements were not included in the systems. As a result, implementation was not carried out based on the design. This could be considered as one of the major disadvantages of this model. Unfortunately, the architecture failed to meet the performance requirements for any possible software implementation.

Matharasi

One of the most important phases in design development is the creation of architecture design, regarded to be the backbone of the system. System design is not a conceptual task of a single group of engineers but a co-operative task involving several such groups. Engineers often do refining of the jobs if they are unable to fulfill the requirements. VP is generally used to satisfy hardware constraints. In case of system failure, the verification group sends revision requests to the engineers. The system, thus, generated should be flexible enough and must have the capability to assimilate new improvements after revision. The architecture is reviewed from five different sites namely; the logical side, the process side, the development side, the deployment side and the use case side.

The model designing

Engineers use design models to complete the projects quickly and easily. The model is an executable function that is continuously renewed and verified so as to make it operateable for the system. The executable model is the basis for the various activities performed during the design process. Here, the system includes four different stages in the design process. They are:

  1. The executable specification, a system model, which when executed produces the necessary requirements that yields results. The engineers develop this kind of executable system by taking into consideration certain unforeseen conditions which could cause errors. These error could leave their impact on other related factors too.
  2. Designing with Simulation helps designers to evaluate many factors while they are involved in design implementation. They have to rely on component-based approach such as COTS for implementing design rather than relying on system independent languages such as the C/C++ as they are time consuming.
  3. Implementations help the system generate automatic codes if there is a deviation from the actual method of operating the system. Although they are not efficient enough to help engineers in producing functional prototypes, these generated codes can be used in combination with the manually written code for achieving auto-manual strengths. With the improvement in manual developed code, the automatic code generation will get reduced and thus errors will also be significantly minimized.
  4. During Test and verification, the testing and verification of the design gets completed prior to the completion of the specification, if the level of abstraction is increased.

Security issues in wireless systems

Security is an important aspect that is to be considered in any system. Even though wireless technology is used in several fields, it still confronts numerous challenges and security issues. The security issues have rapidly doubled over the years with the tremendous increase in the use of these systems. A major disadvantage of wireless systems is that there is less power, less bandwidth and less processing power. The network connection in these systems is also not reliable. There could be several security threats for wireless systems which includes spoofing, jamming, wormhole attack etc. “Mobile phones, hand held computers and other wireless systems are becoming a tempting target for virus writers. Mobile devices are the new frontier for viruses, spam and other potential security threats. Most viruses, Trojans and worms have already been created that exploit vulnerabilities. With an increasing amount of information being sent through wireless channels, new threats are opening up” (Ahamad, 2009, para.1).

It is easy for hackers to break the wireless systems. They can also use the wireless networks to easily access the wired networks. Hacking methodologies have become more sophisticated and inventive with regard to wireless systems. Hacking has become easier and easily accessible. Another major security issue “comes from interference. As more wireless devices begin to use the same section of electromagnetic spectrum, the possibility of interference increases. This can result in a loss of signal for users. Moreover, an abuser can intentionally mount a denial-of-service attack (lowering availability) by jamming the frequencies used” (Ahamad, et al, 2003, p.8).

Another problem is the lack of physical security. Small handheld devices like cell phones could be easily stolen by anyone. Also, owing to their small size, they have very low computing capacity. The speed gets considerably reduced with increase in the encryption. Most of these devices contain the facility to download and run unreliable programs. Sometimes the operating system may not be safe because it may not have been tested properly by the engineers. The violation of security is an important issue when it comes to wireless systems. The adhoc networks in the wireless system have less security. They usually have less protection and encryption methods. The devices such as blue tooth are highly prone to security problems like hacking. While selecting the wireless system, sufficient investigation must be carried out because, ultimately, the user’s contentment depends on numerous vital aspects of the system. As there are possible chances of information getting hacked while the data is being transmitted through wireless system, data encryption forms a pivotal part of every application.

The users may sometimes be unaware of the security problems posed by the wireless systems. The wireless systems should be thoroughly evaluated for security concerns before they are implemented. In addition, investigations must be done to identify issues that could probably arise in the future.

Issues in deploying wireless system

Even though wireless systems offer considerable benefits to the user, there are certain issues concerned with deploying a wireless system. The implementation of the latest technology triggered the requirement for the installation and maintenance of the latest software and hardware. As a result, the implementation of the latest, innovative technology is highly expensive. The major risk in the wireless system is the lack of security and the data being discreetly accessed by unauthorized users. The hackers may easily break the access point to conveniently access the information, leading to the modification, alteration and loss of data when the user in the destination side receives it. While installing the wireless system, it should be kept in mind that any error in the installation process may result in the failure of the system. The data will not reach the required destination when it is not deployed appropriately. Moreover, Internet cannot be accessed when the wireless system is not implemented properly. “At root, all wireless devices have less computing power and have restricted battery life. Data synchronization (push/pull), remote administrative access for service changes, viruses and a higher possibility of theft are some of the issues that need to be addressed while deploying wireless technology” (Oak, 2002, para.7).

There should be a limit to the number of devices as well as their types, which are permitted for operation and maintenance. This is because large quantities of devices creates complications for help desk support. Moreover, new applications are not being developed for a particular system or device. Environmental disasters such as flood, earthquake etc. may also badly affect the proper functioning of the wireless network. Such environmental disasters may also result in the breakdown of the entire network. Deployment of wireless systems in certain uncomfortable physical/geographical locations such as mountainous terrains, peaks etc may incur increased expenses and could cause network coverage gaps. In such cases, the user does not get enough accessibility to the network resources.

Conclusion

Wireless systems and devices will, undoubtedly, play a vital role in future too – a ‘wire free’ world, which enables you to access anything from anywhere in a jiffy. There would surely come a time when there would be no need to search access ports or points to get connected to the big, wide world out there. The future generations can enjoy these moments to their fullest and it is sure that more technological advancements are yet to come in the world of wireless communication systems.

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